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THE following Grammar of Ancient Geography has 
been drawn up with a view of condensing as much 
information as possible in its small compass, without 
rendering the whole of it necessary to be studied in 
order to obtain a connected account of the ancient coun- 
tries of the world. With this intention, two kinds of 
type have been employed : the larger of these alone is 
designed to be learned by the younger students, and 
when they have thus once gone through the book, such 
portions of the remainder may be consulted as are found 
convenient. The whole has likewise been divided into 
sections; so that, independent of typographical arrange- 
ment, any particular paragraph relating to the more 
interesting people and places may be learned at pleasure. 

The questions which are invented in the "Praxis" 
attached to this volume, in addition to their being syn- 
thetically arranged,* are also numbered; hence, likewisci 
any series of them may be readily appointed to the 
student either for oral or written answers. 

[Modern names are distinguished throughcut by Italic 


[ ▼ ] 


Chapter. Page. 

. Orbis Terrarum --------1 

n. Europa ---------6 

III, Asia 11 

IV. Africa vel Libya - - - -- - -17 

V. Insuls BritannicflP -•-•«•• 22 

VI. Germania -- - - • • - • «34 

VII. Vindelicia, Rhctia, Noricum, Panaoiiia» et XUyricum - 42 

VIII. GaUia - 48 

IX. Hispania et Insula ...•..•.58 

X. Italia Septeatrionalis *.--•«. 67 

XI. Italia Media - - - 79 

XII. Italia Meridionalis ..•-••.92 

XIII. Dacia, Moesia, Thracia, et Macedonia - - - - 104 

XIV. GrsEcia Septentrionalis - - - - - -118 

XV. Grscia Meridionalis - - - - - -.-1S4 

XVI. Greta et Insuls Maris Mgiei ..... 155 

XVII. Asia Minor 164 

XVIII. Syria et Cyprus I. 187 

XIX. Palaestina vel Judsa - - - • - - -197 

XX. Colchis, Iberia, Albania, Armenia, Mesopotamia, Assyria, 

et Babylonia vel Chaldaea ..... 2O8 

XXI. Arabia 222 

XXIL Imperium Persicum --•.-•. 230 

XXm. India et Sinarum Regio .--..- 242 

XXIV. Sarmatia, Scythia, et Serica . - . . ^ 251 

XXV. Africa Septentrionalis --.-.-. 261 

XXVI. iEgyptus ... 284 

XXVII. -Ethiopia et Libya Interior - - - - - 297 

[ ^ ] 



I. OAis Veteribus Notus ... - tof(u:e the Title. 

II., Eurppa .-.- - - -_- - - -P*7 

III.. AsU .-.-.- - - • - - -11 

IV.. Africa vel Libya -.-,- - - - - -17 

v.- Insuln Britannicro - -.-. - - -23 

VI.' GeRnama/Vindelicia, Rhetia, Noricnm, Pannonia, et Illyricum 35 

VII.- Gallia " - ' . - - - - . - - 49 

VIII,' Hispania'et Insuls *-'--"- - - - 59 

IX. ItaHa eflnsul© - ' 67 

X. Dacia, Moesia, Thracia, et Macedonia - - - 105 

XL Gnecia et Insuls • - - - - - -119 

XII. Greta et Insuls Maris ^gsi .... - 15$ 

XIIL Asia Minor - - - 165 

XIV. Syria et Cyprus I - 187 

XV. Terra Sancta vel Palaestina - 197 

XVI. Colchis, Iberia, Albania, 'Armenia, Mesopotamia, Assyria, 

et Babylonia ........ 209 

XVII. Imperium Persicum - -231 

XVIIL Africa Septentrionalis ------- 261 

XIX: iEgyptus - . - - 285 



1* 1 HE knowledge possessed by the Ancients concern* 
ing the figure ana extent of the Earth was exceedin^y 
defective. In the earlier times most of them imagined it 
to be a flat, round surface, which the Ocean surrounded, 
as it were, like a great circular river ^; the countries 
composing it were merely those which bordered upon the 
Mediterranean Sea, and above the whole rose the great 
arch of ihe heavens, forged, as they supposed, out of 
brass or iron, and resting upon the loftiest mountains. 
They carefully distinguished the Ocean from the other 
seas, only applying the former term to the great boundary 
of the earth, from which the sun and stars regularly arose, 
and into which they again descended : they also fancied 
it to communicate with the lower world. Tne extent and 
limits of this great Ocean-river are nowhere alluded to, 
and were probably never explained by those who indulged 
in its fanciful description. 

2. War and commerce, however, made the ancients 
acquainted with many other nations and countries besides 
those which bordered upon the Mediterranean and Euxine 
Seas, and their notions respecting the Ocean became then 
more expanded, but scarcely less vague. They still con- 
sidered it as surrounding the whole earth, but not in that 
regular maimer which had been once supposed, for they 
divided it into several parts, as the Atlanticus Oceanus, 
Hyperboreus Oceanus, Indicus Oceanus, and Erythrseum 

* Hence Homer, in his description of the shield of Achilles, says, 
'Ev ^ Irt^fi wora/ioXo fidya v^kvoQ Q*^eavoio, 

S Orbis Terrarum. 

Marc. They imaeined that the Caspian Sea was merelj 
one of its inlets troiu the Hyperborean regions, in im 
eame way that the Arabian gulf was only an arm of.i£ 
from the Southward, and that betwixt these two it swefi^ 
round in a eemicircular form, past the territory of the Sioe 
or Chinese, the mouths of the river Ganges, and the i^and 
Taprohane or Ceylon. They likewise fancied that thejr 
were acquainted with the Southern coast of Africa, and 
that it trended Westward from Cape Guardafui, its 
Eastern extremity, till it Joined the shores of the Uespein 
^thiopes, who dwelled on tlie Coast of Guinea. But 
others, again, imagined tliat the Indian Ocean was only 
'a great uiland sea like the Mediterranean, and they, 
therefore, left the termination of the South coast of Africa 
in micertainty. 

3. The greatest extent to which the ancients ever a*- 
rived in tlieir knowledge of the Eastern Hemisphere, 
hardly exceeded the half of it. In Europe they knew 
little or nothing of Sweden, Nonoay, and RuMia: isi 
Asia the Eastern limits of their knowledge were Tartary 
and China : and in Africa they ventured to describe but 
bttle to the South of the Mountains of the Moon. It is 
true that they have given some account of regions be- 
yond these boundaries, but the monsters, with which they 

Espied them, evidently show the land of fable. They 
ew noJiing o^ America or The New World, as the late- 
ness of its discovery has caused it to be styled, although 
it is im^ined that tiie Inland Atlantis, so particularly 
described by Plato and other philosophers, was not alto- 

f ether an efi'ort of fancy, but had some reference to their 
nowledge of the existence of such a continent as America, 
or at least to tlie probability of its existence. 

4, The terraqueous globe is made up of two great 
general parts, the Earth or Land lyn terra), and Sea or 
Water (v^iup aqua), these two being again subdivided into 
smaller parts. A Continent (^jriipoc continens) is a vast 
tract of land containing many countries and kingdoms 
hanging together, as it were, and consequently, not easUy 
distinginshed to be surrounded with water, as the Con- 

Jineat of Europe, the Continent of Asia. An Island 


Orbis Terrarum, t 

(yftfoc insula) is a smaller tract of land entirely sur- 
fonnded with water, as the Island of Albion, the Island 
of Sicily, the Island of Delos. A Peninsula (xepv^ytfooc 
peeninsula, i. e. paene insula) or Chersonese is a tract of 
uuid which is almost an island, being encompassed by 
miter on all sides, except where it is joined to the main 
by a narrow neck of land, as the Thracian Chersonesus, 
toe Tauric Chersonesus, the Peloponnesus. The narrow 
neck of land which joins two continents together, or a pe- 
ninsula to the main, is called an Isthmus (iir^fiOQ isthmus) 
as the Isthmus of Corinth. 

5. A Cape or Promontory (fiKpov promontorium) is a 
pominent eminence shooting out into the sea, and is also 
sometimes called a Headlandy except when it is low and 
flat, and then it is called a Pointy as the Promontory 
Sunium^ the Promontory Misenum. When the land rises 
above the level country it is called a Hill or Mountain 
(o^ mens) as M^ Parnassus, M^. Latmus ; and when 
this high land runs continuously through a country or 
a number of countries, it is called a Chain or Ridge of 
Mountains, as the Chain of the Alps, the Chain of the 
Apennines, the Chain of the Pyrenees. A mountain 
wnk^ casts forth flames is callea a Volcano (from Vul- 
canus, through the Italian), as the Volcano of ^tna^ 
the Volcano of Vesuvius. The low ground between two 
mountains is named a Valley (&v\wv vallis), and is gene- 
tally traversed by a river, as the Valley of the Jordan, the 
Vafiey of the Nile. When a valley is exceedingly narrow, 
so as not to allow of its being crossed without difficulty, 
it is called a Pass (^rvXat pylse), as the Syriae Pyte, tne 
Caspiae Pylae. 

6. A River (rorafios fluvius) is a body of water flowing 
from elevated ground into the sea, more or less rapidly, 
and with a longer or shorter course, according to the na- 
ture of the groimd through which it passes, and the quan- 
tity of water with which it is suppUed ; as the R. Nile, 
the R. Tiber, the R. Ganges. The place where a river 
bursts from the earth is called its Source or Spring (wi?yd 
fons), and its junction with the salt water o{ ttie «»ea. \& 
namad HsMautA (iicfioX^ ostium). We are said to descead. 


o ascaet/^. 

4 OrbU Terrartim, 

a river when we float dowD with its waters, and to a 
one when we eo up against the current of ita waters : the 
right and left banks of a river are determined by its course 
to the sea, the right bank is on the right aide, and the left 
bank on the left, to one descending it. A Lake Q^iftyf 
lacus) is a great collectioa of water surrounded on all 
aides by land, and having no communication with the sea 
exoept by a river or subterraneous passage, as Lemanas 
Lacus, TrasimenuE Lacus. Morasses or Marshes (eXi; pa- 
ludes) differ from lakes only in their not being always 
fill! of water, as the PomptinEB Prudes. 

7, The Ocean {uKtavoQ oceanus) is the wide open part 
ef the sea surrounding the lajid on all sides, and extcnd- 
&ig from one pole to the other: it is divided into seveiBl 
ZArts for the convenience of description, as the Atlanticus 
DceanuB, Indicus Oceanus. A ttea (jikayos mare) is a 
Huch smaller collection of water nearly surrounded by 
land, and which may be again subdivided into several 
|>erts, as the Mediterranean Sea, the Euxine Sea. A Gulf 
9r Say is a branch of the sea running a considerable dis^ 
tance into the bosom of the land, and nence named by the 
ancients koXtuc sinus, as the Arabian Gulf, the Persian 
Gulf. A Strait {irop^ftoz fretum) is a narrow channel con- 
nec^ng bvo seas together or a sea vrith the ocean, as the 
fiiculum Fretum, the Herculeum Fretum. 
- 8. The iliaeraiy meaniies of the ntlions of antiquity varied ai mnch frem 
«Kb other ks^hoae id ate at the preMnt day. The aid Roman mile wu 
■Iiorter than ttie Eaglith Statute mite, as a degree of latitude caataioed 75 of 
them, each of which was subdivided into 8 Stadia, The Greek Stadia were 
divided ioto Olympic and Pythic, but the Ibrmer were \a ^neral use ; thsK 
^re the fuimer, and ]Oj>f the latter, in a Roman mile. The jewUh 
nule waa the ^ame iu length as the modern Geographical mile, 60 of tli«ID 
lieing eciiial to a degree of latitude. The Egyptian Sehocnus was (vrafold. 

Ipng Bs the other ; ,the mget contuned 60 Olympii 
. ^ ^ aphlcal miles, and the smallei 30 Ulym|nc Stadia or a geo- 
graphical miles, uhe Penian Parasange were of the same length with the 

Mniller Euyplian Schcwi, 20 or them being equal i(o a degree of latitude. 
9. The ancients divided their Orbia Terrarum", or 

' Teiii pila similii. nullo fnlcimine niia, 
Aere suhjacto tam grave pendet onus. 
Ipsa volubilitai libratum austioel orbem : 
^aiqw prepiai partes, augulus omnis abesL 
» Ovid. fail. VI. 2Tt. 

Orbis Terturum. ft 

World, into three parts, Earopa, Asia, and Africa, al- 
though in the earlier periods of their history these names 
were only used to distinguish small portions of the con* 
tinents to which they were afterwards applied. The 
respective limits of these divisions were likewise variousl j 
demied in different times* and by different authors ; some 
considered the R. Phasis, and others the R. Tanais, the 
boundary between Europe and Asia, whilst the line of 
demarcation between Asia and Africa was sometimes 
placed at the narrow Isthmus of Arsinoe* or Steez, and 
sometimes at the R. Nile. 

10. The principal chams of mountains in the world 
known to the ancients were, I. In Europe, the Pyrentei 
or Pyrenees, the Alpes or Alps, the Heemus JEmineA or 
BaJkan, the Carpates or Carpathians^ the Sevo or Fiellf 
and thi6 Hyperborei or Rhipsei, now called the Oural 
Mountains. IL In Asia were, M. Caucasus which still 
retains its name, M. Taurus or Ramadan Oglu, M. Paro- 
pamisus or the Hindoo Koosh, M. Imaus or the great 
range of Tartaryy and the Emodi Montes or Himaleh, 
tlKi nighest mountains in the world. IIL In Africa were, 
M. Atlas which we still call by the same name, and the 
Lunae Montes or Gebel Kurnri, which are thought to 
traverse the continent in its whole extent from East 
to West. 

11. The principal rivers in the world known to the 
ancients were, I. In Europe, the Tagus still so called, 
the Liger or Zmre, the Rhenus or Rhine, Rhodanus or 
Rhone, Danubius or Ister the Danube, Borysthenes or 
Dniepr, and the Tanais or Don. II. In Asia were, the 
Rha or Volga, the Euphrates and Tigris which still main- 
tain their names, the Oxus or Jihon, the Indus and 
Ganges still so c^led, the Dyardanes or Burrampooter, 
the Sabaracus oxirrawaddy, tne Cotiaris or Cambodia R., 
and the Bautisua or Whang-Hai, III. In Africa were, 
the Nilus or Nile, the Gir or Djyr, the Nigir or Quolla, 
and the Daradus or Senegal. 

Orbis, however, is sometimes put for a ^art of the Earth, and was firequently 
Qied by the Romans to denote their extensive empire. 
■ ' ^lu'bus actus uterque 

Eunpm Mtque Am Mm concurrerit orbis. Txrg. iEn. Nil. *ia^' 

B 3 

*-^ ■— s * *r,i3:£- sarTiiimisi -o all 
:- ■=:*: 1 .- :z::r:.3:-.raa;iL vr^SKSet 

~^~ -■^- = issz iLt iene Man 

t ■•■' — ^-" ."i::.:- s -ai! »Taf rwE port 

:'- -—" — ■-- r_ -r _r: ■ _ tj sius. ka; fxteod- 
..-7 ■• .: ■ li ;:;i' : 5. r^-iasi tsu <mml 
;- r ■; -'~*f ■■ am.— jcl«. is ;?>• Anuniciis 

:-__;^ -T-.-: ■: ■. vctr ii«-.T 5LT-.-«iid«i hv 
'- » -.. : ■^- :r ijii siii^ifii-i nt:- sr*w^ 
: -: "*--ir:t-— -;-■_: >-l ni -.hek S-j*. A G«tf 

:;r F^« -w i "u*: :i*:i:. ijai'ii;*?? TiKsnl br the 
i.-— ■<: .T^ li- -A A-1.VJC Gurl op Pnsian 
>:;mi -*~-~-- T^rjn » i xirr. « .."^umd coih- 
•■. -fc-jfc. ! jtcisT r I fnii. WZ3. lilt -wui, as the 

' le-n pile (JnUi^ ni 
Ijm toIuUuUi litn 

^H Orbis Temtmm. S 

VImM, mto three parts, Eur<»pa, Asia, and Africa, 
PiKteigfa b the earlier penods of their hi»tpry llww naiiu*! 
wtn only used to diBttnguish small pi>rtion8 wf thu C4)ii>l 
ISKnts to which they were uflerwiinlx upjiht^. 'Itwil 
K«pectire limits of these diviaions were hlcewme variouily 1 
<lenned in different times and by diHireiit aiithon ; aobiv ] 
oo&sidered the R. Phasis, and othera the It. Taiiain, til* f 
bOBtvdary between Europe and Ania, whiljit the lino at I 
demarcation between Asia and Africa was Hometimw f 
I^Bced at the narrow Isthmus of Antinoe or Smg, Aod j 
Bometimes at the R. Nile. 

10. The principal chains of mountuins in tlie « 
known to the ancienta were, I. In Europr, th« I'yrem 
or Pyrenees, the Alpes or Alpii, iiv HttjinuH Eminfh i 
Balkan, the Carpates or Carpathians, the Sevo or H» 
and the Hyperborei or Rhiptei, now called the Oia 
Mountains. II. In Asia were, M. CaiicnBiiit which « 
retains its name, M.Taiinis or Ramadan Ogiu, M. Pai 
'i;imisus or the Hindoo Koonh, M. IiiiaiiM or the gre 
i:inge of TaHary, and the Emodi Mouteit or llima ' 
' highest moiintaina in the world. 111. In African ^ _ 
M. Atlas which we still call by the ii«mc name, and tha 
l.un« Montes or GeM Kumri, which are thout^t to 
traverse the continent ui its whole extent from Eut 
u. West. 

11. Tlie principal rivers in tlie world known to th« 
ancients were, 1. In Europe, the Tacun still «w called, 
ilie Liger or Loire, the Rhciius or RhiM, Kh'xlanuM or 
Rhone, Diinubius or IbUt t\u-. DaniJie, Boryrtlitnpii or 
!>iiifpr, and the Tanai^)^>ow. II. In Ai«« wwe, the 
I : tia or Volga, the Eig|tp™"i-1 Til*"' whi'-h ttill maift- 
i!ij, tht-ir nuineSjJW^ Indus and 
(JaiHr ^^U'l^^l^r rnm-poolery 

6 JEuropa. 



!• EUROPA was bounded on the N. by the Hyperbo** 
rean or Arctic Oceariy and on the W. by the Atlantic : 
on the S. it was separated from Africa hy the Mediter* 
ranean Sea^, and from Asia on the E. by the Mgscau 
and Euxine Seas, the Palus MsBotis, the Kivers Tanais 
and Rha, and the Hyperborei Montes* It is the small- 
est of the four Quarters of the globe, but the ancients^ 
although they were unacquainted with its Northern 
regions, fancied it larger than Asia and Africa put to* 
gether. The origin of the name Europa is lost in the 
obscurity of its antiquity. According to the mytholoj 
of the poets, it was denved from Europa, the beautii 
(daughter of the Phoenician King Agenor, whom Jubit^^ 
under the influence of love, having assuqied the fifhap^ 
of a bull, caried off across the sea into Crete 2. 

2. The Hellespont, the Thracian Bosporus, and the Euxine Sea» ai|p 
invariably allowed to be the boundaries oi Europe towards the South, but in 
the upper regions we are left to choose between the rivers Phasis and Tt- 
nais. Indeed, in the earlier times, Europe could not be said to have my 
definite boundary towards the North East ; for though the ancients agreed 
that the termination of the earth in this direction was likewise the termina- 
tion of our continent, yet they were altogether ignorant both as to its extent 
mud its being inhabiteid by man. Those who juaced the common bousdaiy 
of the two continents at Ae R. Phasis, continued it along the Araxes into 
the Caspian Sea, and this last (as they erroneously imagined) being con- 
nected with the Hyperborean Ocean, formed the true natural limits of the 
two great divisions of the globe. But the more generally received boundary 
of ^irope on this side was that which passed through the Palus Meotia, 

qui medius liquor 

Secernit Europen ab Afra — Hor, Camt, III. iii. 46. 

' See Hor. Carm, III. zxvii. 25 et seq*, where the whole stonr is told, at 
the conclusion of which Venus consoles Europa with these words (y. 7$.); 

Uxor invicti Jovis esse nescis 1 
Mitte singultus : bene ferre magnam 
Disce fortunam : tua sectus orbis 
Nomina dnoet. 

JSkwopa, 1 

■Deoded tbe Tanais to its source, and thea struck out Eastward into the 
nknown regions till it xeached the Rhipasan Mountains and tbe Hyperbo- 
mn Ocean. 

3 The principal mountains of Europe are, thePyrenaei 
Monies or Pyrenees separating Spam from Gaul, and 
stretching across the Isthmus which divides the two coun- 
tries, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea. 
The loftiest range of mountains in the whole continent is 
fliat of the Alpes or Alps : it divides Italy from Gaul, and, 
sweeping round from tne Mediterranean through Rhaetia 
and iliyricum, reaches the confines of Mcesia, where it 
assumes the name Haemus Emineh or Balkan^ and, 
after separating the latter province from Macedonia and 
Thrace, terminates on the shores of the Euxine Sea. 
The chain of Mons Apenninus' or the Apennines tra- 
verses the whole extent of Italy, from the foot of the 
Alps on the borders of Gaul, and the shores of the Me- 
diterranean Sea, to the Southernmost point of the coun- 
fiy opposite the island of Sicily. 

4. The chain of the Pindus, still called Pindtts or 
lAgrafa, is a branch of the Haemus: it runs through 
the middle of Macedonia and Greece, loses itself in the 
fops of Parnassus Lyahoura and Helicon Zagora, but 
finally terminates in the promontory Sunium C Colonna 
to the S. of Athens. The Hercynii Montes are now 
known by several appellations, such as the JErz, Giant 
Mountains, 8ic : they stretch right across Germany in 
an Easterly direction, from the banks of the Rhine to 
(he springs of the Vistula, where they assume the name 
Carpates Carpathians. Here they divide into two 
btanches, one of which, called Bastamicae Alpes, strikes 
Southward through Dacia and across the Danube till 
it joins M*. Haemus, the other, known as the Peucini 
Montes^ trends Eastward through Sarmatia to the 
banks of the R. Borysthenes and the shores of the 
Palus Mseotis. Sevo Mons, now called Koelen or Fiell, 

is a rugged chain of mountains, running North and 

^— ■— — ^ ■ ' ' " ■ ■ ' — 1. . 

3 UmbxosU mediam qua collibus Apenninus 
Erigit Italiam, nulloque a vertice tellus 
Altius intumuit, propiusque accessit Olympo, 
"Mons inter geminas medius se porrigit uxkdas 
la&nu Supeiiqne maris :— Lucau.W. ^^• 

fi 4 



BoHth, through the wliole of Scandinavia parallel 

B Western coast. The Hyperborei or Rhipsei Monies'^ 

htral M'., the great natural barrier of the continent 

wards the North East, stretch from the shores of the 

"R^erboreaix Ocean in a Southern direction to the head 

I flf the Caspian Sea. 

5. The principal eountriea in Europe known to tke 

^cients were, Hispania now Spain and Portugalf wA 

^e S. W. extremity of the continent ; it was also called 

reria from the R, Iberus, and Hesperia Ultima m 

[scount of its being the most Western part of the main- 

Ifend of Europe. To the N. E. of it was Galha now 

m^rance, sumamed Transalpina and Comata, to distin- 

K|^ish it from Gallia Cisalpina or Togata, which was a 

■"rovince of Italy : the Greeks called it Galatia. To the 

r, of Gallia, and separated from it by the Oceanus Bri- 

Ltaimicus or English Channel, lay Albion Great £ritain 

I' And leme Ireland, the two most famous and most beau- 

I tifiil islands in the whole world ; they were unitedly 

llled the Britannicx Insula or Britigh Islands, and 

rere the outmost Western lands known to the ancients. 

. To the N. E, of Gaul was Gennania or Germany 

I Horth of the Danube : below it were Vindelicia, Khtetia, 

I iToricum, and Pannonia, which likewise, in a general 

I ^y, make up the Southern part of what we now call 

t Germany. To the E. of Gaul and S. of Germany was 

[ Italia Italy, a long peninsular country stretching fer 

Kinto the Mediterranean Sea, and separated from the 

I island of Sicily by a very narrow channel : it was called 

I Hesperia by the Greeks, on account of its Western situa- 

1 tion with respect to their country. The two itilands of 

fc Corsica and Sardinia, likewise reckoned to Italy, He 

r (bout midway between its Northern coast and the shores 

I «f Carthage in Africa. 

I ■ 7. Illyricum was below Pannonia and Noricum, and 
I only separated from the N. E. part of Italy by the chain 
I of the Alps : it was situated on the Eastern shores of the 

■ Solus Hyperboreas glacieit, Taoitimque aivalem, 
Arraque Khipsu uunquun viduau pruinis 
LiiSlmbM. Virj. Owe. \V . SI 


EuTopa. 9 

Hadriatic Sea, and included Dalmatia and the North 
Western part of European Turkey. To the S. of Moesia 
lay Thracia and Macedonia ; and to the S. of the latter, 
again^ was Hellas or Greecia : these last three still pre^ 
serve their names of Thrace, Macedonia, and Greece, 
die first two and the upper part of the last constituting 
the Southern part of European Turkey. To the S. K. 
of Greece lay Creta I. now Candia, blocking up, as it 
were, the entrance to the ^geean Sea or Archipelago. 

8. To the N. of Germany was the enormous peninsula 
of Scandinavia or Sweden, of which the ancients knew 
bat very little ; its Western part appears to have been 
called Nerigos now Norway. To tne E. of Scandinavia 
and Grermany, and to the N. of Dacia, lay that vast 
country called Sarmatia Europaea, now European Rm- 
lis ; it was peopled by various races of Scythian savages, 
eonceming whom the ancients knew little more than 
their names, excepting such as dwelled immediately in 
the neighbouihooa of the Euxine Sea. 

9. The 8uper6cial extent of these countries may be seen in the following 

Britannics Insula - - 



Germania - - . . - 
GnBcia et Insulae - - 
Hispania et Insula - - 
lUjriciiin - - - - - 
ItaJia et Insula - - . 
Hacedonia - . - 
Moesia ----•. 

Sq. Miles. 











Noricum - • - - - 

Pannonia- - - - - 

Rbietia - . . - . 

Sarmatia Europea - - 

Scandinavia - - . . 

Thracia - - - - - 

Vindelicia - - - - 

Total in A ncient Europe 

Sq. Miles. 


10. The principal rivers of Europe are, in Spain^ the 
Iberus Ebro, which runs into the Mediterranean Sea, 
and caused the whole country to be called Iberia ; the 
Durius Douro, the Tagus Tagus or Tajo, the Anas 
Guadiana, and Beetis Gtuxdalquivir, which empty them- 
selyes into the Atlantic Ocean. In Gaul are, the Ga- 
romna Garonne, Liger Loire, Sequana Seine, and Mosa 
Meuse, which< flow into the Atlantic and British Oceans ; 
and the Rhodanus or Rhone, which runs into the Me- 
diterranean Sea. Amongst the most important uyer« \u^ 

B 5. 

10 Eufopa. 

Albion are, the Thamesis or Thames, the Sabrina Se- 
vern, and the Glota or Clyde : in leme we find the Sena 
qr Shannon. The greatest rivers of Germany are, the 
Hhenus or Rhine, the frontier between it and Gaul, the 
Visurgis Weser, Albis Elbe, Viadrus Oder, and Vistula 
Vistula, whicii last fomis the boundary between Ger- 
IBany and Sarmatia Europsea : the first three of these 
run mto the German Ocean, the two last into the Baltic 
Sea. The two great rivers of Italy aie, tlie Padus^ or 
Sridanus now the Po, which flows into the Hadriatic, 
and the Tiberia Tiber, which runs into the Meditemt- 
an Sea. 

11. But by far the largest and most important river hi 
Europe is the Danubius or Ister Danube, which rises 
fin the borders of Gaul and Germany, separates the 
latter country from Vindehcia, Noricum, and Pannonia, 
sad flows with an Easterly course between Mcesia aild 
Dacia into the Euxine Sea. It receives in its way se- 
Teral considerable tributaries; as the Dravus Xhare, 
^d Savus Save, on its right bank, and the Tibiscua 
STieiss, and Porata Pruth, on its left bank. In Sar- 
^^tia we meet with the Hypanis or Bogus now called 
^oug, and the great Borysthenes or Danapris now the 
S)niepr, which both empty themselves into the Euxine 
Bea; the Tanais or Don flowing into the Palus MeeoUs, 
and the Rha or Volga, which enters the Caspian Sea, 
«nd is chiefly in the continent of Asia, Besides these 
|he ancients appear to have been acquainted with the 
Carambucis fl. Doinn, which runs past Archangel into 
file Hyperborean Ocean, as well as with the Chesinus 
it Southern Dvina, and the Rbubon Neman, which both 
Urn into the Baltic Sea. 

' Qaales aeKse liquenda flumina circum, 
Sive Padi ripis, AtheaiD seu propter amcenum. 
Consurgunt geinins quercui, int^niique oth 
AOoilunt capitBi, el sutiUmi vertiee oulani, 

Virg.Sn. IX. 


JhbL 11 



1. ASIA was bounded on the West bythe Rhipaei M«, 
the Rivers Rha and Tanais, the Enxine^ ^goBan, and Me- 
diterranean Seas, the Isthmus of Suez, and the Arabian 
Gulf: on the South by the Erythraean Sea and the Indian 
Ocean : on the East by the unknown r^ons of the Sina3 
and Seres: and on the North by the Terra Incognita 
of Scythia. Though it was mucn larger than either of 
Ae other Quarters, with which the ancients were ac- 
quainted^ they nevertheless &ncied it much less than 
Europe. As Asia is the largest Quarter of the Globe, 
so also is it the most dignified; in it mankind had their 
orimi, kingdoms and empires took their rise, the arts 
and sciences were first taught: but, above all, in it 
Almighty God revealed His will, His power, and His 
mercy to man, and in it, in the fulness of time, the Son 
of God accomphshed the recovery of our fallen race. 

2. Asia is remarkable for the fertility of its soil^, which 
abounds with all the necessaries and luxuries of life. 
The origin of its name is of very remote antiquity: the 
Lydians asserted that it was derived from Asius, one of 
their kings, but the Greeks, on the other hand, deduced 
it firom Asia, one of the Oceanides, who married lapetus, 
and became the mother of Atlas, Prometheus, &c. It 
seems to have been originally used to denote only a small 

Eart of Asia Minor*, probably the province of Lydia, for 
ere, at the mouth of the Caystrus, we find the Asia 
Palus mentioned at a very early period, besides a tribe 
<^ed Asiones, who latterly joined the Maeonians, It is 
thought likewise to have been first applied to the whole 

* An pingues Asis campi collesque morantur X Hor. Epict. I, ill. 6. 

* ViigU (JEm, 11. S67) calls Priam ' Regxxatoteia Asa» • 


thft i 

1 12 Asia. 

• continent, afterthe Ionian colonists wandered from Gi 
feito the shores of Asia or Lydia ; when, from their bdi 
l4aid by their countrymen to have settled in Asia, thi 
I Mme came finally to be applied to the continent itsel£ 
I Asia Minor is sometimes called Asia, as is also that part 
I Of the peninsula which belonged to the Romans, and was 
I fcy them afterwards named Asia Proconsularis. 

■ 3. Some of the earlier antbors make Ihc Pbasis the bouadary of Asia 
B UWBids Eflnipe, but Ibe generally received aotioDs remDved it (arther Wrat 

■ Wrd, to the Tanais. Thete wae also a, considerable diiersity of opinion with 

■ M>pcct to the limit between Asia and Africa. The DBrrow Islhmvi of Sua, 

■ ^Standing ([om the head of the Arabian Gulf to the Mcditerriinean Sea, ud 
I, jMnted out by nature as the true line of demarcation between, the two COQ- 
■&enu, did not escape Ihe notice of tlie ancients ; but, as lliey found berc 
Bgeither river nor mountain to serve as an actual barrier, they pushed A^ 
Bwindaiy farther Westward to the Nile. 

M* 4. Amongst the principal mountains of Asia we may 
Mbention M'. Taurus ^, now called Ramadan Ogbi, Kurin, 
■He, which takes its rise on the shores of the Mediter- 
Bl^Qean, in Sacrum Pr. C Khelklonia, the S. E. promon- 
vt6ry of Lycia : hence it runs with an Easterly direction 
nhroiigh the whole Southern part of Asia Minor, crosses 
Wfi^'t Euphrates on the borders of Syria and Mesopotamia, 
wnd assumes in the last province the name of Masiu9 
m^iTadja Dag. Towards the head of the Tigris it joins 
KM*. Niphatea and the Carduchii Montes Jeadi M; 
■li^hence it takes a S, E. course to the great range of 
%'i&p!0& Aiagha Dag, on the confines of Media; this Inst 
I mbsequently traverses the whole 8. part of Persia to the 

■ borders of India. In tlie Eastern part of Asia Minor 
■;itttere is a range of mountains, which, diverging (i'ora the 
Kv%urus, and running for some distance almost in a pa- 
nphllel line with it, is called the Anti-Taurus; it trends^. 
Mjtpwever, to the North East, past the spi-in^s of the 
Hniphrates, and finally connects itself with M^ Caucasus. 

■ 5. M^. Caucasus*, which still preserves its name, runs 
KferoHS the isthmus between the Euxine and Caspian 

Asia* 18 

SeaSy and is connected towards the South with several 
ranges of mountains ; amongst these rises the lofty Ararat 
Agri Dag, in Armenia, upon which the ark is thought 
to have rested after the Deluge. The ridge, which strikes 
off hence to the Eastward, is known as Caspius M. or 
Elburz in the neighbourhood of tlie Caspian Sea, but its 
continuation, through the N. part of Persia, is called 
Paropamisus and Caucasus Hindoo Coosh. It attains its 
greatest elevation on the N. frontier of India, where it is 
called Emodi Montes, or the Himaleh Mountains, and is 
remarkable as being the highest known land in the whole 
WOTld. The Imaus GK Altai MK is a range of the 
Emodi M*., which quits them towards the springs of the 
Ganges and- Indus, and stretches in a N. E. direction, 
acrpss Scythia or Mongolia, till it joins the great ridge 
of Sajfansk or Yablonnoy. 

6. The principal countries in Asia known to the an* 
cients were, Asia Minor, which still maintains its name, 
at the W. extremity of the continent, between the Euxine, 
.£gaBaQ, and Mediterranean Seas : to the South of it lay 
Syria Syria, and still farther South, Arabia Arabia, the 
shores of which last are washed by the Indian Ocean. 
To the S. of the Caucasus, between the Euxine and Cas- 
pian Seas, and to the East of Asia Minor, were the pro- 
vinces of Armenia, Colchis, Iberia, and Albania, now 
Armenia, Georgia, and JDaughistan, Below these, to 
the East of Syria and tiie upper part of Arabia, were the 
three provinces of Assyria, Mesopotamia, and Babylonia, 
now jtourdistan, Al Gezira, and Irak Arabi, which last 
extended to the Persian Gulf: they were watered by the 
two great rivers Euphrates and Tigris, and from their 
having formed the main pait of the Assyrian Empire, 
they are sometimes mentioned collectively under the name 
of Assyria. To the East of the Assyrian provinces lay 
the great Empire of Persia, now Persia and Cabul, which 
extended nearly as far East as the Indus ; to it belonged 
the provinces of Media Irak Ajemi, Susiana Khuzistan, 
Persis JFVzr*, Carmania Kerman, Parthia Khorasan, Hyr- 
cania Astrabad, Ariana Cabul, and Gedrosia Mekran,. 

7. To the East of the Persian provinces was India^ 
divided hytbe Ganges into two parts ; iVi^'WesVfcTUXSiwX 



(ri* these was called India intra Gangera, and corresponded 
generally with what we call Iiidia ; the Eastei-nmoit waa 
called India extra Gangem, and included Tibet with the- 
chief part of the Birman Empire. Beyond India, to iJi*. 
Eastward, were the dominions of the Since or Cochiiir. 
Cliinese, beyond whose frontier the ancients appear fo' 
have possessed very httle knowledge : they seem also to 
have been altogether unacquainted with the East India 
glands, esceptmg Sumatra, which they called labadii I.J 
and the Northern part of which alone they seem to hav6 
beard of. To the N. of the Since was Senca, which wa* 
likewise a part of China and Chinese Tartary. 

8. To the W. of this, above India and Persia, wferjB' 
tiie vast yet little known regions of Scytliia, now cSlI^ 
Chinese Tartary and Tartary Proper ■ they were divided 
fcy M. Imaus into Scythia intra, and Scythia extra^ 
Imaum, the former being to the Westward. That part 
of Scythia intra Imaum, which bordered upon India, \vas 
inhabited by the powerful tribes of the Sacte and Massa- 
!t?e : to the West of them were the two provinces of 
igdiaiia Bok/iara, and Bactriana Balkh, which were 
wily separated from the Persian province Ariana, by the 
range of the Paropamisus. Sarmatia Asiatica corres-^ 
ponded with the Western Part of Asiatic Russia, bein^ 
Ifivided from Sarmatia Europtea by the R. Taiiais. The 
ancients left the boundaries of the three enormous prof 
Tinces Sarmatia, Scythia, and Serica, quite undetenmned 
towards the North ; indeed, they seem to have known 
but little about the countries themselves, excepting what 
tiiey heard from the confused accounts of those travellers 
K^o traded in silk and other Indian merchandize. 

The superficiiiJ eilent of these countnea ms) be seea ia the following 


A«« Minor • 
BabyloDi* ' 

Sq. Miles 

Sq. Miles. 










I«badii I. 






India eitr 

a Gangem " 



India intn 

G«Dgem . 















Sinarum Regio 




Sogdiana - 




Susiana - 








Total in Ancient Asia 


Sacarum Ile|;io - 
Saimatia Asiatica 
S^diia extra Imanm 
Sqrtlna intra Imaum 
Senca • 

10. The principal rivers of Asia are, in Asia Minor, the 
Hal]^ JS^izu Irmakf which runs into the Euxine, and the 
MaBander^ Menderey which runs into the ^geean Sea: 
in Syria, the Orontes, or Axius, Aaszy, flowing into the 
Mediterranean opposite Cyprus ; and the Jordanes Jar" 
dan, or Skerya, which empties itself into the Dead Sea* 
There is no river of any consequence in Arabia; the 
longest is called the Aftan, and finds its way into the 
Persian Gulf. In Sarmatia Asiatica, besides the Rha or 
Volga, which we have aheady mentioned as partly in 
Europe, there are the Hypanis Kuban, and Alonta Terek ; 
the latter runs into the Caspian, the former into the 
Palus Maeotis. 

11. The two great rivers of Armenia, the Cyrus or Kwr, 
and the Araxes^ or Aras, both enter the Caspian Sea. 
hi Assyria we find the Euphrates Euphrates, or Frat, 
and the Tigris Tigris, or Teer, which both flow into the 
Persian Gulf by one mouth. The Amardus Sufeed of 
Media, and the Socanda Attruck of Hyrcania, are small 
rivers ; they run into the S. part of the Caspian Sea. 
The two great rivers of Ariana, the Aria Heri, and the 
Etymandrus HeermuTid, terminate in inland seas, and 
never reach the ocean. Above these are the Oxus or 
Jihon, and the laxartes or Sihon, which both enter the 
Aral Sea, though it is supposed by many that the former 
once ran into the Caspian : the Daix fl. Oural, or Jaik, 
is an unimportant river, though of some ma^tude, 
ndiich flows down from the Oural ikf*. into the Caspian 

' Mseandros, toties qui terns errat in Hsdem, 

Qui lapsas in se saepe retorquet aquas. Ovid. Heroid, IX. 55. 

* ■» ■ ■ pontem indignatus Araxes. 

. 12, In the N. W. part of India is the famous Indus fl- 
Indus, which rises in the Emodi Montes, and, having 
broken through the Paropamisus or Indian Caucasus, 
enters the sea by several mouths. Below it, may be 
mentioned the Erymanthua Sumoas, Namadus Nerbud- 
dah, and Nanaguna Tapty, which traverse the Western 
«ide of India, and discharge their waters into the Eryth- 
nean Sea : on the Eastern side of the Peninsula are the 
Chabeiis Cauvery, Mesolus Kistna, Goaria Godavery, 
snd Manada Malianuddy, which ail flow into the Bay of 
JSengal. The Ganges' Ganges rises in the Emodi Montes 
<«B does also its great tributary, the Jomanes or Jumna), 
snd empties itself into the Bay of Bengal, to which it 
fermerly gave the name of" Gangeticus Sinus. 

13. In India extra Gangem were the Dyardanes or 
Jjurrampaoter, which likewise runs into the Jiay ofSen- 
jiat; the Sabaracus or Irrawaddy, which flows through 
tjie Birman Empire into Sabaracus Sinus G. of Marta-_ 
ian ; and the Serus Muygve, which runs through £1001 
into the Great Gulf ofSu/m. The Cotiaris fl. is now 
called the Cambodia R., from its nmning ihroj^h Cam- 
hodia into the China Sea. The Bautisus fl. Hoang-Hd 
or Yellow R. was the largest river in the world known to 
^e ancients, though they had no notion of its immense 
fee, having been acquainted with only the upper part of 
iti course ; it runs into the Yellow Sea. 

' Nee patria est habitala libi : «d ad «sc]ue nivosum 

Africa. 17 



1* AFRICA^ or Libya was bounded on tbe North 
by the Mediterranean Sea, on the W. and S. by the 
Atlantic Ocean, on the East by the Indian Ocean and 
the Red Sea : it was separated n-om Asia by the Isthmus 
of Suez, though many of the older authors made the Nile 
the common boundary between the two continents. The 
ancients were acquainted with little more than the North* 
em half of Africa ; but, according to some of their tradi 
tiouB, they had completely sailed round it, by steering 
Westward from the Red Sea and entering the Mediter- 
ranean by the Pillars of Hercules, after a perilous navi- 
gation 01 three years : the truth of this^ however, is 
exceedingly problematical. 

9. Tboof h Africa is more than ihnfi times as large as aU Europe, it is bf 
hi less important ; from its lying &o immediately under the Sun, the man- 
time parts only are inhabited, the inland countiy being a vast sandy desert. 
There is no cultivation except in the immediate vicinity of a river or spring, 
all the rest being one wide tract of utter desolation ; and hence these culti- 
vated places appearing like islands, or otueM, in the great desert, caused some 
of the ancients to compare the whole continent to a Panther's skin, dotted, 
as it were, with spots ot fertility, surrounded by a brown and burning desert. 

S. The Gredu, who were acquainted with Africa long before the Romans, 
called it Litmi. The two names were at €rst applied only to portions of the 
continent ; Libya referring alone to the little territory of Barca opposite to 
Greece (where the colony of Cyrene was latterly founded), and Africa de* 
noting a small part of Tunit opposite Sicily, and on the edge of the Syrtis 
Ifinor. It was with this last part that the Romans were first acquainted; 
and hence, in the same manner that the Greeks called all the people of the 
continent Libyes, because they found them belonging to the same tawny race 
with the inhabitants of the little province,, where they had first become 
acquainted with them, the Romans, for Uie same reason, named them 

' .£oliis candens austris et lampade Phoebi 
iEstifero Libye torquetur subdita Cancro, 
Aut ingens Asis latus, aut pars tertia tetrii, SiU Ital«\*\^^* 


The Dames Libya and Afiica were both said to be derived from two 
ia, wbo once figured in tbe luytbolagical bistoiy of the eoatinent \ biit 
(bere are much more probable reason) giten for tbeir adoption. Libya i> 
■upposed 10 have been so called from its having been tfae residence of tlie 
lehalnni (or Lubim), ihe descendants of Mizrajm, who selllwl in Cgyptt 
Africa, on the other hand, was first visited by the Phrcnicians, who fouod 
it lo fhiitful, that, in the course of years, it became Ibe greatest grsntuy df 
Europe*, and the place whence Rome drew vant quantities of com ; for Ihii 
naion it has been supposed that the Phceoicians CBined it AMca, ban |t 
trord in their language signifying earj of am. ''' 

6. Amongst the principal mountains of Africa we maV 
mention Atlas Mons*, M^. Atlas or Tedla, which I'U^t 
tfirough the whole North Western part of the contincitt 
from the coast opposite the Fortunate Islands to Cai^ 
fliage and Cape JBon .- it lias many branches, the South- 
nnmost of which serve as the boundaries between tii^ 
iSUltivated provinces and the great Libyse Deserta, p^ 
Desert of Sahara, This enormous desert extends fVort 
{he Atlantic to the Nile, and nearly from the Mediter^ 
ranean Sea to the banks of tlie Uiver Nigir. To tHS 
East of M'. Atlas is the Mons Ater, now called Scniddh 
and Black Harutsh, which partly formed the boundary 
between the old provinces Tripolitana Tripoli, and Pha- 
Bania Fezzan. 

6. The ranges of mountains inclosing the valley of the 
Nile were named after the countries which they sepa- 
nted from it ; thus, the Western range was called Li- 
bycuB Mons, and the Eastern range Arabicua Mons now 
Gebel Mokattem. The land gradually becomes more 
Mgh as we ascend the Nile ; at the sources of which it 
att^s such a great elevation, that the ancients fancied 
it touched, and supported, the heavens; hence, they 
named it Luna; Montes, which appellation it has pre 
served to our own day in that of Gebel Komri, or Moun- 
tains of the Moon. It is this immense chain which is 
supposed completely to intersect the continent, from the 

■ Quidquid de Libycis verritur arcis. Her. Corm. I. i. 10. 

Frumenti quantum meUl Africa. Id. Sat. 1\. iiL B7. 

> Quanlus eral, mons factus Atlas. Jam barba comiHjue 
In silvas abeunt; jnga sunt humerique manusque; 

Oua lapis fiunl. Turn partes auctus in omnes 
Ckv'u in jrDmensnm (sic U! stiluittis), et omne 
Om tottideiibua ctElum reqvieiit in ino. Oitd.UM.lV.^U. 

Africa. 10 

Strait of Bab-drMandeb to the mouth of the Gambia : 
the undents appear to have known it by several names 
besides that of the Lmiar Monntains, as Barditus M., 
Mesche M., and Ion M., which last may still be traced 
in that of Kong, at the source of the Nigir. 

7. One of the principal countries in Afirica known to 
the ancients was Mauretania, now Morocco, Fez, and 
the Western half of Algiers ; it lay in the N. W. part of 
the continent, opposite to Spain, extending from the 
Atlantic Ocean over against the FortunatsB Insulse or 
Canary Islands, past the Pillars of Hercules, and a 
considerable distance along the Mediterranean Sea. It 
was latterly divided into three parts, viz. Mauretania 
Tingitana JFez and Morocco, Mauretania Ca^sariensis 
Western Algiers, and Mauretania Sitifensis Central Air 
giers. To the E. of these was the province of Numidia 
or JEastem Algiers : it was much smaller than the old 
kingdom of iNumidia, which included the two abov^ 
mentioned provinces of Csesariensis and Sitifensis. 

8. Farther East, and still bordering upon the Medi* 
terranean Sea, was the province of Africa, now Tunis 
and Tripoli ; it was latterly divided into three parts, viz. 
Zeugitana Northern Tunis, Byzacena Southern Tunis, 
and Tripolitana Tripoli. Beyond this was the province 
of libya or Barca, stretching as far as the frontiers of 
Effypt, and subdivided into Cyrenaica, Marmarica, and 
Lmya Exterior, the last being next to Egypt, and the 
first next to Tripoli, ^gyptus or Egypt extended to 
the Isthmus of Suez, the common boundary between the 
two continents : it included the valley of the Nile, as fiur 
Soutib as the Cataract of Syene or Es-Souan, and bor- 
dered to the East on the shores of the Red Sea. Egypt 
was subdivided into three parts: the Northern was 
called jZ^yptus Inferior Bahri or Lower Egypt; the 
Central, Heptanomis vel Arcadia Vostani or Middle 
Egypt ; and the Southern, iEgyptus Superior vel The- 
Imus Said or Upper Egypt. 

9. To the S. of Egypt was a vast tract of coimtry 
named iBthiopia sub A^pto, and corresponding with 
the modem divisions of J?fubia, Sennaar, and Abj^ssima, 

20 Afrka. 

together with portions of Kardofan and Dar^Fur^ It 
touched to the Eastward on the Ked Sea^ and extended 
m far Southward as the limits of the Terra Incognita : 
to the West it bordered on the vast regions of Libya In^ 
terior^ into the deserts of which it extended, and was^ 
therefore^ separated from it by no fixed boundary. - It 
contained the two mreat Empires of Meroe now jSfnbia 
and Sennaar, and Auxume now Abyssinia. 

10. Gaetulia or Southern Barbary extended from the 
Southern limits of Mauretania and Numidia, to the edge 
of the Desert of Sahara ; indeed, many of the Gsetulioii 
tribes were to be met with in the various Oases of the 
Desert itself, and hence they are supposed to have been 
the progenitors of the modem Tuarick. Below the pro- 
vince 01 Tripolitana lay Phazania or Fezzan^ and the 
dominions oi the Garamantes, who are supposed to have 
been the same with the Tibboo and Fezzaneers of our 
own times : they were a very important nation, and ex- 
tended a long way to the Southward as far as the banks 
of the R. Gir. The remainder of what the ancients knew 
of Afiica was called by them, in a general way, Libya 
Interior, although its Southernmost part to the utmcMst 
limit of their knowledge was distingmshed by the appel- 
lation of -^Ethiopia Interior. It was inhabited by several 
tribes of Ethiopians, such as the Nigritae in Soudan 
along the banks of the Nigir, the Hesperii Ethiopes on 
the borders of the Gulf of Guinea, and many others. 

11.. The island of Madeira, off the N. W. coast of 
Africa, appears to have been named Junonia ; below it 
were the Fortunatse Insulae^ or Canary Islands, supposed 
by the ancients to have been the residence of the blessed 
after death. To the South of these last, off C. Verde, 
are the Cape Verde Islands, with which the ancients 

* Nos roanet Oceanus circumvagus : arva, beata 
Petamus arva, divites et iDsulas ; 
Reddit ubi Cererem tellus inarata quotannis, 

£t imputata floret usque vinea ; 
Germinat et nunquam fallentis lermes oHvse, 

Suamque pulla ficus omat arborem ; 
Mella cav^ manant ex ilice ; montibus altis 
Levis crepante lympha desUit pede, &c. 

Har. Epcd. XVI. 4K 

Africa. SI 

were unacqueintedy as was also the case with another 
^up lying to the N. W. of the Canaries^ and called by 
US the Azores or Western IslaruU^ Off Aromata Pr. 
C. Cfuartiafuif the Eastern extremity of the continent, 
was Dio&coridiB I. or Socotra. 

extent of these coantriet maj be teen in the following 

Sq. Milei. 

libya Interior - - . 


Marmerica ... 


Mauretania Cssariensis 


Mauretania Sitifensis 


MauRftania TingitaDa 


Numidia - . - - 


Tripolitana - . . 


Zeugitana . * . - 


Total . - 


11 Tlie so 

Sq. Miles. 

iEgyptos Inferior - - ■ 19,700 

fmtns Superior - - 70,400 

fSiopia sub iEgypto . 694,400 

Byaoeaa .... 30,700 

Cnoiaica ... - 60,600 

iMoMoridisI. . - - 1,050 

lortonats Insule - - 2,900 

Heptanomis . - - - 31,900 

Juooia I. - - • - 520 

Libya Exterior • - • 54,800 

13. The principal rivers of Africa are, in Mauretania 
the Phut Tetisiftf Asama MorbeOy and Subur Seboo^ 
which enter the Atlantic Ocean^ besides the Molochath 
Moulouia, and Chinalaph SheUifj which run into the 
Mediterranean Sea. In the Souuiem part of Numidia^ 
upon the edge of the great desert, is Savus fl. Zaab^ 
which runs into the Lake ofMelgig and never reaches the 
sea. The Ba^-adas Mejerdah rises in Numidia, and, 
passing throu^ the midst of Zeugitana, enters the Me- 
diterranean between Utica and Carthage. 

14. The Nilus^ Nile has two sources, one a long way 
to the West of the other : the Western and true source 
rises near the Lunar Mo.imtains, and forms the JBahr el 
Ahiad or White R. ; but the Eastern source lies in the 
territory of the Axomitse or AbyssinianSy and forms the 
Astapus il. Bahr el Azergue or Blue Nile : these two 
arms unite at Halfaiay about midway between Sennaar 
and Meroe, and together form the ereat river which 
runs throu^ Nubia and Egypt into uie Mediterranean 
Sea. The Nile was the greatest river with which the 
ancients were at all acquainted : besides the tributaries 

pingui flumine Nilus, 

Cum reBmt€$mjMs, etjam se condidit alvco. 

S2 Insula! BritanniocB. 

above mentioned, it has likewise another, called the 
Astaboras Tacazze^ which it receives on its right bank 
a little below Meroe. 

15» The Gir^, still called Djyry rises near the true 
source of the Nile, and runs in a N. W, direction into 
the Libya Palus or i. Tchad. To the S. and W. of it 
is the great river Nigir Quorra or Quolla^ the course 
and termination of which have been for ages enveloped 
in uncertainty. It rises in the Western part of the con- 
tinent, above the country of the Hesperii ^thiopes in 
Western Guinea, and runs for an immense distance^ 
generally in an Eastern direction, till it enters the G. of 
Cruinea : it likewise communicates with the Libya Palus, 
and at certain times (if not always), as it is thought, 
with the Nile of Egypt. In the Westernmost part of 
Africa there are many rivers running into the Atlantic, 
concerning which the ancients knew Uttle more than 
their names ; such as the Daradus or Senegal, the Bam^* 
rbotus Gambia, the Nia or Mio Chrande, and the Massh- 
tholus or Mokelle. 



1. THE Insutse BritannicsB consisted of two islands, 
lying East and West of each other, and called Albion 
or Britannia Great Britain, and leme or Hibemia Ire- 
land. Of these the former is by far the greatest, and 
was the larj^est island in the world known to the ancients, 
who were nrat led to visit it from the hopes of obtaining 

t_._ MM- l^-» --- I - -- . ■ ■ ■•-■—■■ 

' Quos vagas humectat Cinyps, et proximus hortis 
Hesperidum Triton, et Gir notissimus amnis 
JEthiopum, simili mentitus gurgite Nilum, 

CUiudian, in 1. Cons, SHL 1. 2S1. 

IntnkB Sritanxiaf. f 3 

irealtb^ and afterwards to attack it from a love of ann 
Ktion and military glory. 

2. But the Phoenicians appear to have been familiar 
with the Bntish Islands^ long before the Greeks and 
ij pmanB had even heard of uiem. They had, at an 
terly period, fomided their famous colony Gades on the 
coast of Spain, beyond the pillars of Hercules, and 
Ihim it they made voyages to the S. W. extremity of our 
island ; here they procured quantities of tin, which 
inrmed such a valuable article of commerce in their con- 
liection with the Greeks, that they carefully concealed 
Vll knowledge of the country whence they derived it, 
IBxeepting that it was obtained from islancus in the out- 
fu>st^ Northern part of Europe. Hence these islands 
vere named Cassiterides, from the Greek word KaaairtpoQ 
signifying tin, or rather ti^Ai^e lead: this name, however, 
iwas not generally appUed to Chreat Britain and Ir^ 
kmdy but to the Scilty Islands, which he off the extre- 
mity of Cornwall, although there are many reascms for 
supposing that this latter county and a part of Devanr 
shire were at first included in the appellation. 

3. The appellations Albion and Britannia* are thought by many to bavt 
been derivea from the words Albin and Brettan, signifying a mountainous 
country ; but others deduce the name Albion from its chalky, white rocks* 
The appellation Albion is preserved to the present day in that oiAlinn, by 
which the Highlanders of Scotland distinguish their country. As little u 
known coDceming the origin of the appellation lerne or Hibemia, the maia 
features of which are still preserved m the modern "Enin and Ireland : it is, 
likewise, unknown why it came to be called the I. Sacra or Hiera, although 
some have imagined, that this last circumstance was owing to its having 
been the original seat of the Celtic deities, whom the Druids continued to 
worship in our own island to a comparatively late period. 

4. These Druids derived their appellation from the Greek word Apvf 
sn oak, not only from their holding the mistletoe in the greatest veneratioii, 
but from their inhabiting groves of oaks, and performing no rites without the 

> The inhabitants of Britain are spoken of, by the Roman poets, aa the 
most remote of people : 

' Pars Scythiam, et rapidum Crets veniemns Oazem, 
£t penitus toto divisos orbe Britannos. Ftrg. EcL I. 67. 

'The name Britanni is said, by some, to have been derived from " Brit," an 
old word signifying spotted ; because the Britons stained th^ bodies with an 
azore colour, to present a fiercer appearance in war. 
Martial calls them * Casrulei,* Xl. liv. 1 : ' 

Claudia cmrul&s cum ut Rufina Britanma 

24 Insula Britannic^.. 

leaTCS o! this sacred tree I'bey wen piJESU, and possessfd an niilhai 
ovei tlie kings themselves -, tbsy inttnicled the youth in varinus branchei 

learning, of wbich they were cotisidered 10 be theonly Irue deposilOnH, i 

decided in almost all causes, whether public or piivale, appointing rewaidiT 
and punishments for such 33 deserved them. Ovec all these Druids ntesidad 
one with lupceine antliority, who was elected by ibe snfFrages of the rein - 
at a certain time of the yeat they held « geoerat assenibly in a consecrUtH. 
place, where all laws were prnmulgated, disputes settled, and judgmeids 
piooouticed. The BrltDns appear to bave been governed, lite the Ganla, ' 
not by one king, bnt by several, who, on any exttaonJinary emeigency, atf ' 
auembled in a public council of the wbole nation, and appointed ooe Coau 
Biander-in- chief. , 

6. Wlien Cesar invaded Britain he found it iahaliited by Cells, who h*d 
settled in it from lime itnmemonil : be docs not distinguish them from Ih^ 1 
other Celts, with whom he was acquainted, either by a difference of ltB;W 
guage or monneis ; but, on the contraiy, he states that the Gauls wen VVM 
customed to send such of their ^outh as they wished to have property idM>; tV 
cated in the learning of the Druids, over to Britain. Tacitus menliooa thduf 
At Britons had leu (cultivation, and moie lleiceness than the Gauli; (nt^ 
tiiBi, otherwise, the two nations did not diRer, both baring the same ivn' . 
gsage, and the same eusloms'. Many tribes may be found in the two caWt - \ 
b'ies with the same names, as the Belgie, Atrebales, Purisii, &c.; and manj', 
citiei with Celtic terminations, particularly with that of rfununt. \ 

6. But in the Northern part of the island dwelled annther, and a very dif- f 
Arent race of people, with whom the Ramans first became acquainted Bada ' 
Agricola, when Ihey attacked them in their mounlaio holds, and fie4|uenl))r ,' 
orerpdwered, though they nevei conquered, them. The Latins called then 
Caledonii, and their country Caledonia, deriving the appellations, no doubV 
liom the real name of (he people, who distinguish their, race under the title - 
of Gael or Cacl to the ptesenl day. They extended fhim the Firih, of Forth < 
•nd Cl-idi to the Noitbemmost eili^mity of the island, and have been 
thought by many to be of Celtic extraction, and ta h jve been driven Noith> 
ward into the mountain- country by tlie increasiug power of the other tribet; , 
Iiut their differing so widely from the Celts in their maoneK and customs, baf 
led many to imagine that Ihey crossed over from Nonait/ or Spain. 

7. Between themand the possessionsof the Romiins. towards the bonliaa 
W Englaiul. lay a number 01 other tribes who were frequently conquered if 
the Ramans, though tliey never remained long in a state of subjeclioii ; lb«|r 
bad several individual appellatians, but seem to have home in common that 
«f Mirals. These people were also Celts, who probably wandered into ibeie 
diitanl parts of tlie country upon their original uiigiatiun, or else Bed befbra 
the legions of Rome. It is, however, very possible that they were joined at 
•n early period by some of the German bordei, who made ose of Ihor 
luimerous ships to cross over the lea to iheae Celts, and united theauelm 
wiUi tiiem into one naliDn long before the invasion of the Romans. 

6. The people whom the Romans of the third century called Caiednnii. 
luddenly a[^)ear in the fourth century under the altered name of Picli, whilst 
tbe appellatioa of Mieatie was likewise eichanged for that of Attacotli and 
Scoti. The Picis are thought to have been so called from the cuslumof 

* CiluUuE, likewise, characterises their fierceness, XI. IS: 
CaJJicum Rhenuoi, bt>iribilcH|ue uiti — 

mosque Biilumos. 

IntukB BritanniaB. 26 

mtimg* tb«T bodiet, long after th« other inhabitinU of the isUnd had 
jna vp the barbaraut custom ; but otben trace their name to a wonl sig- 
Upag m the Celtic langaage a plumdertr or fieebooter. The name Scoti 
tan to hare been appUed to tbe Meats, firam a hoide of Scoti having 
nned over from Hibcffnia and settled amongst them : they united themselves 
Ah the Caledonians after many long and (wstractive wars, and became at 
■I aae nation, and were governed by one king. 

8l The inhabitants of the Northern part of Ireland were probably like the 
Uedonians the oldest inhabitants of the greater island : the connection be- 
laen their languages eridently points out a common oriein ; and hence it has 
m ima^ned, that the same orerpowering hordes of the Celts, which in a 
ter period droive the Caledonians into the Northern part of Britain, like- 
in drove the Scoti into Irelanel. But only the Northern part of Hibemia 
■ peopled by this asost ancient race, the Southern half of the island hsT- 
f been inhabited by tiie same horde of Celts that dwelled in Walet ; and a 
■section between the two is thought to have been kept up in their Druidi- 
il worship, from which Ireland probably derived its name of Sacra or 
ioa I. and its S. £. promontory (opposite WaUt) that of Hieron Prom. 

Id. CsBsar is said to have invaded Britain from a desire to collect its 
■lis*, the reports concerning the beauty of which had reached his ears in 
aal ; bvt it is more probable that he was led to it from the ambitious de- 
le of extending his conquests over countries bordering on the extremity of 
K then known world. The power of the Romans in Britain commenced 
iih his invanon of it, b.c. 56, and continued till ji.d. 409, when they 
Mapletely abandoned the island. It cost them many years to reduce Eng- 
dht ; but the [Mrogress of their armies was effectual ly opposed by the mighty 
inier of the Grampian Ms., although the fleet of Agr.cola sailed coni- 
hlefy round the island. No expedition was made into Ireland ; that one 
as contemplated seems evident m>m the circumstance of one legion and a 
m anxilianes being stated as sufficient to subdue it. 

11. To prevent the incursions of the Barbarians in the N. part of the 
land, Agricola, a. d. 79. built a wall from the R, Tyiie to the Solway 
trth ; and, two years afterwards, another from the Firth cf Forth to the 
vik cf Cijfds. The emperor Hadrian finding it difficult to maintain this 
■t frontier, contracted the limits of the Roman possessions, and built 
bi great rampart which bore his name (Vallum Hadriani Picts* Wall), 
t. 0. ISO, nearly in the same place as Agricola his first Under the reign of 
btoninus Phis the countiy acquired by Agricola, and lost by Hadrian, was 

nee false nomine Pictos 

Edomuit Clnudian. de III. Cone, Honor, 54. 

' We are told bv Pliny [IX. 35], that when Caesar returned victorious 
ram Britain, he dedicated a breast-plate, made of British pearls, in the 
onple of Venus Genetrix : some of the British prisoners he destined for ex- 
Aitkms in the theatre, where also he displayed tapestry adorned with repre> 
Mations of bis British victories. Thb last circumstance gave occasion to 
ikaKoeof Virgil: 

Purpurea intexti tollant aulsa Britanni. Georg. III. 25. 

Horace (oat of compliment to Augustus) alludes to the lateness of the 
Moapt upon Britain, by the epithet ' iotactus,' which he applies to ' Bri- 

Intactus ant Britannos ut descendeiet 
SaaA caieaMtuM viA, £pod. \11 . 1 . 



Insula SritamtKee — ■Afb'to 

recovered by ^"'"'i Urliicui, who, jt.o. 140, restored Agricol a 's second mlllr 
from ibal time called Vallum Antonini GTaham't DiiHe: it wu 40 geogn^ 
phicsl, HI all Roman, miles lon|;. Finally, the emperor Severus. UnAt, 
■dianccd age, peaetioCing lalo theN. patU of the isluid, lo repel llbe CaltiiKK 
Diana, who had bioken through (he rampails raised against them, bliiU IhiL 
ValliUDSevertnDHi.A.D.UlO.anI; a few yards from that of Hadrian. "^Hl 
last wall, the alrongtsl of llie whole, commenced al SegeduQum (''—-'-1* 
Houu, and ended al 'runnocelnm fciniaa, a distance of SG geogra 
82 Roman, miles: it was a coatioued luccessioa of castles andti 
quiring l gairison of more than 10,000 men. 

12. Albion or Britannia Great Britain wm"' 
bounded on the W. by^ Mare Vei^vium St. Geor^x* 
Channel, Mare Kibemicuiu Irish Sea, and OcearmC^ 
I>eucaledoniu8, part of the Atlantic Ocean ; on the ^fc*' 
by Mare Orcaduni or the Orknei/ Sea ; on the E. Dj' 
Oceanus Gennajiicus v. Septentrionalis German Occm'" 
or North Sea ; and on the S, by Oceanus Britaniiiq|^' 
English Channel. The narrowest part of this M^J 
where Britain and Ganl approximate the nearest, wi|f° 
called Fretum Oceani (otherwise Morinum and Gajfi?« 
cum) Strait of Dover, and is only la miles across ;■ t^ 
has been supposed by many that the two countries t ~'' 
once connected together, but that they were torn as^ 
der in some great convulsion of nature. Great Brit 
was likened by Cassar to a triangle, of which the SoutM^ 
em shore formed the base ; Livy and Fabius Rusficti»I|' 
have compaied it to an oblong shield, or a two-edgS^ri 
axe. *" 

13. The ranges of hilla traversing Great Britai^i 
though by no means inconsiderable, are not noticed hji'i 
any ancient authors, if we except Mons Grampius or me . 
Grampian Mountains, in the heart of Scotland, "fijj 
was in thia neighbourhood that Agricola defeated tfafti, 
Britons under Galgacus, a. d. 84. \ 

14. The principal copes of Gt. Briruin are, on the N. Coast Ebudium fW 
C. Wrath, Tanedrum or Orcas Pr. Dunnti HtaH, the Norlhemmost pCtf^, 
of the Ulaod, and Vicvedtum Pr. Duncaatby Head. On theE. coatt^VlL 
T:eial(un Ft. Kintutitii'i Jitai, the N. £. cape of Abtrdai\ikiTe. and Cor^ 

' The »«a about Briti 
and of a, vait size -, as aj ,^ 

■na Brilinni 
1!, Ocean Ui 
Jjeluosui qui remotis 
./.I . Obilrupil Oceanu^ Btitaaiui, 

early limes much frequented by whalo, \ 
appears from Ju7eiial, SaL X. 14 : 
del[^nit tjalitna 
Horace calls it ' ' ' 

Insubp BrUanmiem — Albion. 27 

mPr.tke N. FortUnd, which is the laft point of Kent tmvards the \. 
JK. Thg Uxard Point, where Britain reaches farthest to the S*. was known 
f the name of Ocrinum or DamDonium Pr. ; and the Land't Etui, diktin-. 
■riwd as the Westernmost point of EngUnd (though nut of Gt. Britain) 
riiealled Belerinm or Antivestsam Prom. On the \V. coast, llerculis Pr. 
Mb bean the name of Hartlatui Point, on the coast of Devonshire ; St. 
)mW* Hmidf the VV. extremity of Walet, was distinguished as Octapitarum 
ki': Novantum Pr. in Wigtown is now the Mull of GalLowaiif and Epidium 
t in ArgyllMre, Iks Mull rf Cantire. 

16. Amongst the principal rivers of Britain^ known to ' 
le ancients, we may mention Tamesis fl. or the i?.' 
Iktmes, the largest in the United Kingdom ; it rises in 
^ Cotgivold HUlSy in Gloucestershire^ and flows with 
ft Easterly direction into Tamesis Astuanum : the^ 
ibnetio or Kenrtet enters its right bank. The Sabrina^' 
tgvern rises in Plynlimmony on the borders of Cardigan- 
Kre and Montgomeryshirey and runs, with a cur\'ed and . 
ftoerally Southerly airection, into the Bristol Channel 
k Sabrina .£stuarium. 

*16. After two-thirds of its course the Sabrina receives on its left bank, 
I Tgicksbury, the Aufona Minor fl. or R. Awn, which rises on the borders 
i L§ke$ter9hire, Northamptonshire, and Warwickshire, and runs past K ar- 
■db and Stratford. The other Aufona R. Awn or Nen rises in Northatnp- 
mAire, at no great distance from the preceding river, flows with a N. K. 
past Northampton and Peterborough, and runs into Metaris JKstua- 
now The Wash. There are several other rivers in England bearing the 
of Ainni, a circumstance which is accounte<l for by the word Avon 
ignifving River in the language of the ancient Britons. In the Southern 
art of Enf^land are, the Tnsanton or Anton, whicii runs past Southampton ; 
iie Alaunus or Avon, which runs past Salisbury ; the Isca or Eie, which 
birs through Eieter; and the Tamarus or Tamar, which runs through 
Immteston: all these rivers enter the Britannicus Oceanus or English 

17. The R. Humber, between the counties of York and lAncoln, was 
famerly called Abus ^ but it is rather an estuary than a river, being formed 
bj the Trent and Oiue, neither of which is mentioned by the ancient 
tathors, though we meet with the names of the Derventio Derwent, and 
Verbeia Wharfe, which are both tributaries of the latter. Beyond the Abus 
to the Northward are, the Vedra or Wear, the great river of Durham ; the 
Tina ftf Tyne, watering the Southern part of '^Northumberland and entering 
the tea near Pons ^Elii Newcastle ; the Alauna Abie ; and the I'ueda Tweed, 
vinch last forms in the lower part of its conrse the boundary between Eng- 
Intf and Scotland : all these nvers run into the Oceanus Septentrionalis qr • 
V»tfc Sea. In the North Western part of England is the K. Ituna Eden, 
vUch nins past Appleby and Carlisle into Ituna iEstuarium now the Solway 
Tvth. Amongst the Welsh rivers may be mentioned the Toisobius Conway, 

7 There is a gentle nymph, not far from hence, 
That with moist curb sways the smooth Severn stream, 
Sabriott U her name, a virgin pure, Jlltiton, €om*a, %H 


tksTufilcm y»ivMt TuerobiB 7W>, which run into the Imh &•; tkf Te^MM' 
Tawtf, Ise& I/«^ and Ratostatbybius Wye, which flow into the ^abniMi 
4Estu«riuiB« (A 

18« The Caledonian rivers mentioned by the andentft are, the Mnam^'W 
Etik, the ZMira'or Dee, which enters the ocean at Divana Old AbenUeni^ tmi 
the Taeists or Sp^ : these three rivers water the Eastern part of the coQattjp 
and flow into the North Sea. In the Western part of Scotland are, Ixm^tusikp 
which mns up into Argyllshire, and still preserves its appellation- m tb( 
altered form of Loch Linnhe ; the Glota or Clyde, which mns into an kstnuf 
of the same name ; the Deva or Dee, and the Novius Nitk, both of wfaiefc 
discharge their waters into Ituna iEstaarium already mentioned. J ''^ 

19, The provinces into which the Romans 
Britain^ were, I. Britannia Prima ; II. Flavia p8Bsaii- 
enais ; IIL Britannia Secunda ; IV. Maxima Ceesari^ 
ensis ; V, Valentia ; VI. Caledonia. V 

20. But their earliest division is thought to have been into Major aii4. 
Minor, the former of which may have referred to the Southern, and thie l^tteih 
to the Northern, part of Great Britain; although others are of opinion, thill 
by Major was meant the island itself, and that Minor iVas applied only H^. 
Ireland- They also divided the island into Romana and Barbara, the Umiliii 
of which varied, of course, with their conquests. Flavia Cae^ariensis aji4!' 
Maxima Cssariensis probably owed their oridn to the family of Constan;* 
titts Chlorus, who governed in Britain with the title of Caisar : he martttd 
Helena, dauditer of a petty British princess, and by her had Constantin^^ 
the Great, who was bom in Britain. The number of square miles cob^^ 
tained in each of the Provinces of the British Islands may be seen in the; 
following table : 

' Sq. Miles. 7 

Britannia Prima • . . • . 10,360 
Flavia Caesariensis .... - 10,580 
Britannia Secunda .... - 7,800 
Maxima Cssariensis « -' - • 8,590 

^'aJlentia ...... 6,960 

.Caledonia 17,270 

len^ .;-,•--- 24,300 

Total - - . 91,360 


21 Britannia Prima contained that part of JEng^i 
land which is S. of Gloucestershire an4 the R. Thames,- 
and was inhabited by the six following tribes. 1. The 
Cantii; 2. the Regni, 3. the Atrebatii, 4. the Belgas, 
du the Duiotriges/and 6^ the Damnonii. 

23. 1. The Cantii dwelled in Kent ; to them belonged Rutupia ltieC\ 
herough CattU, celebrated for its oysters ^ and as the general landing<-pHit^' 
from Gaul, Dubris Dover, Portus Lemanis Lyme, where Caesar prow i Hy . ' 


• ■ M Rutupinove edita fundo 

Ostjoea. /«;.&<, IV. 141. ,,/ 

Immdd^BrUanfiica—Flmia CasarUmb. fo 

JMoL I>divrcniiiifi Canterbury, Dnrobrnris lUehtttwr, and AYiderkIa Km^ 
MUbn, glaring mane to Anderida Silva, which extended over the Weaidt rf 
Kmt and Sussex. 2. The Regoi were W. of the Cantii, in Swrrev, Stutet, 
mk put of HmmpMf ; their citiei were Nonomagva CrmidoH, Clauten* 
hR SemtkmMitpUm^ and Regnum Ringieood, Vectis I. I. of Wi^t, may he 
ii^Rckoned in the territory of the Regni ; it was reduced by Vespasiaot 
\t^m the reign of Claudius, and wag known to the Romans in a veiy early 
Irtioa, from the trade in tin or white lead having been here carried on b^ 
MM the Gauls and the iuhabitants of the Cassiterides. The coasts of 
Mtf and SuMMex had the title Sazonicum Littus, and were under the care of 
m officer, whose du^ it was to guard them asainst the invasions of barbarous 
■tipnsy but especially the Saxons ; part of the opposite coast of France had 
tt'tame name. 

"III. 3. The Atrebatii, a colony of the Gallic Atrebates, were W. of the 
l^fni, in Berhhire and parts of Wilhhire and Hampshire ; as towns amongst 
kern may be mentioned Pontes Old Windsor, Caileva SitchesUr, and Cune- 
it Marlborough on Cunetio £., which still retains traces of its name in Ken- 
(k, and mm into the Thames, 4. The Beige, W. of the Regni, who 
i i ttai ed from Belgica, and inhabited Somersetshire, with parts of GUmeester, 
Wutshire; and HampAire ; Venta Belgarom Winchester, Sorbiodunum Old 
IhMt, smd Aqus Solis or Aqn» Calidie Bath on the A. Awon, were their 
ilheipal towns. 5. The Durotriges were S. of the Belga in Dorsetshire; 
mki duef city was Dumovaria Dorchester* 

vA 0. The Damaooii, in Devon and Cornwall, were the Westernmost people 
^Lmtannia Prima ; amongst their cities may be mentioned Isca Damnomo* 
ion Exeter on Isca fl. Exe, and Voliba Falmouth, the harbour of wltich bore th« 
time Cenionis Ostium. The mines of the Cassiterides Is. Scilly Is., so famed 
bf Uieir tin or white lead, were used by the Romans as a place of banishment 
far their delinquents. The inhabitants of the Cassiterides were called M e- 
bnehlaeni, from their black garments : they are said to have been very expert 
ailors, venturing upon the open sea in little boats made of skins or leather, 
in which, after they had melted their tin into plates, they were accustomed to 
tarry it to the trading places frequented by the Phcenicians and Gauls. 

25. Flavia CjEisARiENSis included the country be- 
tween the German Ocean on the E^ and the Severn 
and Dee rivers on the W., between the Thames and 
Avon rivers on the S., and Yorkshire and Lancashire on 
the North ; it was inhabited by the six following tribes. 
I. The Trinobantes, 2. the Cattieuchlani, 3. the Do- 
bani, 4. the Comavii, 5. the Coritani^ and 6. the Iceni 
or Cenimagni. 

)B. I. The Trinobantes, in Middlesex and Essex, whose chief city was Lon- 
hmm London on the Thames, the metropolis of the British Empire, called 
lis Augusta, and mentioned as a city flourishing in commerce, and greaUy 
^wntH by merchants; to them also belonged Colonia Colchester, and 
QMolodunum Maldon on Idumania fl. Blackwater, Camulodunum was 
it first colony which the Romans established in Britain, and contained a 
iWstre, and a temple dedicated to Claudius ; it was destroyed in the war 
hetween Boadicea and the RomaDs, who were here severely beaten. ^.1\v« 
CittieB^hJisiU trere W. of the TriDobantes, in HertfordAxre, Btd/wdihire^ 



80 Insulee Britannica^—BrUannia Secanda. 

Backia^amibire, and part of Or?bnii*ir« ; their ehief towns were DurtKWtaiHi 
mnitable, and Verolamium Yf^Um, near St. A»rmi, the town of CanliW- 
.latmns, taken by Cxstir; it wa* i munjcipium. and was sub:>e<]D«Btlj> db- 
strayed in the war between Boidicea and (he Romans. < ' 

27. 3 The Dobuni inbahited pajta of ClauceiterihiTi and Oxfori 
their cbief towns were Duroornoviam ot Cotiniuin Cirencestii 
source of the Thanes, acid Glevum or C'eboa GlimiMter on I 
4. Tbe Comiyii wero above the Dobuni, in ChetMri, Staprdtkirt 
thirt, and in parts of FtinlshlTt, Shropshire, and Wnrceitfrihirt .- t 
longed Viroconium Wroitler on the Secern, near S/ireirjftwrj, . .. 

for oa the Dee, and Deva Chitler likewiiie on the Dee; ihii lasl WfVU 
Roman cDloaj, and the stadon of ihe'SDlh Legion. 5. The Coiitani wgtf 
to the E. of these, m the shires of Derbi/, Nani«ghaT7i, Linaln, LeraMM 
Rullam, and Norlkamptan ; amoDgst lliem maj be enuineraled, LiitMt 
XiiuuIn on the R. W'tham, Rata ar Rage LeUaltr, and LaclodaruB US' 

2B. G. The Iceni or Cenimsgni were S. K. of the Coritani. und if, <if<l|L 
Trinobantes, in Norfolk, S'ipik, Cambridge, and H„ati,ig,iim. Thej ^f 
a brave nationt who, on being pillaged by tb« Komans, ""-^ *!.-!.■ ■■ ■ » 
Uosdicea, wilh her daughters, shamefally inaulted, took 
Ihem in conjunction nith their neiglitwun, defeated them i 

ments. and destroyed Camuloduaum and Veiolamiuni ; bi .^ ,.. 

queted ia their turn by Suetonius Pauliuus, a. i>. Gl. Their chief ciui! 
■varo Ventn Icenotum, the capital, Cuiiler near Nnrnich, Gatiaiwaiuaj 
Burgh Caalt near Yannauth, oa Carienus S. Yare, and Dutoltpous CtOhj 

29. Britannia Secunda, including Wales and Uati 
part of England, wliich is W, of the rivers Severn aoi 
Dee, was inhabited by, 1. The Ordovices, 2. the Dimets^ 
and 3, the Silures. 

30. 1 . The Ordovices bhabited the WiUh counties of Comonwa, Bmf 
bigh, Mtrioneth, aod Wontgomm), with that part of fSirapihiTe in Etwland, 
*hich is W. of the Severn ; their chief eitiea were Conovium C(i<r-Mai «D 
ToiaotuuE fl. Conaaii tt. and Segonlium Caenumiai ; to Ihem alio iDn'M 
reckoned Mona I.° Aiigleieii, mentioned by TaciluB, the sncianl seat of tht 
Druids, at the N. W. eitr^ity of B'ufei. 2. The Dimetie were S, W. of 
&eie, in the IVeltk counties of Cardigan, racmuiT'l'KTi, and t'embroki ; (Mt 
chief town was Maiidunum CaeriaaTllien on TobiuB S. Tout;. 

Bl. 3. Tlie-Silures were E. of theee, and S. of the Ordovices, in the W4U1 
counties of Radnar, Breekniieh, Glamorgaa, and Maanioiilh, in (he EnfilUl 
county of Htrifard, and iu such parts of (foTMiteii/iJie and GlouettterS^ 
as are W. of the Senei-a. They were brave and warlike, and under their 
king, Caiaclacus, en^g«d the Romioii in a very peipleiiog war, but were kt 
lenglh defeated by UiLorius Scupula, a. d. 51 ; Caractacus, flying to dift 

• Where were ye, nymphi, when the remoreeless deep 
Clos'd o'er the h^d of your lov'd Lycidas ! 
For neither nere ye playing on the steep, 
Where your old bards, the famous Druids, tie, 
yor on (he shaggy lop of Mona high 

Ins. BritafUiieiB-^Max, QgsariensiB^^Faleniia. 31 

^if^ntmai, wss betimyed bj CartisBiaiidua, th«ir queen, into the. bands of 
fieir common enemy, taken to Rome, and there pardoned by the Kmperor 
.Cbidias. Amongst their towns may be mentioned Bravinium or Branno- 
feisam Ludtow, Blestium Monmouth, and Iscft-Silunim Catriton their capi- 
mand the station of the Legio 2* Augusta. 

. 82. Maxima C^sariensis was bounded on the N. 
tjr the Vallum Hadiiani, and on the S. by the southern 
Imits of Yorkshire and Lancashire^ which counties it in- 
cbdedy as well as those of Westmorland and Durham^ 
tnth parts of Cumberland and Northumberland. It was 
]bincipally inhabited by the Brigantes, the most power- 
w people of Britain* 

-•-S3. Their chief cities were Danum Doneatter, the Roman colony of £ho- 
Hcom York the station of the Leeio 6^ Victriz, where the emi)erors Sevenis 
.iud Constantius Chlonu resided, and where they both died ; Pons JFslu 
fUwcmatU, on the R. Tyne^ Luguvallhim Carlisle, Galacum Afrpleby, Longo> 
tfficas Lmncaater, and Mancunium Matichuter, To them also may be assigned 
Jftaoa I. h of Mmn, caUed also Monsda or Monapia, and mentioned by 
.Casar as mmway between England and Ireland, 

■ 84. Valentia included that part of Great Britain 
which lay between the two walls, comprehending the 
toiwity o( Northumberland^ and such of the Scotch coun- 
ties as are S. of the Firths of Forth and Clyde. It was 
iihabited by the five following tribes t 1. The Ottadini; 
1 the Gadeni; 3. the Selgovae; 4. the Novantee; and 
6. the Damnii. 

35. 1. The Ottadini dwelled in Northumberland, and the Scotch shire of 
Roxburgh -y their chief towns were, Coria Ottadinorum Jedburgh, and Breme- 
liinm Rochester. 2. The Gadeni were W. of these, in parts of Selkirk, 
PtMes, and Ihtmfries ; to them belonged Blatum Bulgium Middleby, and 
Castra Exploratorum Netherby. 3. The Selgovae were W. of the Gacieni, in 
ptrts of Ayrshire, Lanarkshire, and Dumfries ; and still farther W. were, 
4. The Novantae, in Wigtown, Kirkcudbright, and part of Ayr ; the chief town 
of the latter was Iieucopibia Wigtoton. 6. The Damnii inhabited the shires 
of Renfrew, Lanark, Linlithgow, Edinburgh, Peebles, Haddington, and Ber- 
wiek ; they extended also beyond the wall of Antoninus into Dumbarton and 
StirHng ; their principal towns were, A lata Castra Edinburgh, and Colania 
Lanark on the K. Glota or Clyde, 

36. Caledonia^^ comprehended the whole of Scot- 
land N. of the Vallum Antonini. It was inhabited by 

1® Martial calls the inhabitants ' Caledonii Britanni :' 

Quincte Caledonios Ovidi visure Britannos, — Lib* X. Ep, 44. 
In the Caledonia Silva, which extended from L. Lomond to Murray Firth, 
bears were caught and taken to Rome, for criminals to be exposed to, as 
appears by the same poet : 

Nuda CaieaoDJo sic pectora. prsbuit urso, 
JVflo -AM pendens in cruce Lauieolus. E^ . t , lib .Spectac- 

c 4 

' 82 Tnsuloe BrUmnictt — Caledonia, 

several inconaderable tribes, concerning whom yery "htO^ 
is known. - ^■ 

87. The iMLmes of these tribes were, 1. The Venicontes, in the shiref of 
Fife, Kinrott, Ctackmanan, and part of Perth ; their chief town was Otrpk 
Perth ; 2. I1)e Vacomagi, in Kincardine and Forfar-ihiret ; 3. The Ttzali 
were in Aberdeen, Banff, Elgin, and part of Inverness ; their chief towE was 
iJiyana Old Abtfrdeen ; 4. The Cants were in Cromartv and the £. fart off 
Kou ; 5. The Logi and Mertci in K. Sntherland ; and 6. the Corn^vii ia 
Caithness. Descending the W. coast we find, 7. the Careni in Suthfrland; 
8. the CamonaeiB in Ross ; and 9. the Creones likewise in Ross about tliA 
Itys fl. Catron, 10. The Ceroaes were cantoned in parts of ArgyllskiH 
did Inverness', 11. the Epidii in S. Argyllshire', and 12. the Horast« i^ 

88. The Ebudes or Hebud» las. Hehrides^^ or Western Is. were on the W. 
coast of Caledonia ; their number and situation are variously given by th^ 
ancients, but the chief of them were Ebuda Occideotalis Lewis and Harrie, 
Ebuda Orientalis iS^e, Maleos Mull, Epidium Islay, and Ricisa Raehlift 
opposite the N .E^ point of Ireland. On the Westem'side of the Isle of MuU 
is the beautiful little island of Staffa, so celebrated for its basaltic jpillan 
and for its natural caverns, the largest of which, called the Cave of FhigtU, 
is exceedingly magnificent. 

80. The Orcades Is. Orkneys are off the N. £. extremity of SeotUmd, in 
Mare Orcadum, and perhaps received their name from Orcas Pr. DunnH 
Head ; they were visited and subdued by Agricola, but soon threw off the 
yoke. Pomona the Mainland, Ocetis Hoy Waas, and Dumna S. Ronaldsay^ 
are the principal islands. The Shetland Is., lying 45 miles to the N. £. of 
the Orkneys, were no doubt the snow-covered Thule, which Tacitus mentions 
as having been seen by Agricola in his voyage round the latter islands, and 
possibly the same described by the navigator Pytheas three centuries before ; 
they were the outmost of all the known islands in this direction, whence tba 
epithet Ultima *'« This Thule must not be confounded with a ctistrict of the 
same nan^ in Norway* 

40. The excellent roads which the Romans made in Britain may be traced 
in eveiy part of the island over which their actual dominion extended ; in 
process ,of time some of them received certain names, which, though they 
have come down to us indefinite and corrupted, are yet generally received : 
Amongst such are, 1. WatUng Street, which runs from Richborough Castle, 
in Kent, through London to Chester, where one branch is thought to have 
turned off to the I. of Anglesey; thence it proceeds through York and CarlisU, 
into Scotland, where many of the old ways retain this name. 2. iferaiuk 
Street, or Ermtn Street, runs frimi London through Lincoln, to Wittteringham 
on the R. Humber ; it is thought by some to have extended as far S. as the 
coast of Sussex, perhaps firom the neighbourhood of Shoreham Harbour. 8. The 
Foss-vfay proceeds directly firom Bath, or, in the opinion of some, firom Seaton 
on the sea-coast of Qevonshire, to Lineeln, 4. Icknild Street, or Ikening St^ 


Aye me 1 whilst thee the shores and sounding seas 
Wash far away, where'er thy bones are hurl'd 
Whether beyond the stormy Hebrides, 
Where thou perhaps, under the whelming tide, 
Visit'st the bottom of the monstrous world ; — 

Milton, iMcidas, 15tf. ' 
18 _p— tibi serviat ultima Thule. Virg. Oeorg. 1. 10. ' 

JnsMlm Sritiumiat — Siiemia. 93 

■MUi to h&Te bMn a way leadings from, tbe couatiy of the Iceni, whence it 
B l ut Ka'nmaM ; it pioceeded, pn>bablj, from Venta Icenorum to Londvu^ 
mA ii thought to have gone on through Oid Sarum to Dorehtttwr, or it may, 
, have oontinued through LoaJon, Windior, and Mmrlbmvugk, to 
TVitifff^ these fimr great roada, there were many othert, parts of 
may still be traced, under various names, as well as under those 

V' 41. HiBBBNi Ay called also leme Ireland or Eriuy lies 
f6thie W. of Britain^ from which it is separated by Mare 
Kbeciiiciim and Mare Vergiviuni ; the nearest points of 
iPBtact being the promontories Robogdium Fair Headj 
ind Epidium Mull of Cantire, which are only 10 miles 
uart It is the largest island in Europe, next to Great 

'*43L The chief capes of Ireland are, Vennicntum Pr. Bloodtffarland Pt,, 
BiMiim Pr. Matin Head, both in Donegal; Robogdium Pr. Pair Head, in 
jbiinmi Isamnium Pr. KiUard Pu, in Downshire; Hieron v. Sacrum Pr. 
C^himre Pt., in Weifard ; and Notium Pr. Mizen Head, in Cork : C. Cleui' 
u ike Southernmost point. 

43, The noblest river of Ireland is the Sena or Shan- 
mm. which rises in the N» part of the island near Lough 
AUen, and, flowing with a S. W. course past Macolicum 
Meelichy and Regia Altera Limerick^ enters the Atlantic 
at Sena .Sstuarium. The Dabrona or Lee is a very in- 
considerable river^ and only remarkable from its running 
through the city of Cork. The Brigus or Barrow i?. is 
ID the S.E. part of the island ; it rises in Queen* s County ^ 
not far from the sources of the Boyne and the Liffey^ and 
fijls into Waterford Bay : to the East of it is Oboca fl., 
which still maintains its name. The Libnius or Liffey 
rises in the N. part of the county of Wtcktow^ and enters 
the sea at Eblana Dublin. A little to the N. of it is 
Bubinda fl. Boyne^ which runs from its source^ in the 
eounty of Kildare, with a N. E. course, past Laberus 
Ketts, into the Irish Sea^ The Argita or Ban is in the 
N. E. comer of the island, and flows from its source in 
the Moume M*.^ through Z. Neagh into the sea near 
Coleraine. The Vidua fl. Bera rises out of a lough of 
the same name in the county oi Donegaly and enters the 
sea at Lough Foyle. 

44. Ireland was inhabited by the following tribes: 1. The Veonicnii ia 
DofMgaL 2. The Robogdii in Londonderry and Antrim, between whom ran 
Vi(hu^ fl. J)§rg into L, Foyfe. 3. The Dami were in parts oi Doum ^lA 
Antt^h, wadjfei9 sepanted from the Robogdu by Lo^a ft. Logan *, vmon^X 


S4 €f€rm6tnui. 

their towns weie, Dnnum Davmpatrick, and Regia Cbghw* 4. Th« Vohmti* 
inhabited Louth, with pafts of Dtnon, MtaA, and M(maghan, 5. The Blaail 
occupied parts of DvMin and Misatb, and the towns Labems KelU, and Eblaati 
Dubktt, 6. The Canci were in parts of Dublin, Wicklcw, Kildar^, and Qtumi^t 
County I amongst them was Kbeba Rhehan Castle, 7. The Menapii dwelled 
in parts of WiekUna, Ctirl(no, and Wexford ; through their, territory ran Mo- 
dona fl. Slaney, at the mouth of which was Menapia Wexford. 

'■ 45. 8. The Coriondi were eaatoned in murts of We:i^ord, Kilkenr^ moA 
Tipperanf, about Brigus fl. Barrow ; 9. The brigantes in Waterford and Tip* 
perary ; and, 10. The Vodiae in the E. parts of Cork, 11. The Iverni Weii 
in the S. part of Kerry ; their city Ivemis or lemis was probably Dtmkerpm 
on Ivemus fl. Kenmare, 12. The Yelabri and 13. The Luceni dwelled- itt 
parte of Keiry and Limerick ; Regia Altera Limerick was in the territory of 
the Luceni. 14. The Concani were in Clare, where they possessed the city 
Macolicum Meeliok on the Shatmor^ 15. The Auteri dwelled in Craltmf, 
16. The Nagnatae were farther N., in Mayo ; their chief city, Nagnata Urbi^ 
was probably Castlebar. 17. The Erdini occupied parts of Sligo, Leitrim, 
and Permanagh ^ from them Erdinus L. Lough Erne received ite name. 




Is GERMANIA^ was separated from Gaul on the i 
W., by Rhenus fl» Rhine ; from Vindelicia, Noricum, and «j 
Pannonia on the S., by Danubius fl. Danube; and from \ 
Sarmatia on the E., by a spur of the Carpathians^ called, ii 
the Sarmatici Montes, and by the whole course of the ^ 
river Vistula Vistula : the Oceanus Germanicus German (] 
OceaUy and Sinus Codanus Baltic Sea, were its boub- ii 

daries on the North. . 


2. The name of Germani, first applied by the Celtte and afterwa^s by the 'i 

Boroans to theTungri, when they invaded Gaul, is said to have been derived ^ 

from a word signifying " warrior," and not to have been used by t^e people ^ 

of this extensive countfy, who, deducing their origin from their deity Tuisco, \ 

called themselves Teuscones orTeutones^ still preserved in T«utsc^, the <^ 

: . . ^ K. 

' Quis Parthum paveat ? Quis gelidum Scythen? J 

Quis Gaimania quos horrida parturit \ 

Fcetus, incolumi C»sare ? Hor. Carm, I Y. v. 26^ J 

^ Caustica Teutonicos accendit spuma capiUos, l 

Captivis poteris cultior esse comis. Mart. XIV. Ep. 26. ;^t 

In re^rence to the custom, which obtained amongst the Germtng^ of muw% ^ 
A qVMtity of so^p ifk 4r$ssing their hair. . | 

Gt/rnmmiuL %^ 

iw appKed liy tbe modem Grnmmfu to thomiclTct. The term MUmagn$, 
■iied by the French to Germany, ii from the Alemanni, a nbble collected 
■V Gennany and Gaul, that settled in the Decumates Agri Swabia, and 
trier this title denotiiig their multiftriooa origin, formed a iMgue to oppose 
^]U«QBn power. 

■ fc The Getmans, howerer, are generally considered to ha?e derived both 
Aair name and origin from Gomer, the ton of Japhet, and grand>son of 
Ihih ; whose posterity having first settled in Asia Minor, gradually spread 
Mer and faither, and obtained settlements in several parts of £urope. 
Bmdotus has informed us, that a people called Cimmeni, who dwelt in 
ilAk D^oor, sent a colony to the shores of the Palus Mcotis, and so gave 
im name of Bosporus Cimmerius to the strait between the Euzine Sea and 
te BCaeotic Lake, now commonly called the Strait of Enikale. This colony 
^ the Cimmerii, increasing in progress of time, and spieading themselves 
431 by new colonies farther Westward, came along the Danube, and settled 
ivifae country which from them has been called Germany. 

' 4. The Hercynia Silva, the largest of forests, was al 
*ie time represented as covering nearly the whole of 
Germany, occupying nine days for crossing its breadth, 
and sixty for its length. The name was afterwards used 
m a more confined sense, being applied by some to the 
ranges between the Thuringer Wald and Carpathian Jtf*., 
and by others only to the hills bordering upon Moravia 
ind JSohemia, In the N. W. part of the country was the 
Silva Herculi Sacra, or that ranoe of hills through which 
the Weser makes its way near Minden, and part of which, 
Deusberg, retains the name of the adjoining Idistavisus 
iDampus, where Germanicus defeated Amiinius. Paiullel 
with it, and to the S, of it, was Saltus Teutobuigiensis 
Teutoburger Wald, where Varus, with three Roman 
legions, was completely routed by the Cherusci under 
Arminius, a«d. 10. 

6. Alpes Montes Rauhe Alpe was that range of hills parallel with the 
Danube, and separating it from the Neckar and Mayn ; it stretched from the 
S. part of the Btack Forest to the Fichtel Berg, and Thuringer Wald or Meli- 
bocns. Two ranges diverged from the Fichtel Berg Eastwards, and united 
•sain at the source of the Elbe, thus forming the great valley of Bohemia ; 
m these the l^orthem one, called Hercynii or Su&ti M^., now bears the 
sames Ert, and Rteten or Giant Mns., whilst the Southern one, called also 
Hercynii M^^., is now known as the Bc^merwald and Wild Mm, The con- 
tinuation of this range Eastward, towards Saimatia, was distinguished as 
Asciburgius Mons, and is the W* extremi^ of the Carpathian Mns. ; a spur 
of it stnick off from the source of the Oder, to Presburg on the Danube, 
ander the name of Luna Silva Jablunka Berg, and another, the Sarmatici 
Hbntes, a little farther Eastward, crossed the Danube North of Buda, and 
joined Pannonius Mons in Pannonia. 

6. The largest riirer in Germany, and in 1E»\xT0^e, V% 

€ 6 

f^ Germania, 

Duiubius' fl. Danube, which is said to have been called u 
later in the latter part of its course, from the Cataracts '* 
downwards; but the two names are frequently used in- '^ 
differently, the Greeks generally calling the river Ister*, ,,, 
ftnd the Latins Danubius. It rises in Abnoba Moos, v 
tee Slack forest, and enters the Pontna Euxinus Slaek J^ 
Sea by several mouths : it was worshipped as a deity by ' 
ihe Scytliians, and was for some time the boundary ql ' 
Uie Roman Empire. The next river in magnitude if 
l^e Rhine Rhenus, which rises in Adula M. St. Gotfy- * 
(irrf, and, after travereing Venetus L, L. of Constant^ ^ 
runs with a Northerly course into the German Ocean, ' 

, 7. The Danube is laiioutlj slated, by ilifTerent authors, lo liav« had 6l^ . 
ui, or neten, mnulhs; but id fact Iheie are only three, and tlieie VM 
caused bj its Ibree great onus, which diverge Frani each other nol far fiM> I'i 
tax: Biid^e built over the liver by Darius Hyslaspis. when maicLing Sgait^ |j 
tbe Scythiani. Oppoiite tbese mouths lies astnall istmid, now toowa'fc ^i, 
Jdui or Serpiai'i I,, but farmetl]' called Leuce; it wu hete that IMW , 
nuhDis lepreseat Achilles lo have celebrated his nuptials with Ipliigenui, H ^ 
nther Uetsa, and ihated the pleasures oF the place with the maues of Ajit jj: 
and othei illustrious heroes, i'he poeU geoerslly repceseuled it ai the pbtt 
ifbere the souls or Heroes enjayea perpetual felicity after tbeii death, ui *' 
lieoce it is frequently called the Itlaod of the Blessed. — The Rhine fonartf t 
-Hitered tbe .^0l'tA Sm by two ninnths, hence the appellatioc of frimntM i, 
uiplied lo it by Vitril '. Ot these the Southern one was that of the preseR ^ 
R. Vaut, then cMA HeUum Ostium ; the Norlbeiii one was that nhich Ml *l 
'iww call tbe OU llhiia. To these another was subsequently added, callitl I) 
nsTuta Ostium, the remains of which, and of its name, may be obaattt , 
if tiutVlie Stromit between the ialaodj Vlieland and Schelling. off the N. 
«tbnniw of Halland. This last mouth was etfected by the Fossa Drotiug, 1 
0>t by DruBus from the light bauk of Ihe Rhine, below its separation bora | 
At Whaal, lo Ihe latl near DM96urs. The Intl, thus increased by tbt . 
'Water* of the Rhine, flowed Northward through a conniderable lake. cmIM 
Flevp, at its issue from which, it was reduced to a canal, preserving tb* 
■ame of Flevo, and then entered the sea. In the progress of time the KB ! 
Bade great and rapid inroads upon the land round this new mouth cf the . 
Rhine, till, al last, it submerged that part uf Holland which joined N. Huf- 
lowi to Frutland and Odryud, and foimad the great inlet now known as 
the Zuydn- Zti. 

B. To the East of the Rhine, nod also ruoaing into tbe Girnuin OcroN. 

Edicts mmpent Julia;- i/w. Curm. IV iv. 21. 

■ , arsil Oioaies, 

Thetmodanqus citus, Gangesque, et I'hati.', et Ister. 


' Fuphrales ibat jam moilior undii, 

iiitreiiiiciue bominum .Muiini, Ktienusque bicomis. 

I'.rj, .i:«. \ 111.727. 



CtenminiUt. 3f 

lidav BimeMi««^ AmiaU fl. £iiu, Viiurgn fl. Wtmr, and Albii* i. £lft#. 
The Viadms Oder, and Vistula Viuidm, empt^ themselves into Siaus Codi^ 
us; their sources are but a few miles apait m Asciburgius j\Ions, which is 
tke W. part of the Carpathian Ms. Amon^t the K. trilrataries of the AMne 
we nay notice Nicer fl. Ntckar, which jdoed it at AfanjiAeMi ^ Maimis II. 
Mavm, which, risiiu; io the FidU^ ^*''S* ^^^ passing by Frankfitrtp eutertd it 
at ilufn* ; Sepa fl. Sieg, and Luppia fl. L^pt, the former fluwiog into it al 
BfM, the latter at Wt$et. 

9. The inhabitants of Germany have been divided 
into six classes. I. The Vindili^ in the N. E. part of 
Gennany ; amongst whom were the Gothones, Burgun- 
diones, Langobarai and AngU. II. The Ingsevones, in 
Holland^ JPT. W. Germany^ and in Denmark ; amongst 
whom were the Cimbri, Saxones, Cauci, and Frisii. 
HI. The IstsevoneSy composed of tribes cantoned on the 
Rhine, in WestphaliOy and the Lower Rhine ; amongst 
whom were the Chamavi^ Bructeri, Sicambriy Ubii, and 
Mattiaci. IV. The Hermiones, inhabiting the remain- 
der of Germany N. of the Danube^ with parts of Hun- 
gary, GaliciGf and Poland; amongst them were the 
Semnones, Cherusci, Catti, Hermunduri^ Marcomanni or 
Bcemi, Juthmigi, Quadi, and Lygii. V. The inhabitants 
of the Decumates A^, in Stoabia, including the Suevi 
and other tribes. Vl. The Scandinavians, in Sweden 
and Norway. The Bastamae and Peucini, who bor«> 
dered on the Daci, formed another division ; but their 
territory does not belong to the country we are now de- 

10. 'Ilie Germans are said to have bad no cities ; but, that they possessed 
eongregated dwelling-places, or positions fortifled after a certain manner, the 
names of many which are recorded sufficiently prove. The extent of terri- 
tarj included in the six divisions mentioned above, may be seen in the fol- 
Ismng table : 

Sq. Miles. 

Vindili 33,000 

IngsBvones 23,400 

IstsBVones 13,800 

Hermiones - 108,900 

Decumates Agri ..... 11,1N)0 

Scandinavia ..... 80,000 

Total - . . 270,900 

* Fundat ab extremo flavos Acjuilone Sueves 
Albis, et indomitum Rheni caput. Xucaii, 11. ^'i. 


11. Ths ViNoiLi or Vandali. The WesteniBiiwt of theie p^OifAf wu$^ 
the AngH, seated in parts of Mei^lenburg and HaHover, and fuDo^d, in ooft* 
junctioa with the Saxones, for the conquest of England, which owesils.. 
name to them. £ast of them, also in Meeklenhurg, were the Vartni on Ihft 
A. Wamew ; and still farther £., on the coast of Pomerunia, were the £iic 
doses, Suardones, Rugii» and Lemovii. The little river Riddaune^ whiob 
enters the sea at Dantsig, seems to- be a corruption of Eridanus fl., and it is, 
hence, supposed by some, that this name was applied to the Vistula, aiMl 
tbaX the adjacent country, in the nei^bourhood of the Venedse and the. 
Electrides !»., was the place where the Phaethonthiades^ wept their tears d 
electmm for the deatli of their lnx)ther : this scene is, however, more geoe^ 
rally placed on the Italian Eridanus or Pth 

12. The Gothones, called also Outtones and Qothi, dwelled aboirt-tlitf 
mouth of the Vistula in W, Prustia ; they were an illustrious people, wfati, 
proceeding Southwards, entered Dacia, and after crossing the Danube 
attacked the provinces of the Roman Empire : they are said to have issv^ 
ftom Scandinavia, and snbsequently divid<^d themselves into two bodies tht 
Ostrogoths or Eastern Goths, and the Visigoths or Western Goths. South 
West of them in Neumark and P(xen were the Burgundiones, who, upm 
being driven from their country, wandered through Germany towanis tb| 
Decumates Agri, and thence into Gaul, where the province of Burgtatdj^ 
allotted to them, still retains their name. Between the Burgundiones and 
Angli, in Altmark and Mittelmark, were the Langobardi, celebrated for their 
bravery, though few in number ; they are said to have migrated firom Scaa» 
dinavia, where their original name was Vinili* which they exchanged fiir 
«ne denoting their ** long beards :" to them may lie reckoned SusudtftH 
Berlin on the IL Spree, the metropolis of the Pnueian dominion^ 

13. The Inoxvonbs. The peninsula of Denmark was called Cimbrica 
C!hersonesus from the Cimbri or Cimmerii, who are said to have onoe 
dwelled there ; but if they existed latterly in that neighbourhood, they must 
have been an insignificant tribe near Cimbrorum Prom, or The Skaw, which 
is the N. extremity of JtUland. The name of Cimbri is thought to have 
been used collectively, to distinguish the petty tribes inhabiting the peninsula. 
These obscure tribes, six in number, were united as early as the sixth osb^ 
tuiy under the national appellation of Dani or Danes -, a name which th^ 
ore supposed to have derived from the Danciones, a tribe equaUy obp 
scure with themselves, placed by Ptolemy in Scandinavia. From them tos^ 
the Sinus Codanus or the BalHc, and the T. Codanonia» supposed by many 
to be the same with Sweden, are thought to have obtained their names. The 
Danes were a savage and merciless set of pirates, who are best known from 
the ravages which they committed in Britam during the Saxon monarchy. 

14. The Saxones originally dwelled in the duchy of HoUtem: they were 
•one of the most illustrious nations of Germany, and have transmitted their 
name to a great portion of that country* The contracted territory in which 
we find them first seated, was incapable of pouring forth the inexhaustible 

^ Nee minus Heliades fletus, et inania morti 
Munera, dant lacrymas : et csss pectora palmis 
Non auditurum miseras Phaetonta querelas 

Kocte dieque vocant : adstemunturque sepulcro. 

• • «.« • « « « 

Inde fluunt lacryms : stillataque sole rigescunt 

De Fsmis electra novis.-*- Ovid, MttL II* ft42. et ieq. 

■Creriimnia — httewmes. 39 

iim of Stxons, who reisned over the oceto, and filled the Britiih Island 
A their language, their laws, and their colonies. But many of the Ger- 
ID tribes were blended with each other by the slightest accidents of war 
Moidship, owing to ajiimilarity of manners, and the loose and unsettled 
Mtitntion by which they were governed. The situation of the native 
ums disposed them to embrace the hazardous professions of fishermen and 
lies j and the success of their first adventures naturally excited many of 
! t^acent tribes to solicit their alliance, as well as to accept their laws 
d attne. It was thus that dieir power rose to a height hitherto unheard 
HBQDgst the barbarians of the North, and so formidable did it Itecome, 
It in Older to repress its tyranny and encroachment, a league was formed 
ainst the Saxons by the various tribes towards the Rhine, who, hence, 
Ded themselves Fraud or Free-men. The chief towns of the Saxones 
He Marionis Hamburgh on the £/6«, and Treva Travemunde at the mouth 
(%alusus fl. Trove. 

19. To tbe West of the Saxones, in Oldenburg and the N. parts of Hanc 
r, were the Cauci, celebrated for their love of justice, and for their long 
tachment to the Roman cause ; they were divided into Majores and Mi- 
nes. The Dulgibini or Dulgumnii were in part of Hanover West of the 
Vmt, and East of them, about the R. AUer, were the Angrivarii, whose 
rriloiy at one nme extended West of the Weser, wheie the town of Enger 
ems still to cany traces of their name. The Frisii, divided into Majoies 
vi Minores, inhabited the N.E. part of Holland, where the province of W. 
)neikmd retains their name: amongst them was Baduhenne Lucus in 
\Mrttmger Moor, where 900 Romans were cut to pieces by the barbarians. 
W Fiisiabones inhabited the provinces of North and South Holland : tbe 
lusacii were N. of the Batavi, m Utrecht, 

lik The Istjevones. The Northernmost of these people on the Rhine 
leie the Usipii, whose territory extended from the Fossa Drusiana nearly to 
be R, Ruhr. Higher up the Rhirte were the Sicambri ', extending from 
^pia fl. Lippe, to Segus fl. Sieg ; the greater part of them removed at a 
ibsequent period to the left side of the Rhine, where they were sumamed 
jagemi and sometimes Excisi. The Ubii were once contiguous to the Si- 
ambri and Catti, but, in consequence of their being oppressed by the latter 
xople, they were also permitted to establish themselves in Gaul. The 
NbttiaGi' were a branch of the Catti, dwelling between the Lakn and Maifn ; 
If attium ci- Mattiacum Marburg, taken by Germanicus, was their chief city ; 
bat their name occurs again in Mattiaci Fontes Witbaden, within the limits 
of the Decumates Agri. 

17. Tbe Ingriones, a branch of the Angrivarii, dwelled N. of the Lahn 
near Mengerskirchen, the Tencteri, between the Lahn and Sieg ; North of 
tbeniy about Ghnbom, were the Gambrivii, and ferther East, the Marsi. 
To the North East of the Usipii, in the middle of Westphalia, were the 
Bmcteri, divided by the Enu into Majores and Minores ; they were attacked 
by the Chamavi, their Northern neighbours, in conjunction with the Angri- 
varii, who seized on a part of their territory.' The Chamavi, prior to this, were 

quandoque trahet feroces 

Per sacrum clivum, merits decorus 

Fronde, Sicambros : Hor. Carm. IV. ii. JC 

* Si mutare paras longeevos cana capiDos : 

Acdpe M»ttiaca3 (quo tibi caiva 1) pilas. Man. XW . ep, ^1* 

4^ Germania—Htrmimes. 

KtMWei between the Yatl and Veeht, where Ihej bad the Tubaatex about 
BfNtli<&R, ibr their E. neighbours. II 

18. Thb MERHiDNEa. The Chemaci wei? posted N. of tht Hen, bttmM. "* 
Idtriven ffeiw and EJft« ; they were hrave and jrawerftil, but de^ntratri** '. 
tV ia Goniequence o( the defeats which Ihey sufiei'ed from (be Komaai ut 
the Langobardi, as la become subject to the latter people. To the Soutb it *' 
ticae, extending rrom tlie Han to the Easletn pait of It'nrp/iaiia, wNh I*' 
Ibc Chasunjii ; Troptea Umsi, whet« Dnisus died and I'iberiui wai ulaieS ' 

<r (a nUM «i 
SouthwuT ^ 
tilemeaf i|^ i« 


the F.der. and, after the removal of "■ 
couQlrj' included a great part of Hcu '_ 
Wbich OKes its origin to them) and ThuHiigia, extending as far Southwt^ 
W the borders of Francuma, Castellum Cattorum Cunel was a setliemeafU 

10. ConliguDui to the Caiti nere the Turoni, and beyond these the iiiiwu. ^ 
M nation of the Hermunduri, a detachment of whom was on such frie^l *» 
Unns with the Romans, ai M be the onl; GermaDs, who were admitted iMk '^ 
UiG colony Augusta Vindclicorum ; their dominions ex(ende<l fiom llie nnght' *"' 
bvuthood of the Elbe to the Dajiubi, aod from the upper course of the Nqpal *i 
to the plains of B-<lieiHia : Lupphunium Lripiig, in the kingdnm of Snjiin|fc- *\ 
was one of their chief towns, i'o the Kasi of these, in parts of Baiinit WM. *■ 
Boktmia, weie the Nari^i -, and ttill farther Kast, in parts of Lower Auittit\ '" 
■nd Moravia, were the Julhungi. Ilie Qu:^di inhabited the Soulli Eaitera 'I 

Cof Germanp, occupying i^uneory N. of the Danube, with puti'oC , 
Biu and G'oli'cu; Casus &. Waag, and Granua fl. Grin, ran thtn^ * 
tbeir (erritoiy into the Daaiibr, on which last river viaa tlieir city AndnelfBn l| 
Prtdiwg, the capital of tbe kingdom of Hvngurg, Ascending the VttMV i, 
na come to the Lygii, sealed in that part of Poland which lies West ol Am. ' 
ri«r I the town of Calisia, placed aowagst them, is evidently Kaliscli, vA, 'l 
Carrodunum Kintmu, near the spriags of the Vhivla. The Gothiui dwiillEfc I 
tbout the sources of the Oder, in the tsoulheiu part of Silaia, ' . 

■ao. About the lonrces of the Elfe, in the great valley formed bj- the Hafi' 

ZiiD MouQlaim, «as Boiemum, a name aignifyine tbe habilalian of ibv 
i, and which may still be traced in Bpftimia. The Boil were .' " ' 
ptople, extending once from the!.. ofCaRilnnce and the springs of the Dm 
■tong both sides of the river, nearly as far as Pieava ; the Eastern ~ 
Amiia, nearly all Bncima (carrying evident traces of their name), aa 
Boliemia and Moravia, were posseted by them. But, in process of tinM(] ' 
Mich of them as dwelled about the upper course of the Daimbt quitted tMr 
■ ■ ith the HelvElii. passed into Gaul; whence *tf' 
he name Deseiia 

the Ml 

ludi, wtiKh they relinquished, obtained the name Deseiia i 
North Eastern part of uieir territory Ibey were attacked by 
a boide of many German tribes, united under this general n 

iiered by them. Uudorigura 
>□ the 'H. Maldau, was one of thsk 

Coniilio. i|UO£ Albanam dui magnus in arci 
Traierat adtonitos el fe«tinare ci 
Tanquam de Cattii aliquid turv 

Germania -^Dccuniates Agri — Scandinavia, 41 

ft6 the Notth of BoieniQin were the Semnooes, the most illuitiioiu 
ndent of the Sueri ; they inhabited Lusatta tad part of MiMt/marilr, 
iMBDded fipom the £tt« to the Oder, Amongst tneir towog may be 
ifted Stimgona Drmdtn on the Elbe, the capital of the kingdom of 
■t- Suevi was a name applied to a large body of various people, and not 
Hemination of any paiticnlar tribe ; their country was called Soevia, 
tagHetion still retained in that of the modem Swabia, to which a horde 
■i haid found their way from the interior parts of their country. The 
t lAngobardi, Semnones, Catti, and other less important oatiooSi bore 
Mfeial name of Suevi. 

1 Decumates Agri, answering generally to Swahioy were so called from 
l^nng subjected by the Romans to the imposition of a tenth of their pro- 
they were nearly enclosed on two sides by the Danubt and Bnin$, 
fa vallum between these two rivers protected them on the third fiom 
it of Germany. The Vallum ran in a Westerly direction, from Phoring 
9 Danube through the North of Wurtemburg to Ober Weul on the 
»; it was built under various emperors, from Posthumius to i^bus, 
\ ibaiight to have been maintained till the time of Diedetien. The 
irbich inhabited the Decumates A^ were few and unimportant, with 
ieeption of the Suevi, already mentioned as giving name to the modem 
I; The lower part of the province was inhabited by the Boii and HeU 
imvious to theu* passing over into Gaul ; in the territory occupied by 
Naer was Aquileia Vim on the Vanxube, 

i. Scandinavia. The knowledge which the an« 
J9 had of Scandinavia, or Scandia as they sometimes 
i the name, was imperfect and confused. Some 
idered it as forming the largest of many islands, with 
ll the Codanus Sinus or Baltic Sea was strewed, 
of undetermined extent; whilst others^ ttgain, be- 
d it to be composed of many islands. Its Southern 
smity undoubtedly formed one of the islands called 
hem the ScandiaB Ins«f. Quatuor, the other three 
r the Danish islands Zaaland^ Fyen, and Sielandm 
, they were acquainted with more of Scandinavia 

its Southern promontory, is amply testified by the 
5S Bergi Bergen, and Nerigos Norway, fi-ooi which 
there was a passage to Thuie or the Shetland Isles ; 
t is extremely doubtful whether their knowledge of 
fast peninsula extended to the North Cape, to which 
3,ubeas Pr. of the navigator Pytheas has, by many, 


Codanus Sinus, washing the E. coast of Scandinavia, was also called 
Suevicum from the inhabitants of its Southern shore, and Oceanus 
iknis from its being the Western limit of Sarmatia £uropea; its 
n name Baltic seems derived from Baltia, by which Scandinavia is 
ines mentioned amongst the aocieiits. Xh^ HiUevion^ occ>i\^^ \)tvft 
tn part of ScoDdiQavia } above tbem in Goteborg were l\ie Ou\ft, vA 

"farther North, about SlockJwlia, the iDGtropolis of Sueden, were the SiiiatW^ Wl 
"tu whose name that of ibe mociera Siceda seems to lie concealed. 'IbM 
tlic Eist of Ibeae, lawuds Chriilittna, were the Sitones, and abore Ihem^ <^. 
' Virlms, vpatt the district of Thule, parti; inhabited by (he saiage Scttit- Qa 
Vinni, go called from the rapidiir with nhiuh they travelled over the n^ «l 
ttnd ice of Ihcir country. FinJanJ. bounded on the West bjlhe C.nfBotA, ta 
'»nd on the Snutb by the G. <if Finln'i/I, was supposed, by the ancients, nfc !■ 
Galled it Finoingja, to have been an island ; it's inhabitants were the Fiin^ ^ 


'' 1. VINDELICIA. The Province of Vindelicia W4b ii 
.'tounded on the W. and N, by the R, Danube, on (lie tt 
E. by .^nus fl. Inn, and on the S. by the Rhine, Brigui- 1 
'iinus L. L, of Constance, and the present hmits of an- Ii 
j>aria and Tyrol. It had Germania on the N. and W., t 
Noricura on the E., and Rhsetia on the South. It con- k 
tained Bavaria between the Inn and Danube, those | 
parts of WuTtemburg, Hohenzollern, and Baden, which - 
,are S. of the latter river, and the Swiss canton of Schaff- i 
■ ^usen; in all, about 10,400 square miles. The Vintfe- ' 
lici ' are said by some to have beeii lUyrians, whose nanu , 
Was derived from the two rivers Vindo Wertack, aqd r 
Licus Lech, which ran through their country Northwarda ! 
into the Danube, others say they were a "branch of Ae , 
Venedi, who, settling on the Licus, thus received theii 

2. Nearly all the rivers of Vindelicia are (ributarles of the Danubt ; Ilw 
brgest and Easternmost of them is titG ^.uus Iim, rising in the Alpes llhc. 
ties, not far from the source of the Rhine, and tlDwtu| with a N. E. coarM 
biD the DatmbB at llitava Castra Paanii. farther West are the tsargus 
Iter, Licus Lteh, which is joioed by \~iudo fl. Werlach, atid Ilar^a liter. 

.Rhmticu 48 

JL At the janGtum of the Licus and Vindo was Augusta Vindelicorum 
l^^sknY* tlie metropolis of the prorince and the most splendid Roman colony 
ic ail Rhmtia. Pons JEml was at Waaerhurg on the Inn, and must not be 
psfiMinded with the position of Inmbruek, considerably higher up the river 
UUuetia, and known also as Pons Mm, Batava Castra ¥aaaau was a cita- 
ii «t the cwnfluence of the Inn and Danube, and was so called iiom a Bata- 
ipu cohort being garrisoned there ; above it were Servioduntm Stravbmg, 
ad Begina RegmUmrg or Ratuhon, 

4* Rhjetia^. The Rhaeti were said to be Tuscans, 
rho fled from the Gauls when that nation invaded Italy, 
nd to have been so called from their leader Rhsetus. 
liey were composed of many small tribes, who in time 
ecame sufficiently powerful to make frequent incursions 
ito the Roman territoiy, till their submission was ei- 
ficted, during the reign of Augustus, by the Roman armies 
tnder the command of Drusus and Tiberius Nero. Rhse- 
ia, in its extended sense, comprehended the country be- 
ween Italy and the Danube, from the confines of the 
lelvetii to Noricum ; but these limits included the terri- 
of the VindeUci. Rhaetia Propria was bounded on 
If. by Vindelicia, on the E. by Noricum, on the S. by 
Italian provinces Yenetia and Gallia Cisalpina, and 

!^\ the W. by the Gallic province Maxima Sequanorum. 
'f contained nearly the whole of Tyrol, the Valtellina, 
orarlberg, Lichtenstein, and the E. part oi Switzerland, about 13,800 square miles. 

,{A. The great chain of the Alps enters Khstia at Adula M. St, Gothard, 
p^ passing through the middle of the province, obtains the name Alpes 
WbtdctR Rhittian Alps till it enters Noricum. The source of the Rhine is 
iihe Western part of Rhstia, at Adula M. St. Gothard, whence it ran* 
wiA. a Northerly course into Venetus or Brigantinus L. L. of Comtance or 
fioden See ; on this lake Tiberius built a fleet, in order to attack the Vinde- 
Itii : Acronius L. was the small lake at its Western extremity, now known 
Hthe Unter See or L. of ZeU, The source of the Inn has already been men> 
imed as ia Rhaetia, and not far from it is the source of Addua fl. Adda, 
which, passing through Larius L.' L. ofComo, enters Italy and joins the Pa, 
la this neighbourhood also were the springs of the Etsch Atagis, which is 
j<Mied by the Isanis Eisach at Botzen, and flows afterwards into Atbesis fl. 
Adige I this last river runs through Venice into the Adriatic Sea, 

* Rhstia was much commended for its wine : 

. et quo te carmine dicam, 

Khaetica 1 nee cellis ideo contende Falemis. 

Virg, Georg, II. 96. 
* Poet» tenero, meo sodali, 
Velim C»cilio, papyre, dicas, 
Yeronam veniat, Novi relinquens 
Comi msnia, Lariiimquehtn: CatuU.X^^\A. 

44 Ncricum. 

r- 6. In the S. W^ part of Rhetia were the Lepontii, or Lefpontit tbaai' \ 
Xfiirtr Unquo) as they were tomethnes called, from the ikUe on their beldg* j 

pass of Simplon. The Genauni * or Genaunes were £• of thaB^ 
in the Val d*Agno, between the lakes Verbanus Maggiore and Lariui Comow j 
llie Veonones and Culicones occupied the VaUetUna ; the name of the ^ 
latter is still preserved in CoUco. The Trideotini dwelled on the Adigt, aa4 j 
received their name from their capital Tridentum Trent, where the last i 
Christian council was held a. d. 1545 ; above them, round Briieen, were the 
Brixentes. The Venostes inhabited the Val di Venotca; amongst them 
was the citadel Terioli Tyrol, which has given name to the county of TjpvL ' 
The Breones or Brenni dwelled about the Rfutiian Alpt ; their name is evi* 
dently preserved in the Brenner Mountain, and in the Val Bregna near die 
source of the R, Ticino, In the North Western part of the provinoe, on the 
BkUu, were the Sarunetes, whose name may be traced in oargansi below-, 
them, on Brigantinus L. (to which they gave name) were the Briganfi^. 
whose chief town was Brigantia Bregent. 

7. NoRicuM was bounded on the N. by the Danube { 
on the E. by Cetius Mons Kahlenberg, Seeberg, &c. and, 
by a part of Murius fl. Mur; on the S. by Canrancas 
Mons Steiner AlpSy and Alpes Camicae Camic Alpsy 
and on the W. by the limits of Rhsetia^ and by iBnuB fl. 
Towards the N. it bordered on Germania, on tne E. Pan-. 
nonia, on the S. lUyricum and the Cami, and on the W. 
RhflBtia and Vindehcia. It comprehended parts of Vp^ 
per and Lower Austria, nearly all Styria, Carintktay 
and Salzburg J with portions of Tyrol and Bavaria; in 
all, about 16,100 square miles. The Norici, who were 
goferned by their own king, were subjected under Au- 
gustus as allies of the Pannonii ; their country was fiunoQ^ 
for its iron and steel ^. 

8. The mat chain of the Alps is divided, on its entrance into Noricum^ 
into two ridges ; the Northern of these, called Alpes Norics Norte Alpt, tra- 
verses the middle of the province, from the sources of the Satxa and Dnroc 
to the Jkmube near Vienna, and in the latter part of its course it obtains the 
name Cetius Mons Kahlenbergt which has been already mentioned as the 
Eastern boundary of the province. The second great ridge is that of the 
Alpes Carnice or JuHsb Camic or Julian Alps, which, separating fron» 
the other at the source of the Drove, forms the common boundary between 
Aorieum and the Cami, and then strikes off into lUyricum ; Carvancas M. 

Milite nam tuo 

Drusus Genaunos, implacidum genus, 
Brenoosque veloces, et arces 
Alpibus impositas tremendis 
Dejecit acer plus vice simplici. Hor, Carm, IV. ziv. 10. 

■ ' quas neque Noricus 

tfeixtt eosas, nee mare naufiagum,— Id, I. xvi. 9. 

Paufumid. 4$ 

WttT Aip$ is a spur of it, which detaches itsdf from the msin ridn at the 
npt of ^ Suvt, and pracaads thvtragh the Soathern part of Panaoaia 

IL Jorarus fL Snixa is a small river, which rises in the None Alps and 
H past Sahburg into the Irm. The rapid Draus or Dravus fL Drau or 
fne is the most important river of Noricum, and one of the greatest trihuta* 
iiof the Danube; it rises in the Noric Alps, and travelling the Soatheni 
It of Noricum and Panoonia, enters the Dannbe near Eaeg, some distance 
^ Seigrads. Murius fl. Mur, the greatest tributanr of the Drove, rises in 
alforic Alps, «nd enters its left bank to the £. of Wanudifu 

10* The chief towns in Noricum were, Boiodurum Iwutadt, at the junc« 
n.of the Jnn and Danube opposite Pat$au, Lauriacum Lorek, Jovavum Smlt- 
ig, yirunum Soifeld, and Celeia CiUi, 

11. Pannonia^wes bounded on the N. and E. by 
le Danube^ on the S. by an imaginary line a few milc^i 
i of the SavSy and on the W. by a part of the Mur^ and 
J Cetius Mons Kahlenberg, Towards the N. it hor- 
^ved on Germania, the E. on the territory of the Jazyges 
[fltanasteBy the S. on Illyricum, and the W. on Noricum. 
t^comprehended Hungary to the right of the Danube, 
frts of Lower Austriaf Styria, and Croatia, the whole 
i'Sclavonia, and such portions of Turkish Croatia, 
hinia, and Servia, as immediately touch on the Save ; 
1 ally about 27,200 square miles. The Pannonii are said 
> have been of Celtic origin; they were attacked ^ by 
be Romans under Augustus, but their submission was 
ot effected till the time of Tiberius. 

12. Pannonius Mons Bakanyer Wald is a continuation of the Sarmatici 
iontes in Gemany, which enters Pannonia a few miles N. of Buda^ and, 
•iring through the Northern part of the province, joins Cetius Mons on the 
■uts of Noricum. Claudius Mods Reha or BilUi Ms, at one time the com> 
MD boundary between the Scordisci and Taurisci, was the continuation of 
^ttvancas M. already mentioned as stretching towards Belgrade, In the 
Soith Western part of the province is the little river Arrabo Raab, which 
ntcrs the Danube not far from the town Arrabona Raab, The great river 
Draus Drave enters Pannonia at Pcetovio Pettau, and passes on to the 
I^nnbe. Saus or Savus fl. Sau or Save rises in the North Western comer 
a lUyricum ; hence «it flows in a South Easterly direction through Pannonia, 
ind enters the Danube at Belgrade. There are two considerable lakes in 
Pannonia ; the Northern one, Peiso or Pelso L. Neuiiedler Su, a few miles 

' Nunc tibi Pannonia est, nunc Illyris vra domanda : 
Bhaetica nunc prebent 'J hraciaque arma metum. 

Ovid, Tritt. II. 225. 

^ Dum nova Pannonici numeratur gloria belli, 
Omnis et ad reducem dum litat ara Jovem ; 
Dat Populus, datgratus Eques, dat thura Senatus, 
JSt diunt LatJas tertia doia» tribus. Mort • \ Wl^ cp • xq • 

40 JUyricwn. 

S. £. of Vienna, was attempted tp be draiiied by the emperor Galetius^ by* 
means of a cut to the Danube ; the other one, Volcea: Palus, was in tM 
middle of the province, and is now called the Balaton or PtaiUn See, 

13. The principal cities in Pannonia were as follows. Descending the 
Danube we find Vindobona Vienna, the metropolis of the Auttrian Empire } ■ 
Camuntum Deutsch Altenburg ; Bregetio Fwto, where a Roman legion waii 
posted ; Aquincum or Acincum Buda or Of en, also the residence of a Ro- 
man l^on, and opposite to which, on the other side of the river, was Con- 
tra Acmcum Pest ; Acimincum Peterwardevn ; and Taurunum SemUn, the 
Easternmost city of the province, near the confluence of the Danmbe and Save* 

14. Illyricum^ called also lUyris and lUyria, was 
bounded on the N. by Carvancas Mons Sieiner Alps^' 
and by an imaginary line a few miles S. of the Savey on 
the E. by Drinus fl. jDrin, on the S. by Drilo fl. DHna, 
and on the W. by the Adriatic Sea, the little river Arm. 
Arsa, and the Julian Alps. Towards the N. it touched 
on Noricum and Pannonia, the E. on Moesia and Mace- 
donia, the S. and W. on the Hadriatic Sea and Italy. 
It contained parts of Camiola and Austrian Croatia^ 
nearly the wnole of Turkish Croatia, and of Bosnia^ 
Dalmatia, Herzegovina, Monte Negro, and the North 
Western corner oi Albania] in all, about 30,600 square 

15. The two great divisions of Ill3mcum were Libumia' and Dalmatia, 
the latter being to the South and still preserving its name in Dalmatia ^ 
they were separated from each other by Titius fl. Kerka, which runs past 
Scsudona Scardona into the Adriatic Sea : to these was added at a later pe* 
riod the small province of Pnevalitana, in the neighbourhood of Seodra &«- 
tori, which extended as far S. as Dyrrhachium Dtwasto, Libumia gave 
name to certain light gallies*^ with very strong prows ; Augustus used mat 
with great success in the memorable battle of Actium. The Illyrians were 
a very extended people ; they were represented as savages and robbers,, a 
pretext used by the Romans for attacking them, 200 years b.c, but they 
were not subjugated till the end of Augustus* reign. 

16. A range of mountains, the continuation of the Alps, runs thnnigir. 

^ Tu mihi, seu magni superas jam saxa Timavi : 
Sive Oram lUyrici leges aequoris :~— Virg, Eel. VIIL 7« 

* Slaves from Libumia appear to have atteiMed the Emperors : 
Procul horridus Libumus, et querulus cliens ; 

Imperia viduarum procul. • Mart, I. ep, 1. 88. 

And to have acted as public heralds, or criers : 

Primus, clamante Libumo, 
Currite ! jam sedit ! rapt|i properabat abolla 
Pegasus, adtonitie positus modo villicus urbi. Juv, Sat. IV. 75. 

'® Ibis Libumis inter alta navium. 
Amice, propugnacula ; 
Faratus omne Caesaris perieulum 
Subire, Macenat, tuot Hdr, Epod. 1. 1. 

lUyrician. 47 

e whole of Illyricum, and subseauently joins the Thracian Usmus ; wh«re 
ipits Italy it was called Ocra Mods nirnbaumer Wold, and shortly after- 
ids Albius or Albanus Mons Schneeberg and 3/. Kapella, an appellation 
nch seems still preserved in the small town of Alben, Farther Eastward 
iasnmed successively the names of Bebii Montes Tzema Gara, S(c., Bus- 
lius Mons Iron, Adrius or Ardixus M., and of Scodnis or Scardus M. 
yUca, at which last it quitted the province. 

17. Nauportus Ober Laybach, an old town of the Taurisci, was on Nau« 
Itos fl. ; and nearer the junction of this river with the Save was the colony 
jnona Laybcush. Praetorium Latoviconim, the chief city of the Latovici, 
IS at Neusiddtel on the Gurk, and S. of it on the Colapis Culpa was Metulum 
ieHragr, the metropolis of the lapydes, at the siege of which Octavius 
iiar was wounded : the lapydes or Morlachiavs inhabited the coast of the 
idriatic, from the borders of Italy to the R. Tedanius. On the coast of 
ivricum, towards Italy, was Flano Fianone, giving name to Sinus Flana- 
m G« of QuarRero ; &rther S. were Senia Segna, the Roman colony lader^ 
m, anid Scardona Scardona, the chief city of Libumia. 

I8b Crossing Titius fl., and entering Dalmatia, we come to Tragurium 
not, a colony of Roman citizens, built on a peninsula opposite the small 
Emd Boas JBua, and joined to it by a bridge ; the surrouYiding country was 
nod for its marble. Salona or Salons sJlona may be regarded as the me- 
9polis of the whole province ; it was the birth-place of the emperor Diocle- 
IB, who, after his abdication, retired to the neighbouring Spalatum SpaUi' 
%, and built there a magnificent palace. To the N. £. of Salons, near 
hmmo, was the strong city Delminium, which gave name to the Dalmats ; 
.was destroyed by C. M. Figulus. Continuing along the coast we meet 
ridi Narona Torre di Norin, a Roman colony on the right bank of Naro fl. ; 
lyllis Peninsula Sabioncello, said to have been inhabited by the Bulini and 
^lli, the descendants of Hyllus, Hercules' son ; the colony Epidaurus 
hudoua, to a place near which, amongst the Enchelees", Cadmus and Har- 
lania, distracted with their misfortunes, retired and ended their days ; and 
yisas Alasioi the Southernmost city of Illyricum. To the N. of the last, 
t Labeatis Palus, was Scodra Scvtari, the strongest city of tho Labeates/ 
Bd the residence of the Illyrian king Gentius ; it was afterwards colonized 
If Roman citizens, and became the metropolis of the province Praevalitana. 

19. The Northern coast of Illyricum, from Fiume to Bagusa, was co- 
lered with a multitude of islands ; the fable of Medea's tearing her brother 
Ahqrrtus in pieces, and strewing his limbs in her father's way to stop his 
pursuit, could not have been more happily applied to any part of Europe, 
than to this intricate archipelago. The Northernmost of the islands were, 
Caiicta VegUa, Arba Arbe, Crexa Pago, and Absorus^' Cherso, the chief of 
dte Absyrtides Is., and the scene of Medea's rage when flying with Jason 
from her father. Opposite Zara were, Sissa I. IJgliano ankd Pasman', and 
Scardona I. Grossa, Off Salons were, Boas Bua, a place of banishment for 
Roman ciiminals ; Brattia Brasza, celebrated for its goats and cheese ; 
Pharus Lesina ; and Issa LU$a, noted for a kind of light shipping. Off the 
peninsula of ScAioncello was Corcyra Nigra I. Canola, so called from its 
daik woods, and to distinguish it m>m an island of the same name on the 

" Hence Lucan says, 

■ ■ et nomine prisco 
Enchelis, versi testantes funera Cadmi. PharsaL III. 130' ■ 
Their tomb was shown near the mouth of the Drilo. 

13 Colchis, et Hadnacas spumans Absyitos in undsA, — ^ 


48 GaOia. 

(ioast of Epiras. Below this was MdiUt I. MMla, the Southernmost of the 
Illyrian islands ; the Apostle Paul, on his yo^^aee from Palestine to Rome, 
is supposed by some to have been cast on this island, an event referred 1^ 
others with much greater probability to Malta, which was also called MeliOu 



1» GALLIA was bounded on the N. and W. by the 
Ocean, on the S. by the Pyrenees and the Mediterra- 
nean, and on the E. by th^ Alps as far as M. S, Gothr 
ard, whence a line to the issue of the Rhine from the 
Z, of Constance, and the subsequent course of that 
river, separated it from GFermany. It thus contained, 
in addition to the modem kinotlom of France, the little 
county of Nice, the Western naif of Switzerland, and 
such parts of Germany and the Netherlands as are W. 
and S. of the Rhine. It was also called Gallia Trans^ 
alpina or Ulterior, Gallia Comata, Galatia by the 
Greeks, and Celtica by the natives. It was ori^nally 
divided amongst three great nations, the Celtse, Belgee, 
and Aquitani. The CeltsB inhabited the middle of the 
country^ and were separated from their Northern neigh* 
hours, the Belgae, by Sequana fl., Matrona fl., and 
Vooesus M. ; to the S* the Garumna fl. was the limit 
between them and the Aquitani, whose territory is some- 
times called Armorica. This extent of the Celtse in- 
cludes the Roman txmquest in South Eastern Gaul, 
which they designated by the name of Provincia (whence 
the modem Provence), with the occasional epithets of 
Nostra or Grallia; it was also called BraccaUi from a 
pecuUar dress wom by the inhabitants, whilst the re- 
mainder of Transalpine Gaul was termed Comata^ from 
the people wearing their hair long. 

2. After the conquest of Gaul by Caesar, and in the 
time of Augustus, the four provinces were more equally 

' £t nunc tonse Liger, quondam per colla decora 
"Crinibus effusis toti prelate Comata. Luean, I. 443. 



dnided as to extent, without particular attention being 
paid to the distinction of their inhabitants. Their bound- 
aries were then as follows: Belgica, or North Eastern 
Gauly was separated from the Roman province on the 
S. by a line running from Adula M. iS. Oot hardy through 
Lemanus L., to the R. Arar ; from Celtica bV the upj>er 
course of this river, to Vocesus M., and thence by a 
N.W. line to the English Channel near the mouth of 
Samara fl. Somme, Celtica, or Lugdunensis as it was now 
caUed from Lugdunum its capital, was the North Western 
part of Gaul, and was bounded on the E. by Belgica, on 
tbe S. mostly by Liger ft., and on the W. and N. by the 
Ocean. To the S. of this was Aquitania or South West- 
em Gaul, bounded on the E. by a part of Lugdunensis 
vand Cebeima M., on the S. by Tamis fl. and the Py- 
renees, and on the W. by the Ocean. The Roman pro- 
nnce, or South Eastern Gaul, took the name of Narbo- 
nensis from Narbo Martins Narbanne, the metropoHs of 
the whole country. In the course of time each of these 
provinces was divided into several others, till at length 
their number amounted to seventeen. 

3. The superficial extent of these great provinces, and of their subdivisions, 
Bty be seen in the following table : 


Belgica Prima 
Belgica Secunda - 
Germaoia Prima • 
Germania Secunda 
Ifudma Sequanorum 

Sq. Miles. 

- 10,300 

- 17,000 


- 11,900 

- 13,700 


Lugdunensis Prima 
Lugdunensis Secunda - 
Lugdunensis Tertia 
Lugdunensis Quarta 


Narbonensis Prima 
Narbonensis Secunda - 
Viennensis - . . 
Alpes Graiae et Pennine 
A.lpes MaritimsB - 

Sq. Miles. 









Aqiiitaiiia Prima • 
Aj^ituria Secunda 
Nofempopmlana ^ 

. 24.300 

- 17.600 

- 10,700 







J.i:.8.ta 57,200 ^^1 

Lugduoensis . . - . . 40,900 ' ^H 

Aquitanii S2,S00 '"fH 

KarbOQenaia ...... 31,200 ^j 

4. The priQcipal mountaiiia of Gaul are the Pyrenas^ 
the Pyrenees, extending from the Mediterranean to (In 
S. ofBiscm/. Cebenna^ M. Cevennes, which separattfl 
the South Eastern part of Aquitania from NarbonemVI 
runs parallel with the Southern course of the IHo0k 
and divides the waters of that river from the Loire afli 
Garonne. Vocesus M., called in different parts Vssgf^ 
and Mt. des FaudUes, is a continuation of Cebewjt 
Noiihward, running from the country of the Liwood 
in the N, of Hurguiidy, to BJngium Bingen on tlie RhiiUf 
crossing which it causes a little fall in that beautifiij 
river. Jura M. Jura, the Western barrier of SwU^t^ 
land, is a Uttle to the W. of the L. of Geneca ; it ig ■ 
apur of Vocesus M., and is connected with it by VoaS 
tms M. SfBtzberg. That part of the great chain of tjw 
Alps, which separated Gaul from Italy, had varicni 
names, which will be mentioned in the description of UW 
latter country. The three chief promontories of Qaal 
are, Itium Pr. C. Grisnez, opposite Hover, Gobaeuq) 
Pr. C S. Matthew, the Westernmost point, and Citban^ 
tes Pr. C. Sicier, where it reaches farthest to the South. 

5. Amongst the principal rivers of Gaul we may metk* 
tion the Rliine Khenus, which rises in Adula M. 8, 
Gothard, and after traversing Venetus Lacus L. of Corn- 
stance, flows with a Northerly course into the Gemuat 
Ocean. The Mosella Moselle rises in Vocesus M. ML 
des Faucilles, and runs N. into the Rhine at Coblm6i 
Confluentes. The Mosa Meuse or Maas rises in ths 
same mountain, and joins the Vahalis Whaal, whidi is 

' el quo* jam fri^ore segnes 

I'jTeasa tegit talcbrosii rromlibni iJex. 

Ciaudi<m.>Hll. £(il.313. 

* quimoQlibus urdua summis 

Qeat Jiabiut cuia p«ndeDtei ro^Ce^ieimu. Lucan. 1. 43S. 

Crattia — Belgica. M 

. branch of the Rhine. The Sequana fl. Seine rises in 
he territory of the Lingones in the N. o( Burgutidy^ 
nd flows into the English Channel: the Mati-ona 
^amcy and Isara Owe, are its two greatest tributaries 
ad enter its right bank not far ifrom Lutetia Paris. 
he Liger* Loire^ the largest river of France^ rises in 
lebenna M. Ceoennesj and runs North Westward into 
Bias Aquitanicus B. of Biscay: the Garumna Garonne 
ks its source in the ryrenees, and likewise enters the 
\ of Biscay, The Rhodanus^ fl. Rhone, said to have 
diCT its name from the colony Rhoda which the Rho- 
tuis built upon it, rises in Adula M. S. Gothard, 
lises W. through Lemanus L. Z. of Geneva, or Leman 
I it is sometimes called, and after being joined at 
'ifons by Arar fl, Saone, flows with a Southerly course 
Mo the Mediterranean Sea. 


8. Belgica was the largest of the four great divisions 
f Giaul, and was subdivided into Belgica Prima, Bel- 

ESecunda, Germania Prima, Germania Secunda, and 
dma Sequanorum. It must not be confounded with 
ie ancient Belgium, which was only a small part of the 
hnner country, comprising the territory of the Bello- 
ici^ Ambiani, and Atrebates. 

7. GiBBMANiA Sbcunda was the first of these provinces to the Northward, 
■d w» separated from Germania Prima by the small riTer Obringa Akr ; 
I oontainoa such parts of Gemumi/, HoUand, and th§ Netherlands, as lie 
B t i mH a the WUns and the little R, Senne, which passes Brussels, and runs 
ito the Scheldt, The Northernmost tribe in the province were the Batavi ', 
tknnch of the Catti, who were famed (especially their cavalry) for their 
Mvery. Their country was an island, hence named Batavorum I., part of 
riucb is still called Betuwe ; it was formed by the rivers Rhine and Vaha- 
h or WhaaL Their principal cities were Lugdunum Leyden, and Trajectus 

8. Higber mp the Rhine were the Gugemi, a branch of the Sicambri, who 
mtled in a part of the territory formerly occupied by the Menapii, and 
byood them, in the S. £. comer of the province, were the Ubii, who were 

ved by A^ppa from the Eastern side of the Rhine. The chief towns of 

^ Testis Arar, Rhodanusque celer, magnusque Ganinma, 

Camuti et flavi casrula lympha Liger. Tibull, I. vii. 12. 

* « qua Rhodanus raptum relocibus nndis 
In mare fert Ararim : Lwan. I, 453. 

* Hie petit Euphraten juvenis domitiqae Batavi 
CvMtodet aqmJaM, umis iodiutrius ; — /uv. Sat. Ylll. &\. 

J> 2 

62 Gallia— Belffica. 

the Ultcr were Colonia Agiip| 
10 called from Agrippina Ine < 
vho had ■ colony teat here u 
nour tbe place of her bii-lh ; b 
by Drasus on iLe Rhine. 

S. To the South of Ihe Balavi, between Ihe Maai and Scheldt, i, and Tarlher inlani! were Ihe Toiandri, Higher up the Men 
the Ebnrones, who were eiterminaled by CiEsar in revenge lor ibeir 
destroyed a tihole Koman legion : Ibeir country waa Enbaecjuenlly inhrii 
by the Tungri. Their prineipal city was Atuaca, called afterwards "■" 
TBngra, from the custom, which then oblained, of calling capital ci 
their genlililious names. Arduenna SiWa, the greatcBt forest of Oaul,*'! 
tended from theRAint to the tetntory of the Remi and Nervii; large iiililii 
of it are yet slandini;, and part of it, on the Trontien of France Bad tbe fl 
therlimib, retains still the name Forat ff Ardennes. "•■ 

10. Bki.oic* Seci-nua waa the North Western portion of GiUia Bel^ 
and contained the modem provinces of ifnmnu, Flaniier!, Artaii, anr] 
eardv, with parts of the IiU ^France and ChampagTU. Id the N.pait bflhl 
nmriQCB dwelled the Nervii', a powerful and biaie nation, who zSeattdrtt 
be thoughl of German origin; they were freqnently contjaered by CiBMft 
their capital city was formerly Bagocum Bavay, hul Tumairuia Tautnaf^ti^ 
lerwards enjoyed this honour. Tbe Morini' were W. of the Nervii, aif 
the neatest of the Gallic tribes to Britain ; Iheir chief towD was Geaoiftf 
Oiin, called afterwards Bononia Bnalngnt, a port and stilton for sbM 
whence was one of the usual passages to our lEland, Ihe other being (tMB 
Itins Portns Ifiuont, famous for die embaikation of Ciesar; near it k 
Ulterior P". Cuiiii. ■• 

11. I'be Atrebates were 8. of the Morini, ia ^rluii. The Arubiaiii ud 
Britanni vrere in tbe Western part of Picttrd^ ; tlioir chief city was Samm. 
brivB, called aAerwards Ambiani Amimi, celebrated for its muiufactuiB tf i 
■rcns, and situated, as its name implies, OD Samara S. Soniim. To lh« 8a)^ 
of the Ambiani, also in CicnnJii, were theBt^lovad, Ihe braves! of Ihe B«lnt I 
whoso capital was Cssammagui orBelluvaci Beaueaii. To Ihe Soalhtf { 
thsKervii, in Eastern PH-Wij, were the Veramandui. Farther inland, iMl , 
Axiwa fi. Aime, and in the N. of Champagnt, were the Itemi, who, tpf (tuft ' 
services to the Romans in ibe cooquesl of Gaul, were elevated to the fecml ^ 
tank among its nations j their chief city was Durocortorum. called tt» I 
wards Bemi Rheims. Tbe Suessiooes were strictly allied with the RcM 
upen whose territory they bordered on tbe Westward, tlie Cataiadni mlt ! 
the Southemmost people of Belgica Secunda, and inhabited the aiddJe <|f ' 

lit. Beuiica Prima was E. of Bf^gica Secunda, and S. of GermBdl , 
Setrunda; it comprehended the province of Larfaiar, with portioDi oTLiiaa- 
burg and Tntm. Its Northern [lart was iohabiled by Ihe Treveti ', a pswvf- ' 
fill people, and the most illustiious of Ihe Belgie, laying claim lo Getipw 
origin. Their chief city was Augusta, Called latterly Treveri 7Vn«, a ROmui 
colony, the metropolis of Belgica Prima, and the residence of several em- 
perors whilst dofeiiding this fron^er of Gaul. Rlgodulnm Rial, where Julim 
concluded a peace wiiJi the Flanks, and Ambialinus Vicus CaiielU, the birth- 

' iiimiumque rebel its 

Nervius, et Cfsi pollulus saaguine Cottx. Luran. I. 429. 

mt - ' ^itrenuque hotninnra Motini, t'irg. Mn, VIU. T27. 

'Tu quotjue, lii<atusco(ivetiviprKYia,TreVw. Li.cttnA.Ut. 

GaUia — Luffdmtensis. 63 

hee of Caligula, acoordiag to some, were also in their territory, the latter 
pK([ in Gennaaia Prima, into which the possessions of the Treveri likewue 
p>Mdfd. The MecUomatrici were S. of the Treveri, in the N. £. part of 
inaM; their chief city was Divodumm, called afterwards Metis Mets. 
ifoining them on the West were the Verodunenies, also in Lorraine, and 
tffaer Souths in the same province, were the Leuci, 

JLL Germakia Pbima was East of Belgica Prima, and comprehended 
I Northern part of AUaee, with the Western parts of the Palatinate and 
j|||M> In its N«. part were the Caracates, whose chief city was Mogontia- 
m lfayfis> at the confluence of the Menus and Khenus ; it was tlie metro- 
^ of Gennania Prima, and the place where Alexander Severus and his 

eMammsa were murdered. To the S. of these were the Vangiones, 
chief town was Borbetomagus or Vangiones Worms, and the Nemetes, 
||Ke capital was Noviomagus^ called afterwards Nemetes Speyer. The 
dbod were the last people of Germania Prima to the Southward, and 
ijibited the Northern part of Alsace ^ their chief city was Argentoratum 
)jmhmtQ, near which Julian defeated the Alemanni. 

!14. Maxima Sequanobum contained the Southern pSLti of Alsace, Tranche 
laspl^, and the Western part of Switzerland. In its N. part were the Rau- 
\d, whose chief towns were Basilia Basel, and Augusta Basel Augst. 'J'he 
^Hun^* inhalnted the W. part of the province ; they were one of the most 
mrfol people of Gaol, whose territory, in the time of Caesar, extended to 
li Rhine* Their principal city was Vesontio Besanfon, the metropolis of 
iumna SequaniMrum, situated on Dubis fl. Doubs ; this river rises in Voce- 
Itf IL, and flows into the Arar Saone. The remainder of Maxima Sequa- 
msm was inhabited by the Helvetii, so distinguished for their bravery : tiiey 
ne divided into four pagi or cantons. 


15. Lugdunensisy or Celtica as it was also called^ was 
ibe third in size amongst the four gTeat divisions of Gaul : 
t 'wus subdivided into Lugdunensis Prima^ Secunda, 
Fertia, and Quarta or Senonia. The Armoricanus Trac- 
tns was a general name given to the sea-coast of Gaul ; 
iwas afterwards confined to the shores of Lugdunensis, 
the adjoining coast of Belgica being then called Nervi- 
eanus Tractus, but, at last, Britany alone was called Ar- 
morica. The appellation Saxonicum Littus was applied 
to parts of the coasts of Belgica and Lugdunensis, as well 
as to the shores of Kent wadSiissex in England, fiom their 
being exposed to the robberies of the Saxon pirates. 

16. LvGDUNENSis Secunda was the most Northern division of Lugdu- 
Mua, and comprehended Normandy with a small part of the Isle of France. 
Chi the coast dwelled the Caleti, whose chief cities were Juliobona Lillebonne, 
ind Caroootinum Harfieur, at the mouth of the Seine ; higher up this river 

'^ Hanc tibi Sequanics pinguem textricis alumnam. 
Que Lacedxmonium Irairbara nomen habet ; 
Sordida, sed gelido Don aspemanda, Decembri 
Ikma, peregrinam mittimua endromida. Mart, IV . t p . \^. 

D 3 

&4 Gallia — Lugdunensis. 

nose llie Velioi^aBBee. with clieii cit; Rotomagus Rnuen, the melmpnlis of the >■' 
province. Proceeding along tho coast, we find the Leiovii, the Vidaeiasa^ n: 
the Bajocasses, snd the llnelli. To the W. of the Unellj, m the Oceunlf e 
BntaDnicu3,were the islands Riduna Aldtrnta.Sairai Oiieniiei/, and CnsMM (J 
Jenn/. The Abiiiicatui were S. of the Unel'li; to the E. of them werottv ^ 
Baii, and the Anlerci Eliiuovicea, irhoae chief town was Mediolanum obIW », 
»fleiwanla Ebitrnvices EtTBui. ^ 

IT. LuKiitiNEKmH Tehtia was the Westernraost divisron of Celtics, Hqft M 
Dompreheiided the modern provinceB of Britany, Maint, Aajau, and TWnMb « 
The Oiismii dwelled ia the North Western part of Britany -. in their 10$ ^ 
Wry was Brivates PottUB Brat: oft" iheit Western coast were the IMf U 
UiintLt Uahant, and Sena or Siambis Tie SaaU, which list is temaxkaltleV it 
having been the residence of certain prieiteises. The Coriosopiti were 9.'<( li 
the Osismii; and farther along the coast were the Veneti, famed ft)r ihA « 
■hill and power at sea, whose Country Cnaar calls Venelia. OfT the cmutw ^ 
ths Veueti were the isles Viudllis BeU'ale. and Siata Haaat, which, in tA ^ 

idweUedS, ofth , 
,'Lich river was tlieir city Condiviconm gr 
Ifamaetes Nunlei: and to the East of them, in Anjoii, were the Aodeeairi ^ 
01 Andes. The Auletci Cenomanni were cantoned in tl>e Eastern part itf . 
jtfaiiu, the Turooes in Tiniminej the capilai of the latcerwas CiesaniduiiiHa 
jftenrarda Turonea Touts, * 

18. Lire DO MENS IB QuiBTi vsL Senonia compreliended the SooOMni | 
.._....,.,..-.. .. ._., ,-J5, 


tf city was Aulricum afterwards Caraules ChartTti. To tlie SoWb ''■ 

pftrts of CAampiuiK and the Iili rf Franet, Orlianeu, and the Northern 
of NiB«niiiii, Ine Cr --i.-t!._j .i._ .■.._... _. . .r ., 

s inhabited the Western part of the a 

of Iheni were the Aureliani, who were dismemhered from Ihein : their dtr ■ 
Genabum still pieaerves the gentilitioui name in OrUaia. To the K.E. ^ < 
the Caruutes, in the lili of France, were the Parisii, whose chief city TiilfitM|i ^ 
called afterwards Parisii, is Porii on the Seine, the metropolis of from*. ' 

To the South of these, in parts of DrfiuniHi and the />((d/ f^aim. weretlic I 
Senones, remarkable Ibr tlieir hraveiy, and as giving name tu the pitoi 
A colony of them", under Brennus. iovaded Ital^ and pillaged Komei 1 

Httled on the Mrialie in the N. part of Umbna, where one of tlieir towic ' 
nceived the name Sena Gallica ^mgagiia : their capital, and the metropoUt ' 
of Lugdnneoaie Quarta, was Agediocum afterwards Seooaes, Sera. 

19. LtiCDUHEN9is Paiua, the Southernmost division of Celtica, compn* 
bended the South Eaatein parts of Clmmpogne and A'ivemii), the EasUni 

Kof BourftontiDu, the whole of Liiimnoii, and nearly tiie whole of Barguitif. 
Liogooei were its moat Northerly inhaUlants ; they were confederaM 
af the Romans, and together witli the Boii croued the Alps, and settled in 
the Cispadana; the^ wete reputed the fiercest and wildest amongst lb* i 
Cauls. Their chief city Andomatunum, near the source of the Mur™, it ( 
BOW hangm, a corruption of the eentilitious name. To the 8, of the Lin- | 
gone), in Burguncii/, were the .&lui, the most famous people of CelltcB, wbth 
on account of their old alliance with the Kontaos, were admitted into Oe ' 
Senate, and thus distinguished from the other people of Gaul. Their ehitf 

" Arma lamen vos 

Noctiima et fiammas doinibus teuiplisque pnrastis, 
lit Bracatoiaia pueri Senonutnque minorei. 
.Aosi, quod liceat tunica puoire mo\e&u.. Ivx. Sat. VTII. 1IU> { 

GalUa — Aquitania, 66 

iliei were, Bibracte called afterwards Augustodunum Autun^ and Aletia 
file 9* Reyne, the chief town of the Mandubii, said to have been founded 
|[ Hercules, on his return from Iberia, but more memorable for the sieg« it 
■taiaed against Cssar. 

S9. Between the rivers Elaver Alligr and Liger Loire, in Eastern Bourbon- 
m,'w9M the territory ceded by the i£dui to the Boii after Cssar had defeated 
leHelvetii, whom the Boii had joined on their incursion into the Koman pro- 
aee, and contiguous to whom beyond the Rhing they originally dwelled, 
he Insnbres were a small people W . of Lyons ; a colony of them passed tlie 
Ift^ and there built the city Mediolanum Milan, calling it after the petty 
in Mediolanam S. Lautowt^ which they had here deserted. To the S. of 
K JEdai weie the Segusiani, in Lyonwnt ; their chief city was Lugdunum 
^iw, at the confluence of the Saone and Rhone. Under Augustus, ]\Iuna- 
■I PlaiKms here assembled the inhabitants of Vienna, who had been driven 
iiil their country by the Allobroges ; it became subsequently the metropolis 
f liigdunensis, the second city in Gaul (Narbo Martins Narbonne being 
Wii^), and the pl>Lce where the governors of the whole country resided 
Ab Emperor Claudius was bom here. 


il« Aquitaniay or South Western Gaul, was the second 
a gize amongst the four great diyisions of the country : 
i was subdivided into Aquitania Prima, Aquitania Se- 
eunda, and Novempopulana. It gave name to the S. of 
Biscay, thence called Sinus Aquitanicus. 

B. Aquitania Prima, the Easternmost of these divisions, comprehended 
le provinces of Berri, W, Bmirbonnou, La Marehe, Linunuiny Auvergne, 
^ duienne, and that part of Languedoc which is W. of the Ceoennes Mi. 
h Ifae Northern part of the province were the Bituriges Cubi, in Berri, 
ihose chief city was Avaricum afterwards Bituriges Bmrges, the metropolis 
tf Aqnitania Prima. The Lemovices were cantoned to the S. W. of these, 
in Ltmaunn ; they have left their name in the city Limoges, formerly called 
At^^nstoritum. East of the Lemovices, in Auvergne, were the Arverni *■ a 
bttre and powerful people, pretending to be descended from the Trojans ; 
&eir chief cities were Augustonemetum, afterwards Arverni Clermont, and 
Gogovia Mt. Gergoie, which so long resisted the attacks of Caesar. 

23. The Vellavi, Gabali, and Cadurci, were at one time dependent on the 
Irvemi, whose quarrels with the ^dui furnished one of the causes that drew 
tile Romaa arms into Gaul. South of the Arverni, in Languedoc, were the 
Tellavi and Gabali: and still lower down in £. Guienne, were the Kuteni 
tad Cadurci ; the chief city of the last-mentioned was Uxellodunum Le Puy 
^htolu, situated on Duranius fl. Dordogne, and remarkable for the siege 
which it sustained against Cssar, having been the last place in Gaul which 
hdd out against him. 

94. Aquitania Secunda, lying between Aquitania Prima and the jB. of 
Bueay, comprehended parts of Britany and Atyou S. of the R, Loire, Poitou 
Aum$, Smintonge, Angoumois, and the Western part of Guienne. The Pic- 
tooes or Pictavi, an extensive tribe in the N. of the province about Poitou, 
possessed the city Limonumcr Pictavi Poitiers, South of them, in Saintonge, 

*• Arvemique ausi Latio se iwgere fratres^ 

Ssmguine ab Ilhtco populi; Lucan. 1, 4SL1 . 


i Gallia — Narbonensis. 

■n ibe Santones'^, nith their cities Icallsaa Jn^ufiiH, and iXedioluiioa 
■flenvards Santooeg Siantei, on Cirantanus fl. ChaniaU, which 
■ea. oppcnite tllianiB I. Oleron. Tbe Biturigea Vi>isci, S. uf thi 
io Uie vVi3le[ii port of CuitniM, were strangen; in Aquitaaia, and did 
unite thcmselveii with its inhabitaniB ; to Ihem beloagol Bnntigala Bsrdi 
on the GaroMtit, the metiopolis of Aquitaoia Secunda, utd the birth -pl>c««[ 
, the poet AuBomus. 

SS. NoiEXPOPDLiiNA was the third and SoalhemmosI province oFAoU- 
tania, carFespant^Mg neatly with the [etntoiy of the Aquilani in the eoificr 
iliiision of Gaul. Its nanw implies that it was al one line iohabitql tk 
Hint principal natimi ; many olhere may, however, be traced. It compa- 
hended the provinces of Oaiarny and Beam. The principal people weK ite 
Sotiiiles, whose Cqwd, Oppidum Satiatum, is now tm ; Ibe Elusates, ilTiwI 
city, Elusa ^a»u, wus tne metropolis of the proviaoe ; the Auaci, Dice it 
Whose name may be seen in Auch, the site of their city Climbenia, or A»- 

Ssta 39 it was afterwoniB called; and IheTarhelli, whose chief ci^»i» 
(uie Auguslic TarhelliL-ffi '* Acqi on Atutts S. Aiivur : it the mouth aflHt 
last river was Lapunlum Bai/auiie, . : 


26. Narbonensie, or South Eastern Gaul, was the 
smallest of tiie four great divisions of the countiy; it 
was subdivided into Narboneusis Prima, Narboneoaip 
Secimda, Viennensis, Alpea Graiss et PeiuiiuiE, and AlpcB 

37. Ai-Fca Gkalx et Peknin*. was the Northernmost of these subdivi- 
(ions. and ohliined its name from those Alps which fonned ics Eastern 
Iwundaty : it comprehended the Valuii (a corruption of Vallis Pennina) Mid 
the Eastern pan of £uiwy. It was through this province, aaii over the Alpia 
" lia Lil. St. Bernard, thai Hannibal passed into Italy. £uiwu ia ■ COT- 

, ted form of Sapaudia, a district which, though now much contracleil in Ik 
lilnils, once eitended from Ibe L. vf Seufchatet amongst the Helvetii, W 
Grenoble ia the territory of the Allobroges. Amongst other Irihes hen «• 

t menttOD the Seduni near Sioii, the Centiooes, whose city Daranmi* 

Uti»r» d( Tarautaiie was Ihe metropolis of the province, and the Ganirafi 

He lerritoiy extended beyond the Alps into Italy. 

8. ViBKKiNSia comprehended ibe Western parts of Sou™, DaujMny, 
tnd Pruiifitct, with the Comiat, Orange, and the N'oith Eastern corner « 
taatiiidtK. The AUobtoges" inhabited its Noithem part; the succoar 
which they gave to the vanquished king of the Salyei, and (beir hoilililJM 
«^n!t the .£dui, drew upon them Uie anger of the Romans, by nhol* 
they were finally conquered. They are much commended for their Bdeli^i 
their ambassadors, though allured b</ great ofiers to join in Catiline't eoB- 
■piracy, scorned them and lioally discoveied it to Cicero. Their prineiptl 
city was Vienna i'ienne on Ihe Rhone, the opulent ateCnipolis of Ihe provider 
U which il gave name ; it was a Roman colony and ihe place to which king 

" Signa movel, gaudetque amoto Sanlonus hoste. Lucan. 1. 432. 

" Non sine me est libi partus honos. Tarbella Pyrene 

Testis, et Ocean! lilota Santonici. TibuU. 1. viL S, 

" .'Emilia sec virtus Capuos nee Spaitacus acer, 
A'oviaqae rabui lafidelis AUobiot. Hot. E^. X VI. S. 

GaUia — Narbonenns, 57 

htlnsv ranuOBed Herod^ wu banished by Aug[uttu8 fbr his crueltieK. 
IIhbi also belound Generm Geneva at the exit of the Rhone from the 
^ Cemmoa, and Cakio, called Oratianopolis after the emperor Gratian, 
■iUt on the ItAnt. Soath of the Altobroges were the Vocontii, the Se- 
■ai, and the Tricastiiu. Arausio Orange, and Avenio Avignon, both 
MB cokmaea, ware in the territoiy of the Cavares, who were cantoned in 
Cemtat. South of the Cavares, in Provence, were the Salyes, a branch 
ke Ligurea, who extended from the Ehone nearly to the Alpe, and from 
12. l>tcroii«e to die sea: their more immediate territory, however, was 
friaed within narrower bounds in Narbonensis Secunda. I'he preat 
M of the Ligures or Ligyes extended from the Amo to the mouths of the 
■s, and in an earlier age as fei West as Iberia ; those West of the A/ari- 
I Aipe were called Gallo-Ligyes. 

fll The city Aielate ArU* on the Bhme, became in the course of time 
trior to mil others in the province. It was a favourite place of resoit for 
Romans, and so greatly ornamented as to have been styled Gallula 
oa: it was hither that the emperor Honorius transferred the seat of the 
9torian prefecture of Gaul, wnen Augusta Treverorum was no longer 
e, from Uie inroads of the barbarians, to maintain this distinction. 1 o the 
ith East of the city were the Campi Lapidei Plain of La Crau, tlie monu- 
at of the battle fought between Hercules and the two sons of Neptune. 
I chief city of the Massilienses was Massilia'* Marseilleg, a sea-port at the 
Item extremity of Gallicus Sinus G. of Lyons, founded b. c. 539, by the 
oceans, who were driven fronr their country by the hard conditions of 
ipagns, who was besieging their city : it was much famed for its com- 
rce and strength, but more particularly for its learning and politeness of 

10. Narbonensis Secunda eomprehended part of Western Dauphiny , 
i the greater portion of Provence. The Salyes in their more confined 
ttot inhabited chiefly the environs of Aquae Sextias Aix, the metropolis of 
nhonensis Secunda, and a Roman colony, founded by Sextius Calvinus 
er subduing the Salyes. It was here also that the Cimbri and Teutones 
se defeated with great slaughter by Marius, b. c. 102. We may likewise 
tiee the Albiceci, and the Commoni, whose chief ci^ Forum Julii Frejus 
M the metropolis of the province, and the station of the Roman fleet for 
e defence of the coasts of Gaul. Telo Martins Toulon was likewise in the 
Titory of the Commoni : off it lay the Stoechades Is. now called Hieres, 

11. Alpes MAaiTiMX, so called from those Alps which formed its East- 
a boundary, comprehended parts of £. Provence and Dauphiny, with the 
mty of Nice, The Caturiges inhabited its Northern part; their chief 
ties were Caturiges Chorget, and Ebrodunum Embrun, the metropolis of 
m province. The Edenates were cantoned near Seyne, and the Ectini about 
tt K- 21ii«a, which flows into the Varus Var ; E. of the latter river, on the 
ast, was Nicca Niee,^ founded by the Massilienses in memory of a victory 
hich they obtained in it's neighbourhood over the Ligurians ; it was the last 
laliic city towards Italy. 

S2. Narbonensis Prima answers in a general way to Languedoc. The 
^olci^ Arecomici, who seem at one time to have extended beyond^the Rhotte, 
ihabited the Eastern part of the province ; their capital was Nemausus 
CiMtM, a flourishing city, situated about 10 nules to the right of the Rhone. 

** Ctinr tua oentenos expugnet sportula cives, 

Fomea MaMgUite ponere vina potes. Mart. 'XIW. ep. VKi. 


58 Hupania ei Insula. 

The Voice TectosagM, who inhabited the Western part of the pnmnoe, 
were a brave and powerfnl people : some of them migrated into Galatia. 
They were amongst those Gauls who under Brennus attacked Rome, and 
they were afterwards engaged in an expedition to plunder the temp^ of 
ApoUo at Delphi. Their chief city was Narbo N^rbrnm, sumamed Mar- 
titts from the Legio Martia, a colony led there bv the Romans ; it was the 
metropolis of the province and of all Gaul, and was situated on a canal. 
leadincr from the Atax fl. Aude R, into Rubresus L. Etang de Sigearu The 
Atax rises in the Pyrenees, and running past Caicaso Careassonne, enten 
the G. ^' Lyons. Tolosa*^ Toulouse on the Garomu was the principal ci^ 
of the Tolosates, who inhabited the countiy around it ; it was also called 
Palladia from literature being there greatly cultivated, and contained a tem« 
pie of Minerva, which Servilius Caepio plundered. To this province also 
belonged the Tasconi, the Tamsconienses, and the Sardones, the last of 
whom dwelled in Roussillon in the South Easternmost part of Gaul. At the 
Eastern extremihr of the Pyrenees was Portus Veneris Port Vendre, wheM 
8tfx>d a temple of Venus ; and not far off, on the summit of the same nKmni- 
tiun-range, at Bellegofirdej was Tropasa Pompeii, erected by Pompey aftef 
having finished the war in Spain against Sertorius. 



1. HISPANIA was bounded on the N. by the 
Oceanus Cantabricus B. of Biscay and the Monte$ 
Pyrenaei, on the E. and S. by the Mediterranean Sea, 
and on the W, by the Atlantic Ocean : it was called 
Iberia^ by the Greeks from the Iberus fl. or JEbro, which 
was the nrst great river they reached in the Peninsula, 
and Hesperia Ultima by the Romans from its extreme 
Western situation^ 

2. The epithet of Ultima was added to distinguish it from Italy, which 
the Greeks also named Hesperia on account of its situation with respect to 
them i they likewise called Spain Celtica, or rather included it in this appel- 
lation, which they assigned as a general one to the whole of Western Europe : 
from the Celts a great part of Spain was denominated Celtiberia', which is 

^* Marcus amat nostras Antonius, Attice, Musas, 
Charta salutatrix si modo vera i-efert : 
Marcus Palladi» non inficianda Tolosie 

Gloria, quem genuil pedis amica quies. MarU IX-. ep, 100. 

* Which name was also used by the Roman poets : 
Te non paventis funera Galliao, 
Dursque tellus audit Iberis. Hor, Carm, IV. xiv. SO. 

* ■ profiigique a gente vetust^ 

Gallorum, Celtte miscentes nomen Iberis. Lucan, IV. 10. 

Hispania ei InmHUtl 50 

2 oonnxmiid of their own name and that of the people amoog whom they 
settlea. The Greek colonies in Spain were few and unimportant, Emporui 
and Sagnntnm excepted. 

8. The name of Hispania was derived from the Phce- 
nidans, who in very early times planted colonies on its 
Soathem shores. The Carthagmians invaded it next; 
they founded several cities on the Southern coast, and 
held it long in subjection. At the end of the second 
Punic war it was wrested from them by the Romans, 
who, having also reduced the native tribes to obedience, 
divided it into two provinces, Citerior and Ulterior ; the 
latter, in the time of Augustus, was subdivided into Lu- 
sitania and Bsetica, whilst the Citerior province received 
the name of Tarraconensis, from its capital Tarraco Tar^ 

4. The principal mountains of Hispania are tlie Py- 
renaei Pyrenees^ extending from the Mediterranean to 
the B. of Biscay^ the continuation of which Westward 
was called Vinnius Mons Santillanos. Idubeda Mons 
detaches itself from the Pyrenees near the springs of ih^ 
EbrOj and traverses the Eastern part of Sjmin till it 
reaches the Mediterranean at Ferraria Pr. C. S. Martin: 
it is now called by the various names of M'. de Burgos, 
M. Atbarraciuy Sierra Alhayda, See, and is the only 
range running in a North and South direction, the 
others trending generally East and West. The conti- 
nuation of this range to Gibraltar y was in a general 
way called Orospeda M. La Sagra Sierra, Sierra iV#- 
vada, &c. 

5. Ilipula M. was a name especially given to the Sierra Nevada^ as Solo- 
rioiwaa to La Sagra Sierra, Carpetanus M. Castilian Mi., separating the 
riveiB Durius and Tagus, strikes ont from Idubeda Westward, and under the 
namea of Aphrodisius EtitreUa, and Tagrus Junto, reaches the sea at Magnum 
Pr. C. Roea, the Westernmost land of the continent of Etirope. Ilerminiut 
M. Sierra de Toledo and Sierra ArminnOf separating the Tagus and Anas, 
proceeds also from Idubeda, and reaches the Atlantic at Sacmm Pr. C. S, 
Vincent. Marianus Mons Sierra Morena issues from Orospeda M., and pro- 
ceeding Westward, separates the rivers Anas and Bistis; its Western part 
Amcitanns M. is stiU called Sierra de Arocke, 

6. The most remarkable promontories of Spain on the Atlantic Ocean are, 
Trilencnm Pr. COrtegal, in Galicia, the Northernmost point of the Peninsula; 
Artabrum Pr. C. Finitterra ; Magnum Pr. C. Roca, the Westernmost land 
of the continent of Europe ; Sacrum Pr. C. S, Vincent, the South Western 
point of Portugal and Lusitania, opposite to which the ancients fancied that 


60 Hispania et InsuLe. 

the Sun ', Icrmiaating his coune, plunEEd iiilo the sea. ; and Jnoonii Pr. C. . i 
Tra/'aigaT, the South Western cape uf Seville, Da Ihe MetUterraaeui 3*^ i 
are, Srombraria ur Soturai Fr. C. Pul«, (he South Eiutem eiCremit; of tbt ' 
Peninsula ; Ferraria Pr, C. S. Martin, opposite lo the island of /licu j uif i 
Pyreniemn Pr. C. 0™™, the Eastern ternunatioQ of the Pyrenees. i , 

7. The chief rivers of Spain are, the Iberos Ebro, the' i 
most Northern, which rises in the angle formed by the ■ 
mountains Vinnius and Idubeda ; hence it runs with a 
South Eastern course into the Mediterranean, opposite'* 
to the Balearic Isles, being the only great Spanish riTer* , 
which finds its way to this sea. At the end of the fixtKT 
Punic war, the Iberus was settled as the line of separft^* 
tion between the Roman and Carthaginian possessions >i 
Spain, the Romans agreeing not to pass the right bailiff 
oi the river, and obtaining the protection of Saguntooy 
although it was in the Punic territory. About 70 mileff^ 
from its mouth, the- Iberua receives on its left bank the^ 
Sicoris Segre, rising in the Pyrenees, and supposed to hqi/ 
the same with the Sicaoue, whence the oppressed Sicaaft, 
are said to have retreated to Sicily. Minius fl. MiiJim 
is in the North Western comer of Spain ; its source i» 
in Vinnius M., and after a South Western course it. 
reaches tlie Atlantic Ocean. To the South of it is tlw . 
Durius DouTo, the mouth of which is also in the Abr- 
lantic at Calle Oporto-; it rises in the Northern part of 
Idubeda M. 

, «. Proceeding Southward, and passing by the smaDer 
rivers Vacua Vouga, and Monda Mondego, we come ia. ' 
the Tagus * Tajo or Tagvs, the laigest river of Spain ; H ^ 
rises in Idubeda M., whence with a South Western course ' 
it flows through the middle of the Peninsula, till it reacbsfi ' 
the Atlantic Ocean at OHsipo Lisbon. The Anas Oua-* ' 
diana is the next great river to the South ; it issues from. ^ 
the junction of the mountains Idubeda and Orospeda, and * 

' N) roseui fessoJi jam gurgile Phcebus Ibcro 
Tineat equos, Doclemuue die IsbentE reducat. 

Firg.Ma. XI. OlS. 

Pretseral occiduui Tuteiu* litora Phtebut : 

Uiid. Met. XIV. 410. 
in gold: 


Hitpania et Insula. 01 

^s iBto the Atlantic not &r from Mirtylis Mertola. 

Southernmost river of Spain is the Beetis ^ Guadal^ 
ir, which enters the Atlantic midway between 
vraltar and the R. Guadiana ; it rises in Orospeda 

and was anciently called Tartessus. The BsBtis had 
aerly two mouths, the Eastern one of which, that used 
-on into Cadiz Harbour, has now disappeared : the 
ile island of Erythiay the dwelling place of Geryon^ 
Hn Hercules robbed of his cattle, may (if it be not 

same with Gades /. de Lean) have existed between, 
le two mouths. 

), Hispania Citerior orTarraconensis, with the Baleares 
1 Pityusee lae., included more than three-fifths of 
iin, or about 107,300 square miles in the North 
rtem part of the Peninsula ; it was bounded on the W.. 
I N. by the Ocean and the Pyrenees, on the E. by the 
iditerranean as far as the Eastern limits of Granada^ 
ence an irregular line to the North Eastern anele of 
irtugal on tiae jR. DourOy together witii the lower 
u'se of this river, served to divide it from BsBtica and 
sitania. The Tarraconensis thus included the Spanish 
ivinces of Catalonia, Aragon, Navarre, Biscay, As- 
Has, Cfalicia, Northern Leon, Old and New Castile, 
urcia, and Valencia, as well as the two Portuguese 
ovinces of Tras-os-Montes and Entre-Douro-e-Minho. . 

10. Baetica, so called from the river Bsetis which inter- 
cts it, was the Southern portion of Spain, correspond- 
g nearly with Andalusia, and containing 30,900 square 
Qes ; on the S. it was washed by the sea, on the N . the 
nas parted it from Lusitania, whilst from this river to 
« Mediterranean the irregular line already mentioned 
sparated it from the Tariuconensis. It contained the 

* It gave the name of Baetica to the country through which it flowed, which 
u pr^uctive of wine, olives, and wool of a colour naturally so bright, that 
Deeded do dye. 

Bstis olivifei^ crinem redimite coronft ; 
Aurea qui nitidis vellera tingis aquis : 
Quern Bromius, quem Pallas amat. MaruXll, wp, c. 

• — _-_._— Laurentia victor, 

Geryone extincto, Tiiynthius attigit arva, 
Tyrrhenoque boves in flumine lavit Ibera». 

02 Hispania^ Tarracoaensis. ^ 

modern Spanish provinces of Granada, Jaen, Oordow^w 
Seville (which four constitute Andalusia), and the Souffi* " 
Bni.)\?i\ioi Spanish EstTemadura. 

11. Lusitania, which answers in a general way f 
Portugal, was the South Western portion of the ped' 
aula, and contained 33,200 square miles. It was boundl 
on the S. and W. by the Atlantic Ocean ; on the N. \ 
the river Durius ; and on the E. by an irregular T' 
stretching from the North Eastern extremity of Porft*, 
to the Western hmits of New Castile, whence to t 
oceanthe Anas fl. separated it from Bffitica. Ita ' ^^_ 
extended fi-oni the Tagus to the Northern Ocean, bufc*' 
under Augustus its hmits were as above: it contained,, 
the Portuguese provinces of Beira, Estremadvra, Aim- ^ 
too, and Algarve, together with the Northern half of < 
Spanish Estremadura and Southern Leon. i '" 

IS. HisPANM CiTERioR TELTAtiRitoNENsis was inhabited by a nuntW' « 
of tribes. Id Ihe North Eastern part of the eouocrf dwelled the Indicet^iir « 
the Eiiteraeitremity of CataloKh; their chief lowos were Juntaria JimqvM 
--■■"■ 'the Pyr ' ^ ' ' " "' '-"-"' 

the foot of the Pyrenees, and EmporiE Arnpvriai a Phoctpnn colOl^ „ 

' nith, in Ihe same province, were the Loletani, whose p ' 

Bretnio Badalaaa, and Bucino Bareelma. founded hj H 

Farther flouth, in Ihe same province, were the Loletani, whose prinn^ip ^ 

and Bubsequeotly coloniied by tha Itomans. The Cosetaoi dwelled in SlK , 
Southern part of Cnio/nnin : to Ihem belonged Tarraco Tarraginia, the[n»W»''i 
polls of Roman Spain ; it was greatly imprnved by the Scipios, and »i tf i 
Komancolony received the sumaioe of Julia Victrii. The Ilorcaiuie* wo* 
cantoned farther South, on ihe bordeni of Valtacia and CalaUmia ; their giMli 
city Dertoea Turlom stood on the banks of the Ibema, and is thought by unift- 
to hare been alio calledlbera. > 

IS. The Cerelani, whose name may be traced in Cerdagne, dwelled iblMIt 
the ipringi of the Sicoris and Ciaga, in North Western Catalonia: belmr^' 
them were Ihe Ausetani, so called from their city Ausa Viqut d'Oima, Tb 
the West of these, in Aragon, were the llergelie, amongst whose towns may 
bo mentioned llerda' Lerida, which under the lieutenanlB of Pompey made ■ 
bold, though fruitless resistance against Ciesar. Higher up ihia river, alsa ia, 
Arngnn, were the Vescitani j in their opulent city Osca Hutica public (chooli 
were eBtablished by ^ertoiius, whose opposition to the jealous policy of tbe 
Romans, gave rise to the Sertoriaa war ; hei« too he wa.1 lissassinaled by 
Peipenns and others a. o. TS. Nearer the Piirenra were the Vascones, who 
dwelled in ports of Navim-e, Aragan, and Old C/alile ; they aubse([nentlj 
passed into Gaul, where they have left their imme. though Bomething coi- 
rupled, in the province of GsicDny. Their chief cities were Ponipelo Pam- 

' In Ihe time of Horace, llerda was e^erly embracing the Koman litera- 
tare, in reference to which, addressing his own book, he says; 
Contrectatusubi manibus sordescere vulgi 
Ciepeni) aul lineas paiees tacitumus inertea, 
Autfagiet [/licoin, am vinctus m'lltciis Uetiam. Eyiit. I. u 

ia — Tarraconen$ii, 6S 

*, and Calagams Calahorra, surnamed Nascica and remarkable ftom 
Ofiid fjamine " it anderwent in the Sertorian war. 

. The Varduli and Caristi were cantoned in Northern Navarre and 
!m Bucay ; and to the S. of them, about the head of the Iberus, were the 
ribes Autrieones and Berones. The warlike and powerful nation of tha 
abzi* dwelled Luther West in the Asturiat', they communicated their 
i to the Bay of Biscay Oceanus Cantabricus : amount them were Julio- 
. Rtytuma, and Concana Cangat do Omt, about which were the ferociooa 
tad, whose food was milk mixed with horses* blood. To the Cantabri 
ieded the Astures, in the Western part of that province to which they 
left their name, and in the Northern part of Leon ; they were famed for 
sed of ambling horses, and as miners in the mountains by which their 
tiy was intersected. Their principal cities were Lucus Asturum (hudo; 
Gtoman coloirv of Legio Septima Gemina Leon, so called from a legion 
ned there; Falantia Valencia de D, Juan on Astura fl. EUa, whence 
tame of the people ; and Asturica Astorga, colonized by the Romans, 
the surname of Augusta. 

>. The Callsd *^ or Callaici, so called from their capital Calle Oporto, 
the last people in this Western part of TarraconcDsis ; they occupied 
da (which was so named from them) and the Portuguese provinces of 
•OS -Mantes and Entre-Douro-e-Minho, They were divideid into two 
sipal branches by the river Minius ; those to the N. of it being called 
aid Lucenses from their chief city Lucus Augusti Lugo, whilst the 
IS obtained the surname of Bracarii from Bracara Augusta Braga; 
Dgst the latter was Calle Oporto at the mouth of the Durius, which is 
ly remarkable as furnishing the origin of the modem name Portu^a/ 
ites Calle). To the Lucenses belong Tude Tuy on the Minius, the 
jel of the small tribe Grovii, who were said to be Greeks, and Adrobicum 
mma. The Artabri and Nerii Celtici were two small tribes in the neighr 
rhood of C. Finisterra, 

8. The Vaccsi were East of the Callaci, and North of the Durius, in 
ts of Leon and Old Castile : their principal city was Pallantia Paleneia 
Astnra fl., a strong place often besieged by the Romans. To the South 
it of these, in Old CastHe, lay the Arevaci, amongst whom were Segobia 
•Qoia on Areva fl. Eresma, and the Roman colony of Clunia Cortama, 
t Pelendones, a branch of the Celtiberi, were cantoned about the head of 
Durius ; on this river, near Soria, was Numantia their chief city, which, 

' Which Juvenal mentions, and alludes to the necessity the besieged were 
laced to of ieeding upon each other : 

Vascones, hate fama est, alimentis talibus olim 

Prodnxere animas : sed res diversa, sed illic 

Fortunae invidia est bellorumque ultima, casus 

Extremi, longas dira obsidionis egestas. Sat, XV. 9S. 

* Their long resistance to the Roman arms is more than once alluded to 

Septimi, Gades aditure mecum, et 

Cantabrum incloctum juga ferre nostra,-^ Cairm. II. vi. 2. 

^ Skilled in divination : 

Fibrarum et pennee divinarumque sagacem 

Flammarum misit dives Callacia pubem, 

SiU Ita\A\\,^U, 

64 Hispania — Tarraconerisis. 

IbOBgh wllhont walls and with a veiy inferior force, bravely nilhstDod tks 
,noiiiaa arniies forfoarteen ^ears, till Ae ioliabilaDta, wotn out bj fasUD^ < 
rithet periihed in the Bnines of their houses ur surrendered theouielvH, " ' 
Sci|uo AfricaauE Minor", who completely deBlcoyed the city b. c I3S ' 
the South of these people and of the Arevaci were the CaipetaDi, 
Northeni part of Nra Custiti, and on the banks tif Ibe Tagus ; asci 
thii river we come to their chief cities Toletum TnUdu, near which tl 
mans were severely defeated by the Celliberi, and Allhasa or Carteia 
the capital of the petty tribe Olcades, taken and ileatroyed b; Haoi 
Madrid, the metropolis of Spaiji, seems to have home the name of Uanllti 
Kast ofthe Catpelani and Arevaci, in pajls o! Aragim and New Caitilti'm 
Ihe Celtiberi, one of the most powerFul nations of Spain, who long opw 
both Ibe Carthaginians and Romans, but were Rnally subdued by the Ii 
people at the end of the Sertorian war. To them betoorad the dties BilUI _ 
Calalayvd, the birth-place of Martial, situated on S Jo or Bilbilis ft. XMl^ 
the waters of which we ' . r .. . .-..._,.. .... 

Maiina^ their capital j 

IT. TheOretani in Lu Maacha to theS.W. of these, occupied paitiMJf 
^'fu Cailile and Jaea about the upper couise of Uie Anas : their chief CIM. 
nete Orelum Orelo, Libisosia Lauta a Raman colony, Mentesa OreUtfE 
Mmlism, and Castalo CbsIiiId, the country of Imilce, Hannibal's wilej ^ 
two last-mentioned cities were in Bietica, into which province the Oren|K 
eitended. Advancing Eastward to the coast, wo find the Edetani «tte j|L 
ing between the Ebro and Sucro B. A'ucor ; they occupied parts of -^f^M 
and Valencia, and poGsessed Ihe cities Cssar Augusta Sarag'viii Mi^Bt 
Jberua, formerly called Salduba, which name it changed upon bein^ '<!ek- 
niied by the Komans, and Segohriga Stgurhi on Tumlis S. Muniedra: 'JK 
the moulh of this last river stood the memorable city of Saguntum IHtimiiMt^ 
oripnally founded by colonists (rom Zacjnthus, who were alterwards jolMtt 
by some Kutull from Ardea; itwas famed Forits beaulifii] clay, from whi& 
cups were made: the inhahilants were faithfully attached" to the RomW, 
and withstood a siege of eight months again<it Hannibal, till, urged by Iti. 
mine, they destroyed themselves and their valuables in a general conflMlk. 
lion, rather than fall into the hands of their enemy, b. c. 3\V ; this sMk 
was the cause of the second Punic war. Farther South was Edeta or L^ 
l.iria, at one time the capital of the Edelaui, DU the Northern side H 
Turia B. Gtiadulanier, which enters the sea at Valeatia VaUaeia. 

la The CoDlcstani dwelled lower down on the coast, in parts of Valtiuk 
and Murcia ; one of their chief citiet was Snlabis S. Frlipt .Voliia, a LiA 
colony, famed for its line linen, and situated on a ct^nominal river Mw 
called MoHttm, which ran ialD Sucro B. Xvcar. I'his latter river, liuE^ia 
Jdubeda M., entered the sea at Sucro Callera, and gave name to the SiuU 

" 1'hence called Numaatiuus ; of whom Ovid says, 

llle Numantlni ab urbc notam (i. t nomea). FaU. I. SS6. 
" Municipes, Augusta mihi quos Bilhilis acri 

Monte creal, rapidus quem Sa!o ciogit aquis ; 
Ecquid l^ta juvat vcstri vos gloria vatii ? 
nam decus et nomea, famaque vestra sumus. 

JUarl. X. tf. ciiL I. 

Bispania — InsuUt — BtBtica. 65 

fccnmensis G. tf Valencia^ The capital of the Cootestani, and the most 
eelebiated city in this part of Spain, was Carthago Nova Cartarena, built 
uder AsdnilNil by the Carthaginians, from whom it was taken by Scipio ; 
it received the turname Spartaria from the adjoining Spartarius Campus, so 
aiUed from a certain reed '^ there growing in abundance. The la:it people 
wilfKn we have to mention in the Tairaconcnais, were tlie Bastitani, can- 
toned in parts of Jatfn, Gratuuiaf and Mfirriu; in their countnr were Basti 
Sov, whence their name, and Osca Huetcart both which cities were ac- 
eoonted in Bstica. 

19. InrscLA. Opposite the mouth of the Iberus, and 100 miles distant, 
are the Baleajws las. Baiearie Idett called by the (i reeks Gymncsise; the 
ftnner appellation being given tliem from the expertness of the natives in 
du^ng^, and the latter from their going naked in summer. The Eastern 
island, called Balearis Minor, still preserves its name in Minorca ; its cities 
were lamno Ciudadela, and Mago JliaAvn, so called by Mago the brother of 
Hannibal. From this island Balearis Major Majorca is 2.> miles distant; 
its cities were Pollentia PolUnta, and Palma Pahna. both Koman colonies. 
IdSdway between Balearis Major and Ferraria Pr. arc the Pityusa; le., so 
called irom their pinet. The larger and Northern island was called Kbusus 
baa, and was famed for \U 6gs and cattle : the smaller island obtained the 
mmie Opbiusa Formenttra from the Greek word o^ir cduher, owing to its 
having been infested with aerpents, a circumstance which also caused the 
neighbouring Colubraria Columhreiet to receive a similar appellation. All 
tinie islands were reckoned to the Provincia Turraconeusls. 

90. B.KT1CA corresponds nearly with the modem Andalutuit a name cor-^ 
npted from that of Vandalitia, which it received in consequence of the Van- 
dals having settled there before they passed over into Africa. ThedistjBCt 
betnreen the Anas and Bstis was in a general way called Bsturia, but mora 
•qiecially the Eastern part of it, comprising such portions of Im MancKa, 
Jmtn, Cordova, and Spanuh Ettremadura, as lie between these rivers • the 
Western part was inhabited by the Celtici. The I'urdetani occupied a large 
tract of conntiy about the mouths of the Baitis in HeviUe, which occasioned 
nearly the whole of Bctica to be sometimes called Tuixlitunia : above them 
in Cordova and Jam were the Turduli, whilst the sea coasts of StviUe and 
Granada were inhabited by the Bastuli-Pa'ni ^^. 

21. Coidnba Cordova on the right bank of the Baetis was founded by Mar* 
odlus, and was the first colony which the Ilomans sent into these parts ; it 
gave birth to the two Senecas, and Lucan'^; it was the metropolis of 

** Of this ropes were made, which were sometimes usc<l as scourges : 

Ibericis peruste ^nibus latus. I lor. Kpod. IV. S. 

^' From the Greek verb fiaWiojncio : 

Stuppea torquentem Balearis verbera funds. 

Virg. Georg. I. 309. 

** In reference to whom with the Carthaginians of Africa, Zeunius con- 
nders Horace to have written, 

Latius regnes, avidum domando 
Spiritnm, qudm si Libyam remotis 
Gadibus jungas, et uterque Pcenus 

Serviat uni. Carm. II. ii. 11. 

>7 Duosque Senecas, unicumque Lucanum 

Facunda loquitur Corduba. Jdart, 1^ ep. Ixii. 7. 

flO Hispania — Lwsitania. 

Bstica, aod was much famed for its excellent oil. On tlie left batik of thi 
BeIis we find Hispalis Smille, and on the oppusile side of the river St ii " 
little dislince Italica SeviUa la Vu^a, built by Publiui Scipio at the CMete) ^ 
riou of the Spanish war; the Utter was the btith-place of the empanai ' 
TiBJan and Hadrian, and aecotding to aome, of the poet Siliui ll^etpi jj 
Nebriraa Venerta Ldnija. aod Asia Regia or Xera X«m de la fnmtwte 
were i>eai the Eastern atm of the BElis, at the antieniitj of which |qf ' 
Gades I*. /. de Lton, fonoerly called TartessuB. In the island Gades wtf ' 
alca the citjr Gades or Tarteisus Cmiii, founded by the Tycians, and giviBV ' 
Oitne to Sinus GadllanUB B.afCada, and tu Gadilanum Fretuiu Si. ^Gib- 
raltar; the strait was likewise called Hen^uleumFretum" fnim the fabulont 
adventures of Hercules, whose jnllais Calpe Gibratiar, and Abyla C«iM 
in Africa, caused the strait somelimes to be named Columnarum Fretum. 
At the bottom of the B. vf GibraitBT, which appears to have borne the ap- 
pelUtioa of Fortus Albus, was Carteia Rocadilto, farmeily Caipessus. 

23. Proi^eediag Eastward along the coast of the Medilerraiiean, we find 
Barbesul near Marbella; a litllo N. of which, at Munda" Monda, Cent 
obtained a bloody victory over Labienus and the sons of Pompey, p. c 4Vi 
Farther East on the coast were Malaca M-ilaga, Abders A4ra, Urd Almtrin, 
and Vii^ Mujacar ; the last meutioiiEd town gave name to the Sinus Vtr^ ' 
tanus 0, af Cartagena. In Bsturia we obsove Sisapo Vetus Almadmii I 
tbe confines of the Orelani, lunous for its vennilion ; and the coloBy HbHM i 
linnm Midellin on tbe Southern baak of the Anas, which baa here iJmi g i( | 
its Eoarse, having; fcirmeily run on the other side of the city : Pax Angnnt ' 
Badt^ot was likewise on the Anas, where its direcdou changes froni Welt U I 

93. LusiTAVii. The Lusitani properly so tailed were cantoned in lU> ) 
North Western part of the province, to wbich they communicated their naoMf 
Ibey extended from the Tagus to the Duriu3. and occupied parts of fidrifl ' 
and PnrtiigiieK EsCremadara. Their chief cities were Olisipo Ijibett, tht ' 
Oljrital of jPm-ruesJ at the mouth of the T^us ; it was a tnunicipium ivitt 
ifae sntname Fehcitas Jnlia. and was fabled to have been built by Ulyim 
Scalabis, a colony with the surname Pntsidium Julium, was higher up tht ' 
Tagus at .Sintar«B, and not far off was Csnimbrica Cmmirn on the Maii I 
dego. The Vetlnncs occupied Eastern Lasitania frtAm the Durius to (M i 
Anas, and dwelled ia pans of Lron, Biira. and SpamiA Estmnaifura : tl ' 
principal cities were SalmauIicB Salaiaanca, probably the same with Elm 
tica, conquered by Ilanniba!, and Lancia Traoscudaaa Ciuilad Radrige, Iba i 
latter berag so called with retpect to Cuda S, Cca, which runs Notthwanl i 
into the DouTa. Besides these, they possessed Igedila Sdanha a Vtlka, and 
Norba Cosaiefl AleanLara, where was a fine bridge over the Tagus buUt bj 
the united efforts of several cities, and dedicated to the emperor Trajan. 

24. The Cellici, a remnant of the great Celtic horde with which Spain 
was inundated, inhabited Southern Lusitania, and dwelled in ^Igarra. /(m- 
({jff, and parts of both Etiretaudurai, Their principal city was Emerita 
Augusta Merida on the Anas, Ihe metropolis of tliu province, founded bj 

" Proverbially used by tbe ancient poets, as a term for Ihe end of the 
koowD world to Ihe Westward : 

Omnibus in terns, qus sunt a Gadibus usque 

Auroram et Gangem, Jvc. Sal. X. 1. 

— Fceni salurenCur si 

Vllima Diaesti GOQGiiri«Dt ^rt^ 

iguine man 

Italia. 67 

(istBSy who, «t liie end of ^ Cantabriaa war, tent here a colony of 
acit^ or snch yelerazis as had lenred their time. Other towni of the 
ia were Budna BotuOf Moron AUnekrim, forti6ed by Brutui Callaicui 
aiw hirtncr the Liudtani to obedience, Cstobrii Setubal, and Paz Julia 
b The inSalMtants cfAlganm and Sonthem AUntejo were termed CuDca, 
t the Latin wwd Cnneiui signi^ring a iit$dg«, owio^ to the shape of their 
kiy : to them belonged Mirtylis Mertola on the nght bank of the AnaSf 
mTmnra, and Laccobriga Lagot, 



1. ITALY was called Hespeiria^ by the Greeks from 

Western situation : it bore also, at different periods, 

e names of Satumia from Saturn, who fled there from 

I son Jupiter ; Ausonia from the Ausones, one of its 

08t ancient nations, once occupying its Southern 

trt ; and OBnotria frx)m the (Enotri. But about the time 

'Augustus all these appellations were superseded by 

at of Italia, which, though used in earlier ages merely 

^denote the Southern part of the peninsula, then became 

le general name of the whole country : the origin of the 

ord is said to be fix)m Italns a chief of the country, or 

om IraXoc an ox. The political division of Italy was 

ito Italia Galhca, extending from the Alps to the Rubico 

iid Amus; Italia Propria, extending as far South as 

lUcania, which province, with a part of Apulia and the 

nritory of the Bruttii, was called Magna GraBcia fix)m 

he number and fame of the Greek colonies there esta- 

)lished. Italy was bounded on the E. by Mare Superum 

)r Hadriaticum^ Adriatic Sea or G. of Venice; on the 

^ Est locus, Hesperiam Graii cognomine dicunt : 
Terra antiqua, potens armis atque ubere glebs : 
GSnotri colnere viri ; nunc faima, minores 
Italiam dixisse, ducis de nomine, gentem. Virg, JEn, I. 5S0. 

* An mare, quod suprd, memorem ; quodque alluit infra ? 

Id, Georg. II. US. 
Horace constantly represents it as a stormy sea : 

fretis acnor Hadrie 

CnrrantBi Calabros sinus. Carm»l.XTXm.\^» 

68 Italia. 

8, bv parts of Mare Ionium * and Mare Siculum ; on the ^e 
W. by Mare Inferum, Tyrrhenum *, or Etruscum, and b^ '4 
a part of the Alps, which last in a general way may m ti 
also said to form ita Northern limits, although the divif «| 
sioD between it and Rhfetia was some miles to the S. df ^i 
this great natural barrier. ' t 

2. The principal promontories on the Eastern shores of Italy were, PoW ^ 
tkcnm Pr. PubIo di Pramflnlore, the S. eitrBmily of Histris ; Garganam Pu 
Tnta del CareanB, the N. E. point or Apulia ; lapygium or SalEnlinam ft. ^ 
C. di Leuca, the S. point of lapvgia ; Laciniuni Fr. C. Nau or detU Cioml ^ 
the £. eitremit; of the Bmtdaa territory ; Hercnlis Fr. C. SpartiiMnta, wA ^ 
Leucopetia Fr. C. dell' Arm, at the Saatbem Mlremit; of the peninniK ,^ 
Ascending the W. coaEt we meet with Vuicanum Pi. C. Valicaiio, on 1^ 
■horsB of (he Bnittii; Palinumtt I'r. C. SparlivtHlo, ia Lucatua; Minemt -b 
Pr. Pin. diUa Cmapimellii, and Misenum Fr.' C. Miuno, in CaiDpeilHf U, 
CacmViMS.CircttlB. the S. point of Ulium , and Populonium Pr. C,« ,,' 
^ampiiRi], on the coaal of £truna. . /, i 

. i. The principal gulfs of Italy on its Western side were, Li^sticot Sow '^ 
6. o/Cinoa, 00 the shores of Liguria; CnmanDs Sians. or Crater G, £ tlH 
Kaplm, on the coast of Campania; Pieslanui or Posidoniates Sinus G. f ,L 
Saltrno, between Campaaia and Lucania; Terinatus or Hipponiates SiS^l 
C. b/S. Eufumia, and Bmttius Sinus G. of Giiga, both on the Bnitlian eoiM, 
Oa the Eastern side of Italy ncre, Scylleticus Sinut G. of Sguitlon ; Taiob ,, 
tinug Siaui G. of Taranlo, on tbe shores of Lucania and lapy^a; VlMH ! 
Snui C. of MoAfi-KioBia, in Apulia; and Tergesliniis Sinus G.l^■Tn■e«^0(^ >« 
the coaits of HislHa and the Canii. ', ( 

4. The grand, semicircular chain of the Alps, sweepng <' 
round from Monaco, on the frontiers of Gaul and Italy, t(t ■ 
lUyriciun, was known by various names. The Southeiu^ \ 
most part, towards Gaul, was called Alpes Maritita^^ \ 
Maritime Alps, and extended as far N. as Vesulus W.^ i 
M. Vlso ; here was the first pass of the Alps fiequenteJ ' 
by the Romans, and the one by which Ctesar enteie^ 
Itoly to contend with Pompey. Alpis Cottia, about which 

• StrophadesGtaio slant nomine dict» 

luulBlonio inmagno: Pirg. £ii. III. ail. 

' Gem inunica toihj Tyrrhenum nitvigal nquor. Id. I. 07. 

''Called 10 iiom the trumpeter of ^aeas, who was drowned on the thora 
near that place : 

At pius j£neas ingenti mole sepnlchrum 
Imponit, suaque arma viro, remumque, lubamque. 
Mania sub aerio, qui nunc Miseaus ab illo 

Dicitur, sleciiumque tenet per siECula nomen. Tirg.Xn. IV.M'I. 
* Called so from Cirre, sister of Medea. Famous for its oyilen : 

Lannnam ad solum Rutupinove edila fundo 

Oauea, callebal ptimo Ueprendei^ monu-, Jiui.Sal. IV. 140. 

Italia. 60 

s the petty kingdom of Cottius,. extended from M. Vuo 
M. Cents \ and from the latter mountain to M. Blanc 
tended Alpis Graia, over which^ at the Lit S^. JBer^ 
rd, Hannibal passed on his invasion of Italy 7. The 
pis Graia was said to have been so called from Hercules 
ire establishing some Greeks^ who had followed him. 
om Jtt. Blanc to M. S. Chthard the chain of the Alps 
B called Alpis Pennina^ from the deity Penninus, who 
is worshipped on its summit. Hence the Alpes Rtne- 
te wind through Rhaetia to the sources of the Drave 
d JPiavCy where they assume the name Alpes Camico) 
Juliae Camic or Julian Alps, and at Ocra M, Bimr- 
umer TFaWpass off into lUyricum, — Apenninus Mons® 
oenniTie ilf^, after detaching itself from the Maritime 
ps, runs diagonally across Italy to the sources of the 
mo and Tiber^ whence it proceeds Southwards through 
whole length, terminating at Leucopetra Pr. C. delC 

-6. The principal jiver of Italy was Padus Po, called 

teiently Eridamis^ and Bodincus, the scene of Phaeton's 

ath, and the metamorphosis of his sisters into poplars ; 

rises at Vesulus Mons, and enters the Adriatic Sea by 

jven mouths. It receives in its progress the waters of 

lOre than 30 rivers from the Alps and Apennines, and 

s sands were said to be mixed with gold-dust. The 

ther rivers of Italy were, the Athesis fl, ^^ Adige, which 

ses in the Rhaetian Alps and runs into the Adriatic Sea 

little N. of the Po: the Arnus fl. Arno, which has its 

ource in the Apennines, and flows Westward into Tyrr- 

Opposuit natura Alperoque nivemque : 

Diducit scopulos et montem mmpil aceto. Juv, Sat, X. 152. 
* Quantus Athos, aut quantus Eryx, aut ipse coruscis 
Cum fremit ilicibus quantus, gaudetque nivali 
Vertice, se attollens pater Apenninus ad auras. 

Virg. Mn, XII. 703. 
• By the Greeks ; but whether this river of Italy was meant, cannot be 
;puken with certainty. 

Probiit insano contorquens vortice sylvas 
Fluviorum rex Eridanus, camposque per omnes 

Cum stabulis armenta tulit : Ftr^. Georg, 1. 482. 

^ Quales aeris liquentia flumina circum, 

Sive Padi ripis, Athesin seu propter amGcnum, 
Consurgunt geminse quercus, intonsaque co&lo 
AttatiuDt capita, et subUnn vertice nutanl. Id. i£n«\^.C^* 

70 Italia — Liguria. 

henum Mare. Tiberia fl. Tiher or Teeere rises also in tlie > 
Apennines, and having been increased by more than 4^ , 
riTere, enters the Tyrrhenian Sea 18 miles below Rome; , 
it was formerly called Albula, and took the Qame of 
Tiberis from a king of Alba, who was drowned in iL ; 
One of its oldest appellations is said to have beea ■ 
Rumon, whence the city Roma obtained its name. j i 

6. The 3Dperiu:i8.1 exWnt of the several provinces of Italy, SDd of thetfaHp i 

islands Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia, may be seen ia llie follaiving table : , 

Square MJleh \ 

Liguria 5,800 ' , 

Gtaiia Cisalpina or Togala 16,600 

Venelia, with the territory of the Cami and Histria - 
Etniriaanilits islands ----., 
Umbria -...-.. 

Picenum . - - 

Sabininnd ^qui,Terriloriesof the - - - . 

Veslini.MarmciDi. Heligni,andMarsi,Ter[iloriesofthe ),T00 ] 
Latium andils islands -■-■■> 
Campania and ils iilanda ..... 

Samnium 8,700. % 

Ftoatani, Temtoiy of the - - . - - 

Apulia 6,800 J 

Lucania ...--... 3,0M 1 

Bruttii, Territory of the 3.4<HI>J 

Sidljr, with thesurtounding islands . ... T.OOO f 

Corsica and its Islands ...... 2,f» 

Sardinia and its islands ..... 7,700 ' 

Total in Italy and its Islands - - - . 

7. LicuBiA was boimded on the S. by the sei 
the W. by the Alps as far as the source of the J^<^ 
the N. by this viver, and on the E. by the country of tlw ! 
Anamwii, and by the Uttte river Macra Magra. To the 
W. it bordered on Gaiil, to the N. and E. on Cisalpine 
Gaul, and a part of Etruria ; it contained Genoa, that 
part oi Piedmont which is S. of the Po, and the major 
part of the Imperial Fiefs of PontremoU. The Liguies, 
called by the Greeks Ligyes and Ligustini, were pro- 
bably of Celtic origin ; they were a vain, unpolisned, 
and deceitfiji people", although possessed of sufficient 

■■ Apenninicoln bdlabn lilias Anni, 
Haad Ligixma utremus, dum fallere lata linehant. 

Virg. £b. XI. TOl. 

Italia-^Gallia Cisalpina. 71 

Diege- to reeiBt the invasioiiB of the Romans for a loog 
ciod of years. Their dominions extended at one time 
ffi the Amo to the Mhone, and in an earUer age as &r 
estward as Spain. 

<. Xjiguria is diTidad by the ApenniiMs into two ptrts ; that S. of tilt 
Itfains, called Lignstica ore, and that N. of tbem. On the uimmit of 
is Maritiiiia. near the coast, was Tropsa Augusti Turbia, erected bj 
pistas, and bearing the names of all the Alpine nations whom he had coo- 
led from Histria to Gaul. To the Eastwara of it on the coast were, Portus 
mHs Monoeci Monaco, founded by Hercules, who had a temple here and 
I hence called Monoecins ; Albium Intemelium Vintimiglia, the chief town 
he Intemelii ; Albium Ingaunum Albenga, the chief town of the Ingauni ; 
jua Gemoa^ destroyed by Hannibal but rebuilt by the Romans ; and Luna 
tas G* of Spez!U4U At the source of the little river Macra was Apua 
flremolt, the chief town of the Apuani, who made such a gallant resistanca 
inst the Romans : near it Q. Petillius was killed in a battle with tha 
axes. In Liguria N. of the Apennines was Tanarus fl. Tanaro, a tribu* 
r of the Padus, upon the banks of which stood the municipium PoUentia 
etaa, where the Komans under Stilicho were beaten by the Goths under 
iric, and the Roman colony Asta now Asti, Farther Eastward were, Der- 
a TorUmoy and Clastidium Catt^gio, where Claudius Marcellus gained the 
ilia opima by slaying Viridomarus, king of the Gesatss. 

9. Gallia Cisalpina or Tooata, was the largest 
the Italian provinces. It was bounded on the E. by 
e Adriatic Sea, Tartarus fl. Tartaro, and Benacus L.^* 
. di Garda ; on the N. by a line drawn from the head 
' this lake to M, Cervin m the Pennine Alps ; on the 
\ by the Alps themselves ; and on the S. by the Po^ 
e Apennines, and the little river Rubico Fiumicino : 
was by crossing this last river with an armed force, 
hen forbidden to do so by the Roman people, Julius 
esar declared war against the Senate and Pompey. 

the £. it bordered on Venetia, to the N. on Rhaetia, 

1 the W. on Gaul, and to the S. on Liguria and Etruria. 
teontained Piedmont N. of the Po, Lomhardy or the 
^Slanesey the duchies of Parma and Modena, and the 
Northern part of the Papal States. It was also called 
Sterior with respect to Transalpine Gaul, and Togata 
took its cities having the rights oi Latin cities. It formed 
nciently a part of the dommions of the Tusci, who were 
Iriven from it by the numerous migrations of the Gauls, 

i&d subsequently confined within the contracted limits 

— .... . ' , , , ■..I. . " ^ 

'^ Anne lacus tantos ? te, Lari maxime, teque 
Flnctibus et firemitu assurgens, Beaaco, marino 1 

Virg. GeorgA\A^% 

92 ItaUa— Gallia Cisalpmi. 

of Etraria. When the Oauls had complete "iSiti^i 
blished themselves in their new possessions, Ihiey 

still greater inroads on Italy, and after some time M|i|||^ 
ceeded in beating the Roman armies, and- eased- ftpifV^i 
Home itself. Though driven back by the bmvery.)il|i 
Camillus, they continued to harass their enemies, tullj 
length their own Cisalpine territory was wrested 
them, and made a Roman province. 

10. Gallia Togata was divided by the R.Fadut into Tnuwpwttna <<# 
Cispadana, so called with respect to Rome. The principal nveis in :lUf ? 
l^RANSPADANA Were, Ticinus n. TidnOj memorable for the de£iat whtcd |P« ^ 
Cora. Scipio suffered on its banks from Hannibal ; it rises in Adula.]U[.^ ^ ' ^ 
runs through Verbanus L. L. Maggiore into the Po : Addua fl. Addt^ ^ 
lias its source in the Rhstian Alps, and, after traversing JLariu& L. (ci 

also Comacenus) L. di Como, likewise enters the Po , Miocius fl 
running from the country of the Tridentini through Benacus L. L.diOi 
and Tartarus or Hadrianus fl. Tartaro, the Eastern boundary of the 
vince : the two last rivers are likewise tributaries of the Po, 

11. In the South Western part of the province were the Taurini, wboMi^ 
posed Hannibal after his passage of the Alps ; he took and piundowd dA'^ 
city Augusta Taurinorum Turin on the Po^ but it was afterwards niseji'ti ^' 
the rank of a colony by the Romans. On the Duria M^of were the Sa^jpiL ^ 
who long harassed the Romans, and resisted their attacks till thej#ait*i| 
totally subdued by Terentius Varro : their chief town was Au^sta "^ 
toria Citta d*Aosta, built in honour of Augustus on the site of V 
camp, and colonized by Prstorians. Between the rivers Ticinus and 
were the Insubres, the most powerful tiibe of Cisalpine Gaul ; their 
was Mediolanum Milany a splendid and flourishing city, suraiamed 
Athens from the liberal arts being there highly cultivated ; it was si 
on Lambrus fl. Lambro, and a little N. of it near Rko v^eie the 
Campi, famous for a dreadful slaughter of the Cimbri by Marius '^. 
num Pawa near the junction of the Ticino and Po, and Laus Pompeia 
Vecchio, may also be mentioned amongst the towns of the Insubres.. 
Orobii were N. of the Insubres ; their chief town was Comum Como, sil 
at the South Western extremity of Larius L. ; it was the birth-place 
younger Pliny, and was called Novum Comum, after Cssar had inrictijlt % 
the number of its inhabitants, by settling \ colony of 5,000 there i Bvgh- \ 
mum Bergamo was also in their territory. y 

12. The Cenomani were the Easternmost people in the Transpadant ; s 
they were the only Cisalpine Gauls who took the side of the Romans against > 
Hannibal, though they subsequently fought against them ; Brixia Brcseia 
was their capital, near Mela fl. Mella flowing into the Oglio* Their other 
cities were, Cremona Cremona on the Po, which suffered much doring the ^ 
second Punic war, as well as in the civil contentions of Auffustus, ana was 
at last destroyed by the partisans of Vespasian ip the war with ViteUios ; it \ 

'' Propter aquam, tardis ingens ubi flexibus errat 
Mincius, et tener^ jMratexit arundine ripas. 

Ktr^.'Gcor^.III. 15. 

'^ Cimbrorumque minas, et beneCactai Max\. PToptrt% IL i. 24. 

ItaUa — GalUa Cixalpina. 78 

t w wi mi, ■oon tlttftruds rebuilt with considertble mtf^ificencc : 1^1 an* 

JbntVA, summnded by the Mincius, shared in the misenet of Cre* 
k" ; it was of Tnecan origin, and was founded by Ocnus, the son of the 
isten Manto, in hdkMmr of whom it received its name : Andes Pietflia, 
iMtaHtam, waa the birth-place of. Virgil. Sirmio Sermione, a little 
Mala in Benacns L., was a favourite residence of Catullus**. To the 
f« of Mantua was Bedriacum Cimdale, fiEunous for two successive defeats^ 
WCalba br Olho, and of Otho by Vitellius; Ilostilia Ottiglia, lower 

■ the Pog IS tboi||;fat to have been the birth-place of Cornelius Nepot. 
Bwg^i ^, one of the most, ancient nations of Italy, originally posseted 

BBBOtiy afterwards called Venetia; but upon bein?^driven from it by the 
■li, they settled on the borders of Rhetia and the Transpadana, between 
iiftta Ollius and Athesis. 

i. The ptincipal rivers in the Oisfadana were, Trebia fl. Tr^bia, rising 
mria, on the banks of which the Romans, b. c. 218, sustained a severe 
It fimn Hannibal shortly after his victory over them on the Ticinus ; 
ImBa fl. PamtTQ or SouUerma, at the source of which was Litana Silva 
a Bamttna^ where L. Posthumius Albinus and his army were destroyed 
|ia Boii ; and Rhenus fl. Reno. In the last mentioned river, near Bologna , 
iVnnmTirorum I. Croeetta del Trebbo, celebrated for the meeting of the 
fcl Triumvirate, Augustus, Antony, and Lepidus, who remained there 

■ days, and agreed to share the sovereign authority aaionest them. All 
• livcis rise in the Apennines, and flow Northwards into tne Po. 

4. The Anamani dwelled in the Western part of the province, in Parma, 
k chief city was Placentia Placenza, near the junction of the Trebbia and 
; it was a colony formed by the Romans upon their apprehension of the 
edition of Hanmbal, whose attacks, as well as those of his brother Asdru- 
^ it withstood ; it was taken and burned by the Gauls under Hamilcar, at 
end of the second Punic war. To the £. of the Anamani^ in Bologna, 
Bi^iM, and Modems were the Boii, whose territory extended to the 
•istic : they were continually at war with the Romans, who, though always 
iMrioos, had no other mode of maintaining their conqaests but by removing 
B to the borders of Pannonia and Ulyricum. One of their principal cities 
I Paima Parma, on a cognominal nver still called Parma, famed for its 
■I*' ; it became a Roman colony, and was the birth-place of Cassius 
vns the poet, and of Macrobius the critic. Their other chief towns were, 
ipam Lepidi Reegio, where the elder Brutus was put to death by order of 
kipey to whom he had surrendered himself: Mutina Modena, where D. 
■tns was clqeely besiesed by Antony, till the latter, on his defeat at the 
i|^bonring Forum GuUorum Castel Franco, raised the siege ^" : and Fel- 

K Mantua, vs miserse nimiiim vicina Cremonae ! 

Virg. EcllX.28. 
£t qnalem infelix amisit Mantua campum,"^— — 

Id. Georg. II. 198/ 

** Peninsalanim, Sirmio, insularumque 
Ocelle, quascunqne in liquentibus stagnis, 
Marique vasto fert uterque Neptunus : 
-Quam te libenter, qnauKjue laetus inviso ! CatulL XXXI. X. 

^"^ Velleribus primis Apulia, Parma secundis 

Nobilis : Altinum tertia laudat ovis. Mart, XIV. ep. civ. 

*■ Penuina fames, Mutinaeque labores. Lucan^l. 4\. 


r74 Italia^Vmeti. ^^ 

jina, called afterwiinlE BononiB fiolngnu, al one time Ihe piuic^iBl cJ^^mH 
Tusci N. ortlie Apennines. i-fHj 

IS. To llie N. of the Boii, in Ferniro, were the Lingones. Their cfifef 
city was Kavedna Ruiinriu, ori^nallyroiiDded bj some Thessaliatis. Wh^ 
Rome was possessed by Lbe barbariaos it became ihe reiidence of the B^ 
peron of (he Wesi, and arterwaids of the Exarchs oppuinted by the EmpenA 
of the East, when the Northeia part of Italy was in the pOi>esuaii of W 
Lombards; it was badly supplied with watet", but though silDalaf^ 
the Diidit of marshos, it was a healthy place owing to the regularily of S| 
tides. Its port, at the moulh of Bedesis S. Rani-n, became ttie great im4 
■taCion of the Romans on the Adriatm ; but Augustus caused a new poTIB 
be constructed near the mouth of the neighbouring river Candianui {tf 
called Portus Classia Fal dl Claa*. " 

ganes belonged also Spina Lmgailritui, founded in the tlmbrtaa lerrilOtjHB , 
the Pelasgi. which became in time <o flourishing a colony, as (o preMuS, 
Ihe treasury at Delphi more valuable oHerings than any other 

■e only ilO stadia from the «ea, a distance which the alluvial deporicdT, 
the Po has increased eightfold. 

16, Venetia, with the territories of tlie Carni 
HisTRiA, was bounded on the S. by the Adriatic t 
Po, on the W. by Tartarus fl. and Benacus L., oni™. 
N. by Plavis fl, and the Carnic Alps^ which with i!$i\ 
little river Arsia Arsa formed its Eastern limits. To ^s 
S. and W. it touched on Cisalpine Gaul, to the N. on'^ 
Rhsetia and Noricum, to the E. on lUyricum. Venetia'n 
comprehended tlie coimtry still known as Veatce; tflgl' 
Cami were cantoned in a part of Carniola to tlie "W. «' i 
the Carnic Alps, and the Histri in the peninsula ofV 
Istria. ^ , 'i 

17. Venetii was so called from the Vetieti or Heoeti, an ancieal peqrit * i 
ofPaphlttgoniaio Asia, who, afier having lost Ibeir leader in the Tr^ i|| 
tvar, migrated hither unJer Ihe command of Antenor, the Trojan piiace, lil : 
having eipelled the Engann, tbe original inhalntauts of Ihe country, KHM * 
faere. One of the principal places in Venetia was Atria or llsdns <*>. t 
■n ancieat city, thought to have been founded by tbe Pelaagi -, aecoi^B^^b It 
Livy, it was from this city that the Mare Hathiatioum received iti auM. '>! 
The other cities of Venetia were, Ateite Eut, a Roman colony; Vaoai ^1 
Ftroiia on the Athesis, a city of the Cenomani, tbe birth-place of CotuUqs** H 
■nd Pliny the naturalist ; Vicentia riMnia ; and Palavium Padata or Poihi, S 
■aid to have been founded by Anlenor'' ; it was Ihe liiitb-place of LWf. t 

" Sit cisterna mihi, quiim vioea. malo Ravenox: \ 

Cum poasim multo vendete pluris aquim. Marl. III. tp. 1»L . 

" 'l*antum magna sno debet Verona CatuUo, i 

yuantum parva suo Mantua Vitgilio. Id. XIV. cp. cicv. ■ 

" Anteaur potuit, mediis elapsus Achivia, I 

llljiricos penetiare sinus, atque intima tutus 

Regaa Liburnoruni, et fontem supenue Timavi : 

Italia — Cami — Histria — Etruria. 76 

m fitaatod on Mrfnacii Biinor fl. BmcAigUmet which, m well «s 
ens Major fl. Brwta, riies in the Tiidentine Alpe and flows into the 

Tax Carvx, an Alpine people, were separated from the Veneti on 
iby: Tilaif emptns fl. Tai^Hamtnto, and from the Histri on the S. by the 
onnio Bimmt Tbeirprincipal cities were, Jnlium Carnicuro ZugU§, 
Iby CsBiar; Noinia Vmuoiu, famed for its gold mines and for the 
af Cn« Caibo by the Cimbri; Forum Julii Cividad di Friuli on Na- 
Kmtmmm ; Aqnileia JqmUU founded by the Gauls, but taken by the 
■ mod ao atren^hened by them as to become the gresit defence of 
a thin quarter ; it withstood a siege by Maximinus, who was slain 
itn w«Us by his own troops : Tergeste Triate, a Roman colony, which 
■me to Terfpesttnus Sinns G. ofTriitte, Between Aquileia and Ter- 
ras the litcte river Timavus* Tmmhw, which ran through Timavus L. 
Tnrnmo into the sea ; on it were some warm springs, with a famed 
: and ^Tove of Diomedes, to whom a white horse was annually sacri- 
the Veneti wera noted for their fleet horses. 

HisTRiA was included between the rivers Formio and Arsia. Its 
tants, said to be of Thiacian origin, were pirates and lived on plunder ; 
rere not subjected to Rome till six centuries after its foundation. Its 
owns were ^gida C^po d*Ittria, built on ii^'gidis I. and joined to the 
ty a bridge ; I^rentium Pannxo ; Ursaria Orura ; and Pola PoUit said 
e been founded by the Colchiani whom ^Eetes sent in pursuit of Medea 
le Argonauts ; from it the Southern promontoiy of Hutria was called 
com Pr., and the adjacent G. of QMMrnero Folaticus Sinus. 

L Etru ri A was bounded on the N. by the R. Macra 
the Apennines, on the E, and S. by the Tiber, and 
lie W. by the Tyrrhenian Sea. To the N. it bordered 
Liiguria and Gallia Cisalpina ; to the E. on Umbria 
the Sabini ; and to the S. on Latium. It contained 
duchy of Massa and principality of Carrara, the 
ly of Lucca f the Grand duchy of Tuscany^ and that 
pf the Papal States which is W. of the Tiber. 

. The inhabiUnts of Btruria were called Tyrrheni or Tyrseni by the 
ks, and Tnsci or Etrusci by the Romans, but the unity of these two 
e aa well as their origin are points not generally agreed on : some 
ing the Tyrrheni under the conduct of Tyrrhenus, on the occasion of a 
fomine, ftom Lydia^ in Asia Minor to the shores of Uie Adriatie 

H!c taimen ille urbem Patavt sedesque locavit 

Tenennrum, et genii nomen dedit, armaque flxit 

Troia : Virg. JEn. I. 247. 

Difierent is the description of this river by Virgil : 

♦ • • fontem superare Timavi : 

Uode per ora novem vasto cum murmure montis 
It mare proruptum, et pelago premit arva sonanti. jEn. I. 244. 
" Urbis Agyllinas sedes : nbi Lydia quondam 

Gens, hello praeclara, jugis insedit Etruscis. Id, YIII. 4T9. 

Nod quia, Msecenas, Lydonim quidquid Etiuscoa 

IncoJmt Saes, nemo geaerosior est te ; Hot. Stt^.l. ViA. 


76 Italia — Etryria. 

eaorThraci i 
- of Felask. 

Airiving in Uinbria. they found Its gbotiginal people at war nilh ihs Skmlt, i 
■nd joined them in the eipuleioD of the latter, whose terriioty ( Eltruria.) WM , 
Buigncd to them by the Umbri. Here they built iheir twelve great citiMt . 
Volaterm, Vetulonii, Atcelium, CortonB, Perasia, Clusium. Ruselln, \A ', 
unii, i''alem, Tarquinii, V'eii, and Utere, ench of which bad iU sejand| , 

EveroDT nnderltae title Lucumon. The Tusci.on the other haad, wen.jaV ^ 
bljr, an aborigiaal people, dwelling at flist new the Umbri ; they ama't» , 
llegteeE not only to have become masters of the country of the Tynbenv Wi , 
also to have encroached on the terrilory of the Umbri, driving Ihem from. M , 
banks of the Tibet, and wjresling from them city alter city, till their dununinM _ 
axlended beyond Ihe Po, and from the shores of the Adriatic to the TniMI 
Sea. The Tuscans vere cemaikahle lor their lapersiition, and for Ml ,f 
belief in divinalion and Hug;uryj their oomic dancets,- called Ludii. weieafet . 
in great reputation. i> 

'n. There were several Iskea in EIruria. The most celebrated of lUrf ^ 
•ftie, Trasimeous L." TratimiBx in the Easlera part of the province, on fli> ^ 
)>orde» of which (he Romans, under the consul Flaminius, were routed WW ^ 
gteatslBUghterhyllannibal, B.C. ^17; Prilis or Prelius L. L. lit CoM^liMft «, 
SD tbeceosl, not far from which the Gauls and Cxsalm were defeated wikt,^ 
Romani, b.c. 225; and Vadimonis L. Bosuiw/ln in the Southern part oTfll ,^ 
luovince. where the Etrurians were defeated by the Romans, b. c. 310, ttt o 
again in conjunction with the Gauis, B. c. 281. -- ^ 

33. Amongst the priniupal cities in the Western part of Etruria wM <^ 
Luna Lani, famous for its large cheeses and for its while marble; Lin ij 
X.veca; PlsEei'ua neai the mouth of the Amo, said to have been built shofW \i, 
after the Trojan war by the Pelojionnesian Pisaii, and hence sumamM \\^ 
Alpheie. Foitus Herculis Liburni or Labroais is now called L^Aon a 
LiatTRo:, and Volaterta; VaUerra, the birlh-place of the satirist P«>^ "^ 
populonium Popoloaia was the great naval arsenal of Etruria, and was £ t , 
Btniyed in the civil wars of Sylla : from Velnlonii Valeta the Romans A ^ 
•aid to have derived the insignia of their magisterial offices. Cosa" in mUc [v 
neu Stf\la, a Roman colony, lay at the fijot of Mans Argentams Argeatfft '' 
Tarquinii TiiriAina on Malta S., was the birth-place of Tarcjuinius PnKnf V 

■nd the place where Tnges, 

■prung out of the earth, turned up by the (uougia. Centum Ceiln CMf 1 

Vacchm was also aaroed Tn^ani Poitus, from thai empem catmog kftp ■ 

Laibour to be here construcUHl. C»re Ceriicl«ri was called by the Gn^ 4, 

Agylla; its inhabitanls hospitably receiued the Romans who fled there wM( . 
the fire of Vesta when Rome was besieged by the Gauls, for which inpotlaa 

lervicE they were made citizens of Rouie. but without the power of volingte ^ 

public assemblies''. Al Lorium C. Ovidir Aoloninus Pius was brought VJi I; 

" Sial tibi Flaminiui Trasymenaque litora testes ;— 

Ovid. Fan. VI. 766. ^ 
" Massicus leralil princeps secsl eequora Tigri : 

mceaia CtusI, 

QniquB nrbem liquSie Cosas. „ 

* ThceiLpiession of Horace, 

, Csrile cet4 

Digni. Epin, I. V 

though eeareyiae a reproach upon the peTronstowhom it is applied, ii 

inted entite ci 

ItaUa^Umbria* 77 

jUm} he died ; Fortiu Angoiti Porto, the haven of Romi, stood at the 
hSi Tiber aiid on its Nortbera shore. 

ftiie Eaatern part of Etruria we find Pistoria PUtofa, where Catiline 
ibBd and kHleo, a. c. 6S ; Fnsals FimoU, a Roman colony, as was 
neighbouring Floventia Floronee on the Artw, the modern capital of 
^flena Julia Sietum, near the springs of Urobro fl. ; Arretium Armxo ; 
(StrtiMM, the first city which the Tyrrheni occupied after having left 
leHients on the Po, whence it has been called the metropolis of their 
I it bore ibrmerly the name Corithus, and was the reputed country 
■OS, the founder of Troy. At Perusia Porugia Lucius Antonius was 
.and starved out by Augustus; Clusium Chiuti, called formerly 
Ike capital of Porsenna, king of Etruria, was taken by the Gauls 
mums, previous to their marching to Rome. Vulsinii BoUona, the 
CB of S^anus, and one of the most- opulent towns of Etruria, is 
mtk Vulsiniensit h, L, di Bokona; Fsnum Voltumna Viterbo. is 
ble as the place where the Etrurians held their general councils ; at 
iwD Gallete dieCarmina Fescenoina^ were first invented. Besides 
I meet with Falerii or Falisci*^ Cimta Cattttkma, the inhabitants of 
rere sumamed JEqui from their love of Justice ; Soracte Mons* 
1^ fiuned for its temple of Apollo ; Lucus Ferenis Chntella, where 
i^h freauented and wealthy temple of the goddess Feronia ; Cr^' 
Yalea, wnere the three hundred Fabii were killed in a battle whh the 
1^; Veu Jiola, for a long time the powerful rival of Rome, but taken 
by Camillus after a siege of ten years, b. c. SOS. — Off the coast of 
were several islands. The largest of these was Ilva Elba, called 
I by the Greeks, and famed for its iron mines ; it had two harbours, 
Lonc^ Porto Louffme, and Portus Argous Porto Ferrqp), so called 
I gbip Argo, which is sud to have touched there. 

Umbria was bounded on the N. by the Uttle 
ibico ; on the E* by the Adriatic Sea ; on the S. 
} rivers ^sis Esino^ and Nar JVera ; and on the 
f the Tiber. To the N. it bordered on Gallia Cisal- 
to the E. on Pieenum, to the S, on the. territory of 
ibini^ and to the W. on Etruria. It contained that 
D of the Papal States which includes UrbinOy Citta 
xtelloy Northern Ancoruif Western Perugia^ and part 
Jbria or Spoleto N. of the R. JVera. The Umbri 
probably the best claim to the title of the Aborigines 
ily; for they seem to have occupied the central 
Qt the country till they were expelled from them by 

nuptial songs : 

Fescennina per hnnc invecta licentia morem 
Versibus altemis opprabria rustica fudit, &c. 

Hot. Epist, 11. uU5. 
l\ Fescenninas acies, sequosque Faliscos, — Virg, JEn, VII. 695. 
lurrender of Falisci, with the story of Camillus and the schoolmaster, 
I known from Livy, V. 27. 

^ Tides ut ait^ stet nive candidum 

Soracte: Hor. Carm,,!. Vk. A* 

£ 3 


78 Italia — Picettton. 

tile Tusci, the Sabini, and Latini, who are all supposed s 
to have descended from them. In later timea, the Sft^ » 
bones, a colony of Gauls, invading Italy, drove tin u 
0mbri from the coast of the Adriatic into the moaA^ "= 
tains, and after beating the Romans on the banks of ttS; ," 
AUia, sacked Rome : they were afterwards vanquished i.| 
and totally extirpated, and the whole of Umbria thejit -t 
became a Roman province. , I' 

S6. The principal rivers of Urniuia are, Ariminus B. Marecehia; Fittttti, 
nu fl. Feglia ; MeUuma S. Metauro. aa Che haaU of ohich, near ToiA (, 
^empnuiii, Asilnibal was defeated and slain in a battle with (he Rumnh iiI: 
B.C. 3»7'<'; SenaS. C«wno, and ^sis &. all of these nin into.lkta, 
Adrialic Sea. Tinia 11. Timia joins the Tiber near Ptrugia ; one of its UftMr t» 
tariei is Clituniaaa &." Ctitunno, celebrated for its beautiful temple, and Ut i^ 
ite waters comiaunicaUng a white colour to the fiockH of cattle thai ktImI 
«pon hs baalu. Nai H." Ntrc, famed tot iu headlong course and dt- 
nnureoua naters, also floKS iota the Tiber. Amoogst the principal places it ' 
tlmbria were, Sureiaa Ssriiiia, where Flautus, ll^ comic poet, was boaj 
Ariminum Rimini, t Roman colony, consideied Ihe key of Italy no this uda; 
it was Che firsC dty taken bj Cesar aFlei hii crossing the Rubico : Pisaunatf 
PetaTu; UrlNnam Hotteoie Urbinn, n-hers Valens, Vitellioa' general. WH 
pnt to death; Forum Semproaii Fonombrmie, on Aletaurus fi. ; and ScM 
Gallica Sinigoglia, huitt by the Senones, 

27. PiCENiTM was bounded on the \V. by the Apen* 
nines, on the N. by ^sia fl. Esiao, on the E. by the 
Adriatic Sea, and on the S. by Suinus fl. Fino, althoof^ ^'j 
its limits in this last direction are sometimes extendid . 
to Aternus fl. Pescara. To the N. it bordered on tke } 
Senones, to the W. on ITmbria and the Sabmi, and to 
the S, on the Vestini. It included the Southern part cS * 
Ancona in the Papal States, and Northern Abrusxo ' 
Ultra in the Kivgdom of Naples. The Piceni were * '" 
branch of the Sabini who settled here under the conduct '' 
of Picus ; their territory was very fruitftil and noted for ^ 
its apples^*. The Pnetutii, who mhabited Picenura S.of * 
Helvinus fl. Salinelh, were of a diflerent race from tbe , 

Testis iMetaurum flumen, el Asdn 


" Hint albi, Clitumoe, greges, el m 
Victiraa, »pe luo perfuii fluminc 
Romanos ad templa Deflm duiere 






)s. rt 





SalphureA Nar aibui aquA,- 
" PicMB cedunl pomis Tibut 



K. TO. 



Jtatta — SaUni — .^juL 79 

ill probably of Liburnian origin ; their country was 
d for its wine. 

The liveni of Picenum were small tnd unimportant : the principal of 

nere» Potentia fl. Patmaa, Truentus ft Tronto, and Vomanus fl. Vomano ; 

ll rise in the Apennines, and nin into the Adriatic Sea, The rocks of 

I and Mens Severas^ M'. SibUia are high peaks in the great chain of 

Mtmioes ; but the highest point in the whole ridge is Mons Cunanis 

Carmo or II gran Stuso, The princi]MLl towns in Picenum were, Ancona 

I, so call^ from its angular situation between two promontories, and 

» hare been originally founded by some Syracosans who fled from the 

J of J>ioiiysiua ; it became a colony and great naval station of the 

OS. Ascuuun, sumained Picenum, to distinguish it from the Apulian 

IBD9 AseaU on Truentus fl., a strong fortress, which sustained a long 

■gaiDst Pompey, but was at last compelled to surrender : and Hadria 

iinpposed to have been a colony of the Venetian Hadria), the country 

-empevor Hadrian's ancestors, and much esteemed for its wine. 



• Sab IN I and ^qui. The territory of these two 
011S was bounded on the W. and N. by the Tiber and 
no, on the E. by the Apennines, and on the S. by 

fl. Teverone, To the W, and N. it bordered on 
una and Umbria, to the E. on the Praetutii, Vestini, 

1 Marsiy and to the S. on Latinm. The Sabini were 
itoned in Southern Umbriay in Sabinay and in Western 
ruzzo Ultra ; the ^qui dwelled to the S. E. of them, 
parts of Campagna di Roma and Abruzzo Ultra, 

» The Sabini were probably descendants of the Umbri ; they are said to 
s derived their name from the deity Sabus or Sabinus, their leader or 
tenitor. They were remarkable for their bravery and hardihood \ as well 
Dr their gravity and purity of manners ; they were also celebrated for their 
ntations and knowledge of herbs. They are said by some to have been 
first people who took up arms against the Romans, to avenge the rape of 
r women ; upon which occasion, their king Tatius left his possessions and 

'^ Qui Tetricse horrentes rapes, montemque Severam, 

Casperiamque colunt, Virg* Mn, VII. 713. 

' Hanc olim veteres vitam coluere Sabini, 
Hanc Remus et frater : sic fortis Etruria crevit. 
Scilicet et rerum facta est pulchespma lioma. 

Id. Georg.W^^*!^ 
£ 4 

80 Italia — ^ni — Vtatini. \. 

jotned Eomului ia the legal power, wbilst bii lubjedi, Iha 

Cuie5, were ineorporaled with ihe Rorosn citiTena ; after Chis union 

natloii!) nere indbcrimmately called Quirites. In Ihe reign of Hostili 

tfiird king of Rome, the Sabini who had nol left their aocieal lerriloi^ ^mn \t 

\(i war with the Romans, aad after having heeo tbrmigh » Beiies of yeU* _ 

repealedly defeated, were at last complelelj suhjecled to ihe Romani 1^ iKJ 

consul Cnrius Deotatu!, B.C. 202. - ': 

3. The priDcipal rivei-s in the temtoiy ne are desi^nbing weir, VelinOsJa in 
VtlinB, which rise; in the Apennines, aad nini into the Nem at ihe bealiliiU ;, 

fall lit' Temi; and A.m9 a? Tecerani, which Hks in the cauDlry of ihe i£>|ni, ' 
and ilows We^itward lata the Tiber a few miles N. of Rome. Between tht >' 
Nar and Auio the Tiber receives Allia fl.^ where the blal battle was &iie1I[ I'^ 
between the Romans and Ihe Gauls under Brtnnus, b. t. 380. the day b^M '« 
tiie latter eniered Ronje. Telonius B. Turana, memorable for Ihe (iefeil* *[ 
the coDJiil Rutilius on its banks during the Marsic war, rises in the territn '• 
orthe Marsi, and flows N. W. into the Velina. ' '» 

4. Amongst the chief towns of the Sabini were, Culiliffi Pulmio oa Cvti- ''- 
lis L., (he umbilicus or centre uf Italy ; Reate Riele on the Veliao. )ud H «■ 
have been built before the Trojan war, and to have deiived ill muna IRn '>: 
Bhea or Cybete ; it was famed for its breeds of mules and asses, and DU ip 
situated in a valley so pleasant as to merit the title of Reatina TeiUja i.| 
Cures CaiTtu, Ihe birth-place of Noma Pompilius', is celebraled as bBvaf ^ 
given the name of Quirites (o the Romans, ils iuhabilants bein^ so called: i,,^ 
Nomentum La Mentana was famous for its excellent wine ; Fidenm CoiW |V 
Oiu&ilniwas noted fbrils perseverance in resisting the Roman yoke. BeXwSa 
this last town and the Anio was Mans Sneer, whither the Roman popalM* ^ 
retired in a tumult, which caused the election of ihe Tribunes. The villain [* 
Horace is sBpposed to have been at License, near the source of Digenljii &, ^ 
or Lifeaia, which flows from Lucrelilis M,* Librtiti into the Anio ibon 
Timli. ■ ■" 

5. Thk j^qirit noted for the early and contioual warfare which. th«y m* , 
ned on against Rome, occupied a small territory towards the upper cmuif ,, 
<rf Ihe Anio ; their possessions extended once on both sides of tliii riTKj, ^' 
Ihough il serred in after times as the boundary bettreen them and' LaduSi. i. 
They were finally subjugated by the Romans, a. c. 303. Their ptincipal' , 
town* were Vicus Vanua Vianiani, near the junction of Digenlia fl. with ikt ,. 
Anio i and Caiseoli Catsali, one of (be places which the Romans used »»» , 
residence for hostages and illustrious prisoners. , 

6. Vestini, Marrucinj, Pelicni, and Mars}. < 
The territory of these four people was bounded on the ' 

' El pneceps Anio, el Tibumi lucus, Hot. Cam. I.YiL IS. ' 

' Quosque secans infoustuin inlerloit Allia nomen. 

* Quis procnl ille aulem ramis insignis otivs, 
Sacni ferenst nosco crines incanaque menla 
Regis Romani; prinias qui legibus urbem 
Fundabit, Curibus parvis et pauperc lerrii 
Mistui in imperium magnum. Id. VI. SI I. 

' Veloi amiEOum siepe Lucretilem 
Mutat LycBO Faunus ; el igneam 
Defenail leiialem capfllis 

Usque meis, pluviosnue ««iilos. Hot, Carm. I. iiiL I. 

rtaSa—VtitM ■ Jftrmrriiii^pglyni-Jfam. 81 

^fMams tt^lKno, on the E. by the Adriatic nnd 
M d> l^oro, (HI the S. by parts of Sagrus fl. Sangro 
ihmA. Zdriy and on the W. by the Apennines. To 
F. if - bordered on Picenum. to the E. on the Fren- 
to' the S. on Samnium and Latium, and to the W. 
le iBqui and Sabini : it contained nearly the whole 
hruMoso Ultra, 

ne principal rivers are, Atemus (!. Ftteara, rising in the Apennines 
hb ^rings of the Velinos and Troentus, and running with a winding 
into the Adriatie Sea ; and Sagrus fi. Sangro, which rises in the same 
of numntains, and passes through the counU7 of the Frentani into the 
4b Stttm The sotirce of Liris 6. Liri is in the country of the Marsi near 
is L.* X. Fuehw, or L, di Celano as it is also called, whence it runs 
. Southerly course through Latium into the Tuscan Sea. 

Cbk y E8TINI w«re» probably, a branch of the Sabini, and inhabited the 
em part of the teriitoiy we are describing as far as Atemus fl« Pescara, 
duef towns were, Forali Civitella ; Amitemum S, Vittorino, the birth- 
iif SaJlust ; and Hnna CivUa di Penna, which sustained a siege against 
binans donDg the Social war. The Marrucini, said to be descended 
ho MaJsi^ dwelled between the rivers Pacara and Faurus Foro : their 
town vras Teate Cfueti, a populous and flourishing place. 

Tax Pbuomi, who were descendants of the Sabini and much fiuned as 

anSy. dwelled S. of the Vestini and £. of the Marsi; they seceded 

ike BSarsic confiederacy before the close of the war. Amongst their 

qpal cities was Corfinium S. Pelino, chosen by the allies in the Social 

B tha seat of the new empire, whence it was sumamed Italica, and 

I for some time the capital of Italy. Sulmo Sulmona was another of 

towns ; it was the birth-place of Ovid^, and suffered greatly from the 

lance of Sylla. Tiis Mahsi were S. of the Vestini,. and W. of the 

jiiL -They were probably descended from the- Sabini, although Marsus 

ipn of Circe, or Marsyas a Phrygian, is said to have been the founder 

BIT race. They were the first people to take up arms against the Ko- 

rin the Marsic or Social war, b. c. 91, and,, after fighting for four years, 

gmined, vi;ith their allies, most of those immunities for which they had 

contending. They were greatly addicted to magic. The chief cities 

le Maisi were Mamibium S. Benedetto at the entrance of Pitonius fl. 

the Fucine Lake; and Alba Fucentia AWe,. whith belonged at one time 

he i£qui, but was wrested from them by the Romans, who planted a 

ny there and made it the residence of some state prisoners. 

10. Latium was bounded on the N. by the Tiber 

1 Anio, on th^ £. by the Liris and Vinius^ and on the 

and W. by the Tuscan Sea.. To the N. it bordered 

Etruria, the Sabini, -Equi^ and Marsi, and to the 

on Campania: it comprehended the Campagna di 

* Te nemus Angitiao, vitrei te Fucinus undd, 
Te liquidi flevere lacus. Virg. JEn, VII. 759. 

^ Sulmo mihi patria est ^elidis uberrimus nndis. 

Oyid. TrUt,\N.x.%. 

£ 5 

82 Italia — Latium. 

Roma and part of Terra di Lavoro. The Northern t[ 
WLrt of Latium was inhabited by the Latini, Kutuli, and i; 
Bemici ; the Southern part by the Volsci and Augonee.- n 

II. The appellatiDTi Latiam has been said to hnve Wa dtrrvel fRnn ibc ii 
word laleo, liecause Satuia lav ^id Ibere from the piusuil of hb soa ' ; bn| w 
dthers deduce it, probably vrith as little juatice, froiD a prince d( the COU- , 
tij cslled Letinus, II was »t first only applied to that part of Italy ttUH t. 
was inhabited by (he Latlni and Rutuli ; liut subaequenttj, in the Ihaell ^ 
the eoosuls, it extended fium the mouth of the Tiber te Sinuessa beyond (It ,ji 
Inouth of the Liris. The earliest inhabitants of Latiur — "■■' '" '■— 

intheSicani; they migialed from the banks of the Sicanuj i 


. they migiaU^ _ _ _^ 

after haTing traversed certain parts of Italy were driven from il into SmR k 
frf the Aborigines, as were also the Siculi, who were of Ligurian mi^oS . 
bd been beaten out of Etruiia by the Umbri and TyrtheniPelasgi. tbf * 
Aborigiaea intermiiiing with colonies of the latter people occupied Lstfd^ '£ 

12, Latini. Roma Rome, the metropolis of lUbr* 
and once the mistress of the known world, was situatflf , 
on the Tiber eighteen milee above its mouth : it is b^ ^ 
to have been founded by Romulus on the Palatine hjO : 
(at the foot of whicli he and his brother had been t^ 
posed), 733 years B, c, and 431 years after the deetnw "' 
tion of Troy. " 

13. \1'hether thii origin of Home, with all its state and circumstance « 
fltUecinE to its inhabitants, be the true one, ii very questionable. U'haAH 

it was originally tbunded by the Siculi, Etruscans, or I'yrrheni-Pelasgi, » « 
equally uncertain. But llml it was a city of some cooseqeence when Ro> % 
mulus dictated its laws, seems evident froin the regulations of pomp and Ir 
royalty ivith which he wis suirDUnded, aud from tlje imposing force whkli ^ 
he was able to bring inlo the Geld. Home is said (o have been ruunde4 IC- i 
carding to the ceremoniei prescribed by the Etruscans, and to have been at i, 
lint occupied by three tribes with Etiuaran names-, from them its inhtbi- \ 
tants drew much of their language, maay of tlieir civil and religious iu^tiir i 
lions, tbeit insignia of magistracy and ofiice, their riles of augun and K- | 
erifice, aa well as their militaiv weapons and tactics ; and llial from Ihea i 
also they obtained a name foe ineir dty, that name which it wax forhiddeD . 
on pain of death fur any one to utter, is not altogether beyond the bounds of 

14. To the city of Romulus on the Palatine hill, tlie 
figure of which was square, Tatius added the Capitol 

' Hac ego Saturnum memini tellure n 

OxTitibui regnis ab Jove pulsus c 

]nde diu genii man&il Satumia nom< 

Dicta quoque e^t Lalum terra, la 


ell as the Coeliaa and Quirinal hills. The city then 

not more than four rates. In the reign of Servius 

his Rome included the seven hills ^ on 'the left bank 

le Tiber, as well as the Janiculum on the opposite 

of the river. These seven hills obtained for it the 

Mt Septicollis; they were M. Palatinus^*', Capito- 

a^ Cceliua, Quirinalis, Viminalis, Esquilinus, and 

Dtinus. Of these the M. Palatinus was the centre, 

Quirinali^ the N., and the Aventinus the S. extreme ; 

Yiminalis, Esquilinus, and Coelius were on the 

tern side, the Capitolinus on the Western. The 

litolme hill seems to have once borne the name Sa- 

ia, from a tradition of a town having been built 

« by Saturn, whence Rome itself was sometimes 

ed Satumia. The city at this time was divided into 

r r^ions, and had thirty-seven gates, the circuit of 

walls being about sixty stadia. This extent of Rome 

> preserved with but htde alteration till the time of 

relian, who included the Campus Martins within .its 

its, and added to it in various quarters till its circum- 

»ice amounted to about fifteen miles, though some 

ounts increase this to twenty-one, and even to fifty 


S. Augustus, however, found it necessary to divide the city into fourteen 
Kis, instead of the four which had been adopted till his time. These 
e, 1. Porta Capena, so called from Porta Capena, the most celebrated 
) of Home : not feir from it ran the rivulet Almo Acqua Santa, where 
iml rites were performed in honour of Cybele, which rises in the valley 
Sgeiia*'. 2. Coelimontana on the Coelian hill : in it was one of the most 
J and profligate parts of Rome called Suburra, which name sometimes 
m to the whole city. 3. Isis et Serapis, which derived its name from a 
m!e dedicated to these divinities : in this division was the splendid am- 
fneatre of Vespasian, commonly distinguished as the Colosseum, near 

^^^^mm^mt^ ^ ■ -I I ■■ I ■ » 11 ^ ■■.■■■■■■■ I ■ ■ I . ■ ■ , ■ ■ ^ . ■ — ^^^^^i^ 

® Dis, quibus septem placuere colles, — Hor, Carm, Sac, 7. 

'^ Utve Palatinis hsrentem collibus olim. 

Cum subito vidit frondescere Romulus hastam ; 

Ovid, Met. XV. 5C0. 
*> The source of this river is supposed to correspond with the fountain of 
{eria, so celebrated in the early history of Rome for the pretended con^ 
fences of Nuroa witli her : 

Deflnit incerto lapidosus murmure rivus : 

Sagpe, sed exiguis haustibus, inde bibes. 
Egeria est, quae praebet aquas, Dea grata Camcenis. 
ilia Numae conjux consiliumque fuit. 

Ovid. Fait. \lVr»V 
JB 6 

M lealia — Latium. 

which Titos had a palace^ where was the funous gnwp of te' 
4k Templam Pacis, so called from the temple of Peace, which ~ 
huilt there after the overthrow of Jerusalem : in it were the colonal itaAfl^ 
of Nero 120 feet hi^, and the Carino, an elegant part of tha cto^ 
Through this region ran the Via Sacra, by which the victorioas Boman nil 
Bcrals led their troops in procession to the capitol^'. 6. EMfniHmi OB m^ 
^Isquiline and Viminal hills : in it were the gardens and house of Maoeaa^ 
the houses of Virgil and Propertius, and the PuticuU or pits dug to raomt 
the dead bodies of the lower orders. 6. Alta Semita : here were the tvnnli 
and portico of Qnirinus, which gave name to the Quirinal hill ; and. M 
Campus Sceleratus» where the Vestals, who had violated their vowb^C 
chastity, were buried alive. 7. Via Lata, so called from die Xim^IsA 
which passed through it ; here were the temple of the Sun, and the boiu»4f 
Martial. 8. Forum Romanum : here, between the Capitolina and PaktM 
hills, was the Forum of a rectangular shape and surrounded by terapUi^ 
basiUcks, porticoes, and statues;; in it were the Rostra or elevated aait^ 
whence the trators addressed the people ''. Here also were the Cum ar 
Senate-house ; the temple of Vesta, in which the eternal fire was ^Hcaene^ 
and where the Palladium, saved from the ruins of Troy, was deposited ; the 
temple of Janus, closed only in time of peace *^; the temjple of Jupiter Ci^ 
pitolinus ; and the Tarpeian rock or citadel ". In the vicinity of the CuU 
tol'^ was the house of Ovid ; and to the S. of it was the Career bepmlif 
Ancus Martius, th^ low£r part of which from being added by Senrius Tnt 
lius was called Tullianum. 

16. The Ninth Region, called Circus Flaminius, derived its name fton 
the Circus Fhiminius built bv the consul C. Flaminius, who perished'in the 
battle at- Trasymemis L. : here were the temple of Bellona, in firont of 
which war was declared against any power by the throwing of a apear^.; 

^' Concines majore poeta plectra 
Cassarem, quandoque trahet feroces 
Per sacrum clivum,^ merits decerns 

Fronde Sioamhros. Hor* Carm. IV. ii. S5. 

*' This name was given to the suggatuMy or taised seat, in consequence of 
its having been adorned with the beaks of some ships taken from the Antiates. 
To the Rostra the hand and head of Cicei-o, which had been cut off by the 
command of Antony, wei» affixed : 

Ingeiiio maous est ec cervix caisa ; nee unquam 

Sanguine causidici maduerunt rostra pusilli.. Juv. Sat. X. 120. 

^* Closed for the third time by Augustus. 

' vacuum duellis. • 

Janum Quirini clausit. Hor, Corm.. IV. zv. 8. 

" From this rock criminals were hurled :. 

Tune Syri, Damae, aut Dionyst Alius, audes 
Dejicere e saxo cives, aut tradere Cadmo ? Id, Sat. I. vi. 38. 
Manlius, who had here so bravely defended the Capitol, and sMKed hits 
country, was afterwards throwiv from this rock, as a public criminal. 

** — ^— stet Capitolium 

Fulgens, — Hbr, Carm. III. iii. 42. 

*^ Prospicit a tempio summum brevis ai-ea Circum. 
Est ibi non parvae pdrya. columna. notsB. 
Hinc solet hasta manu, belli pnemintia, mitti ; 
In Regem et gentes cum placet anna capi. 

Ovid. Fast. VI. 205. 

teiKiirtt ;ouiA tilt CwBfim Martini^where Hie Bonna Tcnith nctiwd 
■I— rtidft^ c tm ci iieB ^ 10. Pihttium,. occupying the Pihuine nill, wee 
fttente ^reeSdenee of the Cbmts, from the time of Augustus to the 
m^oTtht* mm^ni here were the LupercaP"; the temple of Jepiter 
ff?: Ikte -palace of Augustus; and the splendid temple of Apollo with 
tpBdMtBBfLSbnry, where the wiitines of the best authors were deposited! 
»tlis Masimue^ so called from the Circus Mazhnus built by Tan||iii- 
£riKiHi' widi acoommodation for 900,000 spectators. In this regioD. 
IIk; Affpletum, a street leadinff from the Vicus Tuscus to the Forum 
nm and the "nber. 12. Piscina Publica, so called from seTeral 
»jof water where people resorted to bathe. 13. Aventinus on tlie 
itnie moaDft 3 here were the cave of the robber Cacus ; the sepulchre cf 
m^ tha fiosmtam of Picus and Faunus ; the docks and public granaries.. 
Ennalibeniia on the right bank of the Tibtr, containeo the Janiculum» 
•Has the Mans and Campus Vaticanus : the Janiculom is said to have 
aaA Ha appellation from Janus, who founded a city on it; the name 
DHuaa was supposed to be derived firom Vates, that hill having once 
..Iha seat oi Etruscan dmnatioru Here were the nrdens of CBsar, 
ifa. be- bequeathed to the Roman people; the tomb of Numa; and the 
solflnna 6t Hadrian^ where now is the CastU of S. Artgelo : on the 1. 1*1- 
la wane several temples^ the most conspicuous of wluch was that of 
abipiaa^« ■ 

r. The iramber of bridges belonging to Rome never appears to have ex- 

ed eight : of these two may here be noticed, the Pons Sublicius and the 

s Fa^cius. The former was the most ancient bridge of the whole city, 

the fint in order if we ascend the river ; it was built by Ancus Maitius, 

called Sublicius from its being constructed of wood. This was the 

ge so gallantly defended by Horatius Cocles, against the forces of Por- 

la : it is also sometimes called- Pons Emilias. Amongst the woriu of 

lie utility belonging to Rome> none. seem to have excited greater admir 

m in the anoients themselves,, than the Cloacie or sewers. The largest 

iiese,. called the Cloaca Maxima, was intended with its different branches 

any off the water which stagnated in the low grounds near the Forum, 

!i the other impurities of the city. It was planned and commenced by 

quinius Priscus, and finished by Tarquinius Superbus. 

.8. At the month of the Tiber was Ostia*' (htia, a Roman colony, 
sre ships lay constantly stationed to guard the river. Farther S. on the 
St were, Laurentum PatemOy which derived its name from its groves of 
T'trees and was once the residence of Latinus, Picus, and Faunus ; La* 
ium Pratica, founded by iEneas ou his marriage with Lavinia, the place 
ere Tatius, the coUes^e of Romulus, was murdered ; and Numicius fl. 
rtOf a little river sacred to Anna Perenna, the sister of DidO. Amongst 
: towns in the interior of the country were, Lanuvium CivUa LaciniOf 
inded by Diomed, where was the temple of Juno Sospita ; it was the 

>* Hinc lucum in^ntem, quem Romulus acer asylum 
Rettulit, et- gelidii monstrat sub nipe Lupercal, 
Parrhasio dictum Panos de more Lycsi. 

Virg. JEn, VIII. 342. 

*' Unde Coronidten cfircumflua Tibridis alveo 

1 nsula Romules sacris adsciverit urbis. Ovid, Met, XV. 624. 

^ Ostia contigerat: qua se Tiberinus in altum 

Vividit, et campo liheriore natal. Id. Fott.lN .^IftV, 


BO Italia — Latium. 

birth'plnce of the three Antonines, of the ictor Ro&ciub, of T. Annius MUo, 
■nd of F. Sulpictiia Quirinuj the proconsul of Syria, colled by tsL LiuIm 
CyreniuB. AnEia," La Kicci'a was built ^cording to some authors by Uiph 
pcdytuB. nha, uoder the name of V'irbiua, was worshipped in cdbuboii mlb 
'ti the vicinity of this town. Neians Diaoffi ft'mii w>a Ihe pbM 

to have derived its name fioro a whilR sow there farrowing thirty while 
it wai long the rival of Rome, but was destroyed by Tullux HoiAlm^ 
B, c 6G5. Albanus Mans in the neighhoDrhood was dedicated to Jof^ 
XatisJis ; on it the Fens: Latina: were celebrated, and the Homan geoenjl 
DCQUionally performed sacrifice, and re<^ived the bonoun of a Iriumpb, 

19. Tusculum FroKati, buill by Telegonus, son of Ulyites, wac M 
birlh-ptace of the elder Cato ; many of the wsallhy KoinaiH had lillM item, 
amongst whieh Ihe Villa Tusculana of Cioero may be mentionai as espetb 
•lly interesting. Labicum La Cotmna stood on the borders of Regi)la*'b 
L. dtUu Cahnva, hmfA for the defeat of the Idling by the Romans; Pr» 
neste Palrarivii, fabled to have been founded by C»:ulus, son ofVulCttl 
was celebrated for its lemple of Fortune and its oracle ; Gabii" Pantmt 
was a eolooy oTAIba, and was especiaity sacred to Juno; here RoidbM 
and Remus were said to have been educated, and sear it the Oauls *ai 
linatly defeated by Camillus: Collatia Caittilaceie is memorable tat'ik 
death of Luorelia. Tibur Tiwti, said to have been of Greek origk^li 
situated on the Anio, in which there is htre a little cataract ; it contauu) 
temples of Hercules and of Ihe Sibyl Albunea", and was a bvourite nA 
itaax i^lh the Ramans, who used It at one time as a place of banishmenft 
Sypbai died here in captivity, and Zenobia, the cjueeo of Palmyra, betwtn 
it and Hadnan's villa. 

SO. Tbe Rotuli were an incotuiderahle people on the Western cout of 
Lsliiun, and were originally distinct from the Latini, though they foruad 
subsequently a part of that nation. Their chief city was Anjea Ardea, tiw 
rm>al residence of Tamus, and said to have been built by Danae, modwr 
m PtTsevi" ; Camillus remained here in exile till the siege oF Romel^ 
the Gauls, when he so nobly contributed lo the deliverance of his counttv, 

" Egresium magna me accepit Aticia Romi 

Hoapilio modico. Hnr. Sat. 1. 1. 1, 

" The well known stoiy of the artful manner in which larquioiui Sh^h 

buE became possessed of Gabii, is told by Ovid : ^^^| 

Ultima TarquiniuE Ramans gentia habebat ^^^H 

Regoa: virinjustus, fortisad arma tamen. ^^M 

Ceperat hie alias, alias everleial urbes ; ^^| 

Et Gabios turpi fecerat arte suos, &c. Fail. 11.087. 

" Me rtec lam paiiens Lacedo^mon, 
Nee lam LaHsss percussit campus opims;, 

Quam domns Alhunem resonantis, 
Kl prxceps Auio, etTihutni lucus, et uda 

Mobilibus pomaria rivis. Har. Cami. I. vii. 10. 

** The Ramans were besieging Arden, when ,Ihe contest arose between 
Collatinui, young Taiquinius, and others, respecting the occupation of llivii 
wives, which led to their visit lo Lucretia, and the circumstances which ul- 
Vniately caused the expulsion of the Tatquins : 

Ciagitur ioJerea Roroanls Aidea wjuU, 
Lt p^titar lentas obsidione moiu, kc. OvU. F<ia.\\.Vl,\. 

liaKa^Latium* 87 

. Th> Hxmincx, to the £. of the Latini and S of the JEqui, were mo- 
r of Sabiae origin ; die Dame of their country it said to be derived muD 
dty nalure, Hema in the Salnne dialect denotioR a rock. Their prin* 
iQwna were, Anagnia*^ Anagni tlieir capital, which after a slight n« 
ice aubnritted to the Romans ; Antony caused a medal to be struck 
when he married Cleopatra and divorced Ocuvia : Ferentinum Feren' 
onginnlly a Volscian city but taken from them by the Romans and 
led to the Hemici ; and Frusino Frotinont, deprived by the Romans of 
Ed partof ita lands for having stirred up the Hemici to rebellion. 

I. Ths Volsci were at one time a more considerable and powerful people 
any other in Latinm. Their capital was Aniium* Torrg d'Anso on the 
t, said to have been founded by Anthias a son of Circe ; it was hither 
Coriolanna retired into banishment, and here he was finally murdered, 
igh taken earlT and colonized by the Romans, it revolted frequently, 
1 laat its inhabitants were completely reduced and roost of their ships 
xtftd ; the beak$ of these were carried to Rome and placed in the Fonira 

tribunal, which from this circumstance was called Kostra. Farther S. 
le coast were, Circeii Mons Monte Circello, the residence of the enchan- 
, Circe : and Tarracina Terracina, also called Amur and Trachias, and 
■ from the Volsci by the Romans, who made it a great naval station. 

Pomptine Paludes Pontint Manhgt extended fnm Tanacina, in a 

di Western direction, beyond Forum Appii*' Bargo Lungo; they were 

haunts of robbers and murderers, and were several times attempted to be 

ned, but this design was not completed till the time of Augustus, who 

the Fossa Augusti, on which Horace embarked when journeying to 

adosium. Above the marshes were, Privemum Pipgrno Viocluo; and 

faa Norma fortified by the Romans, who there detained the Carthaginian 

ages : this last town was destroyed by Sylla's party in the civil wars. 

lia Segtii, the place to which the Carthaginian hostages were transferred 

a Norba, was noted for its pears and for an austere wine ; at Velitre 

ietri Augustus was said to have been born ; Corioli now Mmite Gu)i<e was 

place from the taking of which Caius Marcius received the surname Co- 

snus. Towards the Liris were, Fregellse Ceprano at one time a consi- 

ible city belonging to the Sidicini, but taken from them and colonized by 

Romans; Aquinum ij^umo, the birth-place of Juvenal^; and Arpinuro 

tino, the birth-place of C. Marius. 

. — ^ ■ • ■ — — — — ■*' ' — 

^ quos, dives Anagnia, pascis. 

Virg. Mn, VTI. 684. 

* At Antium was a celebrated temple of Fortune, addressed by Horace : 

O Diva, gratum que regis Antium, 
Prssens vel imo tollere de gradu 
Mortale corpus, vel superbos 

Vertere funeribus triumphos. Carm, I. zxxv. 1. 

^ Mentioned by St. Luke, in his account of St. Paul's journey to Rome, 
:ts xxiii. 15 ; sixteen miles firom the station called Tres Tabemae, mentioned 
th It. It was the second resting-place of Horace, in his journey to Brun- 

■' Inde Forum Appt 

Difierti^m nautis, cauponibus atque malignis. Sat, I. v. t. 

* As he informs us by the words of Umbricius to him : 

Ergo vale nostri memor et, quoties te 

Roma tuo renci properantem reddet Aquino, 
. MequQque,&c, Jud. SatAW* W^* 

88 Italia — LoHum — Campania. 

88. Tbb Ausonbs, who at one time spread themielvet lo widely 99^ &•. 
whole Southern part of Italy, as to conf^municate the name Anionia to ftm 
country in general, were in process of time confined within veiy nartinr) 
bounds near the sea-coast, between the pass of Lantule and the SoatlMtA' 
extremity of the Massic hills. On the coast was Amycl» CatUUo del /'rM- . 
cipe, giving name to Amyclanus Sinus B, of Terracina : it was of Grade 
origin, and said to have been desolated by serpents with which its ndgfa- 
bouihood was infested ; or according to some it was surprised by the enennr;- 
owing to the passing of a law to suppress the false alarms with' which n» 
inhabitants had been so often disturbed^. Above it were, the Ager Cacn^ 
bus so fieimed for its wine^, and Fundi Fondi admitted at an early period Ift 
the privileges of a Roman city. Farther Eastward on the coast were, Sp**- 
lunca SperlongUy a fiavourite residence of Tiberius ; Cajeta Gaeta, so caued 
from the nurse of ^Eneas ; Fonni«< MolOf a Lacediemonian and afterwards, a 
Roman colony, near which Cicero had. a villa where he was murdered hjfk 
order of Antony : this last was originally called Hormiae, and sumamed LsBfi^ 
trygonia from the cannibal Lsstrygones, who are said to have passed over. 
here from Sicily with Lamus as their leader, and to have foundra the dty^^ 
the wine of the Formian hills was accounted very excellent. It was neajr 
Minturnae Torre, in the Paludes Mintumenses towai-ds the mouth of the 
Liris, that Marius concealed himself but was dragged thence to a prisoB i« 
the city, where his terrific appearance saved his life from the hand of the 
ruffian sent to despatch him. Sinuessa Rocca di Mondragone^ the Southend 
most town of Latium, was built on the ruins of the ancient Greek cii^. 
Sinope, and so named from its situation on the edge of Sinus VescinoSfOE; 
Cajetanus as it is generally called ; it was a Roman colony, and suftv^. 
much from Hannibal's soldiers. To the N. of Mintums, in the Piwm 4/^' 
Auteati was Ausona, the capital of the Ausones, taken by the Romans who. 
massacred its inhabitants. 

24. Campania,, one of the most beautiful and fertile^' 
countries in the worid, was bounded on the W. by the^ 
Massic hills and Vinius fl. Rapido ; on the Eu by the. 
upper course of Vultumus fl, Volturno, Callicula Bill 
Scopelloy Tifata M. Maddaloni, and by a range of hills 
running thence to the Silarus fl. Sele ; on the S. it was 
washed by the Tuscan Sea. To the W. it bordered on 
Latium,. to tiie N. and £. on Samnium and Lucania: -it 
contained the major part of Terra di Lavoro, and West- 
em Prindpato Citra. Its earliest inhabitants were the 
Osci or Opici, the former being their Latin, and the lat- 
ter their Greek, appellation. They were probably, de- 
scendants of the aboriginal Umbri, and appear to have 

* Whence Virgil, 

— 1 — — — ditissimus agri 

Qui' fuit Ausonidum, et tacitis regnayit Amyolis. . JEn, X. 564. 

^ Absumet haeres Cscuba dignior 
Servata centum clavibus ; et mere 
ISnget pavimentum suporbum 

Pontificum potiore co&nis. Hor, Carm; fl. xiv. 39.. 

Itiei^ fbe central parts of Italy ; indeed, to sach an 
pt had their name spread, that the terms Itali and 
a among the Greeks seem to have had one and the 
ii; signification. 


y,Iii the Northern part of the province^ on the borden of Laliuin, was 
!((«• M. MumtM Mauico, so famed for its excellent wine ", in the pro- 
fm of whichy however, it was rivalled by the adioining Falemus Aser** 
flmff between it and the river Volturnus^ TowanU the middk of 
|Vua, and near the sea»shore, was the famous volcano of Vesuvius V§t 
Ik The source of Vultumus fl. Voltumo is amongst the Apennines in 
I, W. comer of Samnium, whence it flows into the Tuscan sea« 

i The Aumnci were cantoned in the Northern part of Campania^ 

^prininpal cities ware Aurunca Roceamonfina, destroyed by the Sidi- 

•'and Suessa Anrunca Seua. The Sidicini were £. of the Aurunci ;. 

chief city was Teannm TMno^ above which lay Venafrum Vmafrv, 

nled for its fine oil. Cales CtUoi, about midway between Teanum and 

i. Vnltnmus, was a considerable city which formerly belonged to the 

■es, Init was conquered by the Romans and colonized ; it eave nama 

tt Ager Calenus much celebrated for its vineyards. The chief city of 

aaoia was Capua S. M. di Capua, said to have been founded by Capys 

Kojan **, but more probably by the Etruscans. It was taken nom the 

leans by the Samnites, and from them by the Romans. It revolted 

,^Ae latter people in favour of Hannibal, whom it received within its 

^ and who promised if he destroyed Rome to make it the capital of 

f*^, but its voluptuousness proved so fatal to this great general, as to he 

ed his Cannm: on its submission to the Romans it was stripped of its 

■ificence, its citizens were punished with death or sold into slavery, and 

qity itself was reduced to toe condition of a mean prafedwra. It was 

lied a little to the S. of the Vulhu'nus, and must not be confounded 

r the modem Capua, which is on the river and was formerly called Casi- 

■B. S. of Capua were, Atella 5. Elpidio, whence the Fabuls Atellans 

M their origin ; and Nola Nola, where Augustus died : bells are said'to 

D been first used in Nola, whence their Latin name Nols or Campanas 

doyed by the later writers. 

T. On the coast of Campania was Liternum Patria, whither Scipio 
icuius, disgusted with his ceunitrymen, retired into exile and died. Be- 
r it stood Cuma. Cuma, found^ by some settlers from Euboea, more 
sent than any other Greek colony either in Italy or Sicily ; it was con- 
sed after many years by the Samnites, but subsequently placed itself 
krthe proteetion ofRome : it was the residence of one of the Sibyls •. 

*> • Bacchi Massicus humor. 

Virg.Gem-g, lUli^, 

^ Qixdd si dolentem nee Phrygius lapis,. 
Nee puipurarum sid(ere clarior 
Delinit USU3, nee Falerna 

Vitis, Achodaeniumque costunt; — • 

flbr. Carm. III. i. 48. 

^ £t Capys : bine noman Ctuapanse ducitur urbi. 


^ "Bwce Horace, Epod, XVI. 5, speaks of the *' i&muU VvtVoA Cv^xxm^ 

00 ItcUia-^Campania. 

Near, it was Bais Baiop a favourite place of resort with die wealthy B^t: 
mans'', and so named from Baius, a companion of Ulysses: its warm 
springs were amongst the principal causes of its celebrity. To the 8. of 
dais the land runs out into the sharp promontory of Misenum C. MTw4i^ 
so called from Misenus, a companion of Ulysses, or a follower of .£iiiet^ 
whom the latter buried there ^; it gave name to the Port Misenum Port9 
di MUmo, which in the time of Augustus became one of the great navtl 
stations of the Romans, and was the lendezvous for the fleet which giiaidad 
the Tuscan Sea. 

28. Lucrinus L. Lago Lucrino, famous for its oysters and other thell-Bilv 
was separated from the sea by a very narrow dike, said to be the woik of 
Hercules. Above this lake was the deep basin of L. Avemus or Aonnq^ 
Lago d'AvemOf celebrated for the descent of Ulysses to the infernal regkUH^ 
and said to have obtained its name from the exhalations of its waters ptofing 
fatal to birds. The subteiTaneous abodes of the Cimmerii are 
some authors round Lake Avemus^. The Phlegraei Campi, famed for dit 
battle between the gods and giants, extended from Cumn to M*. Venmas ; 
Leborini Campi was a name applied to that part of them which lay bctwon 
Cunue and Puteoli, and seems to carry with it the etymon of the modem 
district Terra di Lavoro. Beyond Misenum was Puteoli Pozzudi, the port 
of Cumie, so named from its wells or from the stench arising from tho rak 
phureous springs ; it was formerly called Diciearchia, and was the fdiM 
where St. Paul disembarked, and remained seven days before he p roceedad 
«n his journey to Rome. Near it was Pausilypon PotiUpo. Netpob 
Naples was built by a colony from Cumie, and formerly called Paithenopo* 
from the Siren of that name who was there cast on shore. Near it was the 
tomb of Virgil, who was conveyed there from Brundusium where he hod 
died. Herculaneum, a very ancient city, is said to have been founded by 
Hercules, as was also the neighbouring Pompeii, a port of some conio 
quence ; they were both destroyed by an eruption of Vesuvius, a. d. 78^ 
which cost the elder Pliny his life : tiiey were situated at the head of Cu- 
ioanus Sinus G. of Naples, about five Roman miles distant from the Vol- 
cano. Farther S. were, Stabiae Castel a Mare, destroyed by Sylla in the 
civil wars; and Surrentum Sorrento which derived its name from the ^renSi 
who frequented this coast and had a temple erected to them here : they g^ave 

^ Nullus in orbe sinus Baiis prslucet amoenis. 
Si dixit dives ; lacus et mare sentit amorem 
Festinantis heri ; Hor. Epist. I. i. 83« 

"At pius iEneas ingenti mole sepulchrum 

Imponit, suaque arma viro, remumque, tubamque, 
Monte sub aerio, qui nunc Misenus ab illo 
Dicitur, sternumque tenet per sscula nomen. 

Virg, JEn. VI. 2S2. 

^ Homer, however, does not represent them as living under ground, but 
deprived of the light of the sun, and enveloped in mist and clouds : 

"Ev^a ^k Kifiu€piii)v dvSpwv dtffiog T€, w6\ig r€, 

'Hipt Kal V£6i\'^ KtKXvflflkvOf oifds ICOT aiiTO^c 

'KiXtOQ tpak^uv liridEpKeTai dicrtvcerertv. Od, A. 14* 

^ Illo Virgilium me tempore dulcis alebat 

Parthenope, studiis florentem ignobilis oti : 

Virg. Gearg. IV. 66S. 

Italia — Samnium. 01 

.' to dM tdjacent MiMrra Pr., ctlled alio Siremisaniin and Swrenti- 
J^Nite deUm Cimpanella, 

• The Pioentini inhabited the Southern part of Campania from the laat 
nned promontory to the month of the Silarus ; they were a colony from 
mm, whom the Romans, after their conquest of that province, com- 
1 to settle here. The principal city in their territoi^r was Salemum 
TUt, bailt by the Romans. — Off the coast of Campania was ^naria 
■, said to haye been so called from Eneas' fleet anchoring there ; but 
)bably obtained this name from its mines. It was the reputed place of 
ent of the giant Tvphoeus, who was buried there under Epopeus M. 
■ito; H was also called Pithecusa and Inarime. Prochyta 1. rroeida, 
•t wtetehed and lonely spot, lay between iEnaria and Misenum Pr. ; 
off Minenra Pr. was Caprew I. Capri, rendered infamous by the de> 
fk^ries of the emperor Tiberius during the last seven years of his 

M. Samhium touched to the N. on the territories of 
Prentani and Pehgni, to the W. and S. on Campania^ 
L to the E. on Apulia. It contained the Southern 
t of Abruzzo Citra, the greater part of Sannio 
rryii^ with it evident traces of the old name), the 
stem part of Terra di Lavoro, and nearly the whole 
Princtpato Ultra. 

1. The Sabines being engaged in a long and obstinate war with the 
hsi promised, in the event of victory, to consecrate to the gods whatso- 
r should be produced in their country during the sprine of that year. 
if conquered and kept their vow : they dedicated the children bom to 
n in that year to Mars, who, when thev had attained a certain age, were 
t forth from their country to seek another land. Under the guidance of 
aU they arrived in the mountainous country of the Opici, whom they 
re oat, and then settled there under the name of Sabelli and Samnites. 
ey were a hardy, brave, and ambitious race, remarkable for their in- 
erate hatred to the Romans, who were unable to subdue them after a 
r of 70 years, till the success of Sylla put an end to them as a nation. 

12. In the northern part of Samnium were the Caraceni, whose chief 
rns were Samnium Cerro, and Aufidena Alfidena. The Pentri were S. of 
!se in the middle of the province ; their capital was Bovianum Bajano, an 
alent and important city, which became a military colony under Caesar, 
le other towns of the Pentri were, Allifs AUif'e, captured twice from the 
mnites, and famed for its pottery; and Equus Tuticus S, Eleuteriot a 
me alluded to by Horace, accordmg to some, as unfit for verse ^. The 
uidini dwelled to the S. of these between the river Sabatus Sabbato and 
lata M. ; their chief town was Caudium Paolisi, giving name to the 
irc« Caudinse Voile Caudina near Forchia ; here the Roman army was 
mpelled to pass under the yoke by Pontius, the Samnite general, and to 


^ Principis angusta Caprearum in rupe sedentis 

Cum grege Chaldaeo. Jut;. Sot. X. 98. 

^ Quatuor hinc rapimur viginti et mi Ilia rhedis, 
Mansuri oppidulo^ quod versu dicere non est. 

Hot. SotA.N.^.^, 


M Italia — Frentani-^Apulia. 

Bwke « ditgraoefiil peace, b. c, S21. To the N. of Ctudiiiia was the Uto 
mountain Tabumus^' Tahumo, The remainder of Samnium was inhahiiia 
by the Hirpini, whose name was thought to be derived from the word HupiB 
signifying a wolf. Their chief city was Beneventum Benmaento at the jnaoy 
tion of the rivers Calor and Sabatus, and anciently called Maletenti^ 
which name it changed for a more auspicious one when colonized by tb 
Romans. ^'^ 

33. The Frentani were descendants of the Sam-; 
nitesy and inhabited a small tract of country between 
them and the Adriatic Sea, On the N. they wet^ 
separated from the Marrucini by Clocoris fl. Foro, and 
from Apulia on the S. by Tiremus fl. Bifemq ; bitt 
their limits in this latter direction extended once as'fitf 
as Frento fl. For tor Cy whence they derived their name.^ 
Their territory included the greater part of Abruzzq 
Citrttj and the N. E. portion oiSannio^ 

34. Trinius fl. Trigno rises in the- N. pact 6f Samnium, and runs N. Eyi^ 
ward into the Adriatic ; above it was Sagnis fl. Sangro, and S. of it ran .tU' 
Tifemus Biferno : these were the principal rivers which watered the poswa* 
sions of the Fxentani. Their chief towns were; -Urbs Ferentana Cmtd 
Vecchio, Ortona Ortona their naval arsenal, and Interamna Termolu 



. * 

1. APULIA was bounded on the N. by Tifemus fl. 
SifernOy on the E. and S. by the sea, and on the W, by 
Bradanus fl. Bradano and the Eastern limits of Sam* 
nium : to the N. it bordered on the Frentani, to the S. 
on Lucania, and to the W. on Samnium. It contained 
ia small part of SanniOy the Capitanatay Bari, and 
Otranto, It was called lapygia by the Greeks, but 
both this name and that of Apulia were applied in a 
much more confined sense: Apulia Proper compre- 
hended the Northern part of the province as far as Cer- 

*» ' ■ ■ ■■» '■ juvat Ismara Baccho 

Conserere, atque ole& magnum vestire Tabumum. 

Virg, Georg. II. 38. 

' ItaUd — Apulia. M 

fl ; iSbtsa fbllowefl Daunia, reaching as far S. as 
r-M. and Cannee; Peucetda, extending to Egnatia 
he upper course of the Bradanus; and lapygia, 
ing the remainder of the province. ApnUa was 
. fi>r its wooP, and is said to have derived its name 
IpuluSy an ancient king of the country ; its inha- 
B were probably descended from the Osci and lUy- 

I principal riven were Frento Fortore, Cerbalus Ctrvmro, Aufiduf 
and Bradanas Bradano ;' of these the three first flow from the Apenniiies 
Bto the Adriatic Sea, and the last S. £• into the G. o^ Taranto, In 
di Eastern part of Apulia was the lofty Garganus M. M<mte S, Ang$io, 
ting in Garganum Pr. Testa del Gargano : Vultur Mons, close on 
ts of Daunia, Peucetia, Samnium, and Lucania, is a part of the Apen- 
tun now called VoUure, Off the Northern shores of the province 
iomedesB Is. Tremiti, to which the companions of Diomed new after 
been changed into birds ; to one of these islands, called Diomedea 
ntos S, Domettieo, Augustus banished his grand-diaughter Julia who 

aaongat the chief cities of Apulia Propria were, Lannum Larino 
), at «De time in the possession of the Frentani -, Geranium Girone, 
>y Hannibal who had a sharp contest here with Fabius and Minu- 
Teanum Apulum Civitate, a Roman Colony ; Matinus Mattinata, 
the philosopher Archy tas was shipwrecked and buried ' ; Uria Afon- 

en Unas Sinus G. of Manfredonia, Sipontum 5. Maria di Siponto 
lied Sipus by the Greeks, and is said to have derived its name from 
ttle-fish ^Sepia) there thrown on shore: Arpi' Arpa, called formerly 
ppa and Argos Hippium, was a large and populous city: Luceria 

1 contained a' famous temple of Minerva ; it was noted for its wool, 
as a place highly important to the possessors of Apulia. 

rhe name of Daunia was said to be derived from Daunus, the father- 
of Diomed, who on his return from Troy here founded another king- 
n the country round Aufidus fl. : Apulia Proper is frequently included 
) general appellation Daunia« Amongst its principal places were, 
m Salpi on the shove of Salapina Palus L. di Salpi, whither Hannibal 

' Velleribus primis Apulia, Parma secundis 

Nobilis : Altinum tertia laudat ovis. Mart. XIV. ep, civ. 

'' Te maris et terrae numeroque carentis arena; 
Mensorem cohibent, Archyta, 
Palverb exigui prope litus parva Matinum 

Munera. ' Hor Camu I. xxviii. 1. 

* Atque iterum in Teucros iEtolis surgit ab Arpis 
Tydides. Virg, ^n, X. 28. 

irgil, Mn. XL 246. speaking of Diomed, says, 

lUe urbem Argyripam, patriae cognomine gentis, 
Victor Gargani condebat lapygis agris. 

94 Italia — Apulia. 

withdrew after the battle of Caonfi ; Cannie* Caime, menonble ftr ibede* 
feat and ilaughter of the Romans by Hannibal, a. c. 310 ; the plun whan 
the battle was fought is said to have been fonnerly called Campua Dio- 
xnedis, and through it ran the little stream Vergellus, over which Hanttihtl 
made a bridge of the bodies of the Romans. Canusium Canosa was fomed 
for its wool as well as for its manufacture of cloth, and was the place to 
which the remains of the Roman army fled after their defeat at Caaaik 
Asculum Apulum Aseoli was also remanable for an obstinate battle which 
was fought there between Pyrrhus and the Romans : Venusia Venom wtt 
a Roman colony and the birth-place of Horace, and near it at Palasso wii 
Fons Blandusis, or Bandusiae \ 

5. Pevcstia is fabled to have received its name from Peuoetus, aon df 
Lycaon, king of Arcadia, who migrated to Italy with his brother (Enotrui^ 
its coast was inhabited by the Poediculi. Its principal towns were Rhi|diiB 
Peucetis Andria ; Barium Bari ; Egnatia T, d*Egnazia, where was a stoM 
said to possess the property of igniting wood that was laod on it* ; Acherotp 
tia Acerenzaf a strong fortress taken by the Romans ; and Bantia Boms, be^ 
tween which and Venusia the brave Marcellus was entrapped in an ambu- 
cade by Hannibal, and killed. 

6. Iapyoia derived its name from lapyx, son of Daedalus. It was iiH 
habited by the Calabri, who have left their name in the modem Calabrimi 
by Uie Messapii, from whom the whole of lapygia was sometimes callal 
Messapia; and by the Salentini whose name is also used to denote thp 
greater part of lapygia. On the Eastern coast of lapygia were, BraadiF 
sium^ Jorindm, one of the great naval stations of the Romans, whence was 
an easy passage to Greece ; here Virgil died, and Pacuvius was bom : mi 
Hydruntum or Hydms Otranto, the nearest point of Italy to Greece, said to 
have been founded by some Cretans. On the Western coast of lapygia 
above lapygium Pr. were, Callipolis GaltipoUf a Lacedadmonian colooy; 
and Tarentum or Taras Taranto, giving name to Tarentinus Sinus O. ^ 
Taranto ; it was increased by a Laced smonian colony*, and became a vmr 
great and flourishing city : Galaesus fl. Galeasi flowed into its harbour, and 

* Quid Cremerae legio et Cannis consumpla juventus, — 

Juv. Sat. II. 155. 

' O fons Bandusiae, splendidior vitro, 
Dulci digne mere, &c. Hor, Canm, IIL ziii. 1. 

* ■ ■ Dein Gnatia l3rmphis 

Iratis exstructa dedit risusque, jocosque : 
Dum flamm& sine thura liquescere limine sacro 
Persuadere cupit : Credat J udaeus Apella, 

Non ego. Id. SaU I. y. 97, 

^ It was at Bmndusium that the Commissioners appointed to arrange the 
differences between Augustus and Marc Antony met. Maecenas, who was 
one of the Commissioners, was accompanied by Horace upon the occasion. 
The 5th Satire of the 1st Book of Horace is a humourous description of the 
journey, which ended with their arrival at Bmndusium : 

Bmndusium longae finis chartsque viasque. 

* Tendens Venafranos in agros, 

Aut Lacedaemonium Tarentum. Hor, Carm. III. 5. 56. 

TiaSa — Lucania, M 

bftidts wtn tiie fniitAil hilli tnd ymlKes of Aulon*. Betwen Tm» 
and Bnmdasnm wu ManduriB Mamduria, where Aichidtmui, the 
was killed in a battle whilit asiiiting the Tarentinet against 

Lucania was bounded on the N. by Silarus fl.^^* 
by the Apennines, and by Bradanus fl. JSradano, 
B E. by the G. of Taranto, on the S. by a line 
I from Crathis fl. Crati to Laiis fl. Lao, and on the 
f the Tuscan Sea. Towards the N. it bordered on 
rania, Samnium, and Apulia ; and towards the S. 
e territory of the Bruttii : it contained the Sarili" 
the major part of Principato Citra, and a small 
01 of Calabria Citra. 

he Southern part of Italy was anciently possessed by the (Enotxi, 
I said by some to have obtained their name from (Enotnis, a Sabine 
a chie^ or from CBnotrus, a son of Lycaon, who led a colony of Ar- 
t fhitheor ; but by others from oivoq the Gredc word for wine : they 
rabably a branch of the Northern aboriginal inhabitants. On the 
of the various Greek colonies on thehr coast, the (Enotri were com. 
to retire inland, where they remained till the^ save place to the 
, of Samnite origin, who descending from the ^rUi boldly attacked 
tering Gre^ republics, and at last gained complete possession of 

hie of the principal cities on the Eastern coast of Lucania was Meti* 
II Torre di mare, said to have been originally founded by some Py* 
in their return firom Troy, but it was afterwards improved and coio- 
^ the Achieans ; Pythagoras lived here for some time, and is sup- 
to have died here. Farther S. lay Heraclea Polu^ioro, where the con- 
if the Greek colonies assembled ; it was built by the Tarentines at the 
I of Aciris fl. Agri : higher up this river was Pandosia Anglona, where 
08 gained his first victory over the Romans. Siris Sinno, at the month 
ognoniinal river Sinno, was founded by some Trojans, whom an Ionian 
f afterwards expelled, changing the name of the town to Poliaeum ; it 
ad much in a subsequent war with Metapontum and Sybaris, and be- 
at last the harbour of Heraclea. Farther S. between the rivers Sy- 
Cochile and Crathis'^ Crati was the powerful and luxurious city of 
is Sibari, said to have been founded by a colony from Troezene ; the 

* Ver ubi longum, tepidasque prsbet 
Jupiter brumas ; et amicus Anion 
Fertili Baccho minimum Falemis 

Invidet uvis. Hor, Carm^ II, vL 18. 

'^ Est, lucos Silari circa, ilicibusque virentem 

Plurimus Alburnum volitans, Virg, Georg, III. 146. 

The waters of which were said to tarn the hur of those, who bathed in 
a, yellow : 

Crathb, et huic Sybaris nostris conterminas arvis, 

Electn simiJes faciunt aiunoque capillos. Ovid. Mtt. '^^N • %\^ % 



Italia — Bruttii. 

trayed it by overwhelmiag il 
er Ihia tbe Alhi 

DUie inland, which Ihey called T huni urio, ana wnich lo Wter 
it was coloaiied bj the Romaiis, received ihe name of Co[ua. 

10. On the Wesccm ooatt of Lucania, close an the limits o 
Blood Pestum Pesto, called by iha Giecks Posidonia, nod giving q 
Sious Frostanui or Pasidnniales G.o/ Salmo; it ttta built ^ Ihe M 
Sybarii, and coloniKd sftetwards by the Romana ; it was fanied for IS 
which bloomed twice in a year": near it Alexander, kiagofP 
and dereated the Lucani and Samnites in a pitched battle. 
Velia or Elea Caaltl a Mare dtlla Bruca, founded by llie Phocs 
itwoi'lhe connliy of ParmeaideB, and of Zeno, under whose aui]^to» ■ 
of philosophy was founded in Klea, the disciples ot which were thence 
the Elealic sect. Elea gave name lo Kleales or Velicnsi^ SiD,us, the Soul^ 
extiennlyof which was Palinurum Pr. C. Spnrtimaiuo, so cal 
Kteeisman of .Eneas who perished there. Fyius PoiitattTB was boiltlfi 
colony from Messana, and subsequently called by the Romans BuienMl 
tfaii naffie is Mill preserved in the little river BiueiKn Pyius. at the manir 
which the town was situated. Lails Sealea wai fnanded by (he Sybaijta 
Ae mouth of Laiis fl. Laa, which flows into Laiis Sinus G. af Pu/,V - - 

11. The Beuttii. Tlie territory of the Bruttii v 
■separated from Lucania on the N. by a line between tl 
rivers Crathis and Laiie; it comprised the modem {; 

vincee of Calabria Citra and Ultra, excepting . 

tract in the N. of the latter. The Bruttii were said toWft 
herds of the Lucanians, w^^ 
at last numerous enough to attack their mastei^ 
and succeeded not only in gaining their independencci] 
but also in reducing the Greek colonies to subjection^ 
Their territory is sometimes called Bruttia or Bruttinnv 
and Bruttiorum Ager. 

13. On the Eastern coast of the Bruttii were, Tracns fl. rrinntn, mennM^k 

foe the bloody defeat which the Sybarites received there from llie Croltraiali^ '' 

■ short time before the destruction of iheir city ; Crimisa Ciro, called aftar> 

wards Palemum, said to have been founded shortly sFler the siege oFTm^ 

'ly Fhilocteles. whose tomb was there shewn ; Petilia or Petelta StTOitgtR. 

lUilt by Pbiloctetes'*, famed (or its fidelity lo tta 

I a severe siege a^inst liannibal : to Ihe W. af 

this last stODd ('hone Ctuuhmu, belonging onginally to the Chonea, an old 

in tribe. Farther S. was Ciuton CUmii, built by ihe Achcani, and 

long the residence of Pylhagotas, who Ihere established his school ; Ihe stale 

of which it was the opilal was one of the most celebrated and powerful in 

Magna Gisi^B, and alone of all the colonies sent out from Greece assisted i( 

when invaded by the Per^ns. Near Laeiniuni Pr. C. ffau or dtlU CbUhim 

runaway slaves and 

" FornUn el pingust hortoi quic cura colendi 
Oraaret, canerem. bifericgue rosaria Pa?sli ; — 
I* hie ilia ducia Meliboei 

Firj. G«rj. IV. lift 
Id.^ji.111. 402. 

liaKa—Vup. 97 

tmple of Juno Lacinit *\ in booour of vrhom the inhtbitants of all 
t colonies there held an annual festival : below it some authon 
fgia, the island of Calypso, where Ulysses was shipwrecked. Scy- 
ailed formerly Scylletium Squillaeet was founded by the Athenian.^, 
to Sinus Scylleticus now known as the G. of SquilUctm 

mtinuine southwards we arrive at Caulon CatUl Vetere, built by 
Aos and destroyed by Dionysius, who removed the inhabitants to 
; it was situated on Sagras fl. Aluro, famed for the defeat of the 
la by the Locrians. Locri Pagliapoli (whether founded by the Locri 
' Opnntii*^ of Greece, uncertain) was the chief city of the Locri 
ni,* so called from their having first settled near above /ephyrium Pr. 
mo : it was celebrated for the code of laws which Zaleucus drew up 
ocrians, and which was said to have been the first code of laws com- 
I writing. Orra or Uria Biancho Vecchio was another city of the 
lear it was Ilerculis Pr. C. Spartiveiito, already noticed as one 
nthemmost promontories of Italy. 

a the Western coast of the Bruttii was Clampetia Amantea, A little 
. of it lay Pandosia Mendicino, where Alexander king of Kpinis, de- 
y the oracle of Dodona, met his death ; it was near the source of 

fl. Areonte, which joins the Crathis at Consentia Cosenza^ the capititl 
Iruttii. Lower down the coast was Temesa *^ or Tempsa l\nre del 
I Casale^ famed for its copper-works, which are, however, referred by 
a town of the same name in Cyprus. To the £. of it was Terina 
no, which gave name to Sinus 'reriosus G. of S. Enfemia : this gulf 
I called Hipponiates and Vibonensis from Hipponium Monte Leone, 
as colonized by the Romans, who called it Vibo Valentia. Farther 
Mamertum Oppido, a colony of the Mamertini, a set of mercenary 

who passed from Campania into Sicily ; and the terrible rock of 
'^ with a cognominal town SciUa, a little W. of which was CaenysPr. 
lavalio : this promontory, with the opposite Pelorum Pr. C Peloro, 
the narrowest part of the St. of' Messina. To the S. of this was 
m Reggio, supposed to have taken its name from the violent bursting 
of Italy and Sicily '^ ; it was built by a colony from Chalcis, and 
id by the ZancliaDS and Messenians. 

^i.E. The principal Roman Roads in Italy were as follows. The Via 
, made by the consul Aurelius, stretched at first from Rome to Pisp ; 

n AttoUit se Diva Lacinia contra, 

Caulonisque arces, et navifragum Scylaceum. Virg, Mn, III. 552. 

irgil calls them Narycii, from Narycia or Naryx a town of the Locri 
i, opposite £uboea : 

Hic et Narycii posuerunt moenia Locri. ^n. III. 399. 

1' Kvincitque fretum, Siculique angusta Pelori, 

Ilippotadaeque domos regis, Temesesque metalla:— « 

Ovtti. Jtfrt. XV. 707. 
*' At Scyllam caecis cohibet speliinca latebris, 
Ora exsertantem, et naves in saxa trahentem. 

Ftrg.JBn. III. 424. 
From "pijcrffw frango, 

Zancle quoque juncta fuisse 

Dictur ItalisB : donee cenfioia pontus 

AhstuJit; et medih tellurem reppulit und^. Owd. Mel, 'XN »^^ 



flS Italia — Sicilia, 

it uas sfienvardE erlciided by /KiDiliua Scaurus, undei the nanie of ' 
j£miliii, to V-ids, Sabatii and Uetloaa, and tinallj contioued from \'wil^ 
batia to ArElate, so tbat at lait Via Aurelia wu the tiatiie appUvd tea 
whole Toad helween Roioe and Aielale. — The Via Emilia was made h^-i 
co[»ul .'I'lmilius Lepidui, aiigiaallj fioia Ariminun) to lioDuaiaj buti^l 
atlervraids continued through Placentia to Mediolanum, ihencE to X'VSi 
and throngh Fatayium to Aquileia.— The Via Claudia or Clodia lejium 
titan the fUminia not far lioai the Foub Milviua to (he N'Orth oF Rbui^dij 
paBsing the Western side at Sabitinus Lacus, thnnidi Forum Clnd!^^ 
rentis, and Luca, joined the Via Aurelia alLana.— The Via Flanuni**""' 
oonstnlcted by C, Flauiinius the Censor, b.c. 321, and e:cleiided ofi^l 
only as far a& Naniia ; here it divided, one branch passing tbtough CmT^ 
Ihe othci through Spoletium, and bath joined at Fulginia. Hence il-'3 
tinued to Kuceria, wlipre it separated again; ont road passing tt^ 
Seplempeda, Ancona, and along the coast of the Hadiialic at far u FjM 
Foctuns, nhete it wa^ re-joined by Ihe other branch, which had pM 
Ihrougl] Helvillum and the Fetra Pertusa: from Fanum Foi-lunie UB^ 
Flaminia passed on to Ariminum^The Via Salaria, so called fm*4 
Sabini using it to import sail into their country from the sea, led Ironi S/i 
through Kretum, Ueate, and Asculum Fioenutn. to FOrnm TtueatiMM 
where it divided, one branch passing Northw! '■-*-- -' -■ -"-S 

D Hadria.— The Via Appia", called by vray of eminence iMd 
V lamn). wn made by the censor Ap[aas Ciecus, b. c. 312, and oiigbfi 
i'Brrie<l aDlya<i lac as Capua, passing through A/icia, Tarracina.andSiaMM 

mCapnait xas aheivraida continued to BeneveniUBi, and finally U 

dntiain : al lieoeventuin it divided into two branches, one of which mM 
ihroHgh Vennua and Tarenlum to Bnindusium, the other led through BqM 
Tuticus, Csnusium, and Egnaiia. vhich city commimicated to the btterH 
(he naoie of Via EgDatia,— The V^ia Latins commenced at Ronie, aod fH 
tag throagh Tuscufum, Venafnim, and Teanum SidicinuDi, joined A»'% 
Appia Bl Ca^ilinum riear Capua.— The Via Lahicana, so called froai| 
city of Labicum through which it passed, led Irom Kome, aod JDinrfl 
Via Latins between Pneneste and Algidum. — The Via FrHiestina led A) 
Rome, through Franeste, whence its name, and jcnned the Via Latina H 

16. SiciLiA, separated from Italy by the Fretn: 
Etruscum or Siculum St. of Messina, was supposed i 
the ancients to have been once joined to it. The Cyclow 
iind LsBstrygonee were said to have been its first inhabi 
ants. It was formerly called Sicania iVoni the Sicai 
who passed into it from Italy, and afterwards Sicilia frt» 
the Siculi, who also crossed over from the main land an 
drove the Sicani to the Western extremity of the islant 
Sicily was likewise called Trinacria and Triquetra frcn 

" It is mentioned by Juvenal ; 

dum pervolat aie citato 

FUminiam; Sat. 1. 01. 

BaEa—SiciHa. 09 

SBgnlar riiape*^: owin^ to its great fertility^ it 
ien styled the granary of the Romans. It received 
008 tones Phcenician and Greek colonies ; the Car- 
ians afterwards held it in subjection, but they in 
om were dispossessed of it by uie Romans. 

y Ikw gre*t promontories of Sicily are, Pelorum Pr. Pdoro the 

'duttn eitmrnty, which is said to have obtained its name from 

Hiuabtl's pilot, whom he there murdered from an idea that he had 

him; Padiynum Pr. C Pattaro, the South £astero ; and Lilybnum 

Bq% the Western extremity. The great range of mountains which 

through the whok lensth of Sicily, ancientfy bore several names. 

i Pemm Pr. it bore Uie name of Herei Montes Madmia^ which 

derslood as ezteq^ing to the source of Gelas fl. ; then followed Ne- 

rMaioM. Mmdmua, which name was in a general way applied to 

ie chsin as for Kastward as JEtna, though it was sometimes confined 

mtt of it in which are the springs of the two rivers Himera. In the 

irt of the island, connected with the main ridge by a spur, is the vol- 

u£tna Etna or Gibelio, the fabled forge of Vulcan, and the residence 

£ck»es. The giant Typboeus was said to be buried under Sicily, 
being kept down by the promontories Pelorum and Pachynum, his 
Lilybnum, whilst iEtna pressed upon his head ^, 
n the North Eastern part of Sicily was Messana Meuina ; from its 
met to a sickle^ it was called Zancle before the Messenians from 
iponnesus settled there, and sometimes Mamertina in consequence of 
nertini having seized upon it by surprise : off it is the terrible whirK 
srybdUs Gatafaro, which proved so fatal to Ulysses' fleet ^. Farther 
I TauTamenium Taomuna, the birth-place of the historian Timseus ; 
Imei, where Acis was changed into a stream after having been crushed 
I by Polyphemus; and Catana Catania, built by the Chalcidians. 
these lay Leontini Lentinif giving name to Leontinus Sinus G. rf 
t ; and Megara Hyblaea JUeiii/a, famed for its bees and honey, and 
iDciently Hybla ^. 

" Terra tribus scopulis vastum procurrit in aequor 

Trinacris ; a positu nomen adepta loci. Ovid. Fast, IV. 419, 

le promontories are mentioned together by Ovid : 

-: — — — ■ intrant 

' Sicaniam. Tribus hsc exctirrit in aequora Unguis. 
£ quibus irobriferos obversa Pachynos ad Austros : 
Mollibus expositum Zephyris Lilybaeon : at Arcton 
i£quoris expertem spectat Boreanque Peloros. Met, XIII, 723. ' 

* Dextra sed Ausonio manus est subjecta Peloro, 
Lsva, Pachyne, tibi : Lilybso crura premuntur : 
Degravat ^Ltna caput : sub qua resupinus arenas 

Ejectat, flammamque fero vomit ore Typboeus. Id. V. 350. 

** Quique locus curve nomina falcis habet : — Id. Fast. IV. 474. 

* Ty S* vvo ^a Xdpvpdis dvappoipStX fisXav ^Siop* 
Tpig fiev yap r dvii\oiv kn* rjftaTi, rpif; S* dvapoifiSti 
Ativdv. K. T. X. Rom. Od. M. 104. 

" Hinc tibi, quas semper vicino ab limite sepes 
Hyblsis apibus florem depasta salicti, 
Sipe )evi somnum suadebit iaire susurro. Virg. Eel. 1. &^% 


lOQ Italia — SidUa. 

19. Farther S. on the^oast was Syracasae Syracuse, the most considerafalt 
of the Sicilian cities, founded b. c. 732, by a Corinthian colony WMJIV^ 
Archias in conjunction with some Dorians ; its name was originally deri^i^ 
from the marsh Syraco II Pantano, lying along the right bank of Anapui O^ 
Alfeo, The colonists settled at first in the island Omotbermon, which thv 
named Or^gia from its resemblance to a quail ; it was also simply caMl^ 
Nasos. The city soon extended beyond the narrow channel which sepanfi't 
the island from the main land, and Acradioa, extending far to the Non^ 
ward, formed its second portion ; these two divisions of the city alwayi Mf'' 

. mained the most important and splendid of the whole. Tycha, to the W^^ 
Acradina, was shortly afterwards added to the city, which was subsequeBW* 
increased by Neapolis to the S. of Tycha and W. of Acradina« From tlNit^' 
four divisions the city was sometimes called Tetrapolis: when Dionjuii* 
enclosed Epipols, which lay to the extreme West, it was called Pentap^^-" 
but the last mentioned district was not occupied by habitations. Hjinri* 

' was supposed to be the largest city which then existed in the world : itIqBi 
into the hands of the Romans under the consul Mariiellus, after a siegi^ 
three years, b.-c. 212. Of this city were Archimedes the geometrician, wih 
during the siege by the Romans constmcted machines which annoyed tibflik:; 
greatly; the historians Philistus and Vopiscus; the poets Theocritni^r 

• Philemon, and Epicharmus ; and many other great and brave men. ^ | 

20. Syracusanus Sinus or Portus Magnus Harbour of Syracuse lay to '4^^ 
W. of Ortygia I. and Plemmyrium ; above it was the Portus Minor or Um^^ 
cius Porto Piccolo. The island of Ortygia was the strongest part of the cilj^:' 
on the Western side of it was the famous fountain of Arethusa, so caUijfl 
from one of Diana's attendants in Elis, whom the god of the Alpheus wn-' 
sued.; Diana changed her into a fountain, and opened a way for her uqipr' 
the earth and sea till she rose here ; Alpheus followed and rose close by lij^ 
ftide^. Accoiding to the same account, garlands and other things Dan|' 
into the Alpheus at the Olympian games have re-appeared in the founlui 
of Arethusa. Close to the narrow channel which separated the island firOjfk 
Acradina, was the famous palace of Dionysius, defended on the noithen 
side by the Strang fortress of Pentapylon, so called from the number of ill 
gates. Acradina was the largest division of ihe city. In it were the Fonitt» 
the Prytaneum (where the pei-petual fire of Vesta was kept, and where tfalB 
magistrates or others eminent for their public services feasted together V ihi 
Curia, and Hexacontaclinos ; this last was a house containing sixty or thon 
couches used by the ancients at their tables, and surpassed even the temples 
in magnitude and splendour. Here also was the greater part of those enor- 
mous Lautumis or stone quarries, which served as places of confinement fer 
state prisoners and public criminals ; in them the Athenian captives 
cUsely shut up. 

*^ Prffiterit et Cyanen, et fontem leuis Anapi ; — 

Ovid. Fast, IV. 469. 

* 'AXXoc o XToc* lyijj ^k OiOKpirog bg rdSe ypd^pa, 
Elg dnb rStv TrdW&v tifii 2)vpi}ico(ri(iiv, — 

Theocr. Ep. 22. 

^ —^~^—^ Alpheum fama est hue, Elidis amnem, 
Occultas egisse vias subter mare ; qui nunc 
Qj-e^ Arethusa, tuo Siculis confiinditur undis. 

VW^. JEn. III. 694. 

liaKa — Sicilia. 101 

fcha was the most populoas portion of Syracuse, and received its 
yta an ancient temple of Fortune* which was within its walls. At 
fch Western extremity of Tycha was the fortress Hexapylon, and 
. was the castle of Lahdalum, built bv the Athenians on a height of 
! name. Neapolis was the last built Quarter of Syracuse. In it 
eantifal colossal statue of Apollo, callea Temeniles, superb temples 
, and Libera or Proserpine, the tomb of Archimedes, with the sphere 
nder carved upon the sepulchral eipput or pillar, and many other 
ent structures. The heights of Epipols were enclosed by Diony- 
lin the circuit of the city, by a wall of 30 stadia, in the short space 
y days : they received their name from being so elevated above the 
whole of which could be seen from them. On the highest point of 
was the important fortress of Euiyalus or Euryelum, and over against 
le Acraeum Lepas. 

.VogUiorum Portus Panafria Bay, on the coast of which was Trogilus 

extended Northward from Syracuse to Thapsus Chersonesus Mag" 

'o the S. W. of it, at Aguglia, was a monument erected by Marcellus 

.ory of his victory over the Syracusans. On the left bank of the 

lay the fatal marshes of Lysimelia, in the neighbourhood of which 

e fountains of Milichia and Temenitis. The villa of Timoleon, pre* 

CO him by the grateful Syracusans, was near the junction of Tycha 

eapolis outside the walls at Tre Miglia. At a httle distance from 

ithem bank of the-Anapus were the celebrated temple and fountadn 

le Pisma,^ where Pluto,, disappearing with Proserpine, metamorphosed 

aph who endeavoured to assist her ^. To the S. of the Island Orty- 

s Plcmmyrium Pr. Massa Pt, ; Asinarus fl. Asinaro, near which the 

an generals Nicias and Demosthenes were taken prisoners ; and He- 

Muri Ucci, an ancient city near the mouth of a cognominal river now 

Abisso, which watered a beautiful valley styled the Heloria Tempe. 

. Icana was the extreme city on this side of the island ; in it was the 

of Apollo Libystinns. 

On the Southern coast of Sicily, Westward from Pachynum Pr. was 
ina Torre Cameiiruif supposed by some to be the same with Ilyperia, 
X of the Phsacians near the Cyclopes ; but this according to others was 

island of Malta, Gela TeiTa Nova, built by colonists from Rhodes 
rete, was originally called Lindus ; neai- it JBschylus was killed by 
{le letting fall a tortoise on his head : it was destroyed by Phintias 
of Agrigentum, who removed the inhabitants to the neighbouring city 
las Alicata built by him. Upon Ecnomus Mons Alicata stood the 
1 of Phalaris, called Dsdalium or Phalarium, so famous for the brazen 

Near the mouth of Acragas fl. Girgenti R, was the famous city Acra- 
r Agrigentum^' Girgenti Vecchio, the inhabitants of which were noted 
eir luxury and magnificence ; and farther W. on C. Biunca was Hera- 
Minoa, the reputed country of the painter Zeuxis. Beyond it lay 

^ Est medium Cyanes, et Pisapae Arethusai, 
Quod coit angustis inclusum cornibus aequor. 
Hie fuit, a ciijus stagnum quoque nomine dictum est, 
Inter hicelidas Cyane celeberrima Nymphas ; — 

Ovid, Met, V. 409. 

^* Arduus inde Agragas ostentat maxima longe 

Mcenia, magnaniini)m quondam generator equomm. 

Virg. ^n.l\\.l^%. 



102 Italia —Sicilia. 

'J'herram Selinunlie Sciacca, the birth-place of the tjraiil Agathoclea, sad " 
thK place nliere Minos is said lo have been BuBbcated ia a bath ; Inycnii**. 
Minl'rici, the lesideoce of the Sicanian king Cocalui, near which TimoltB^ 
defeated the Carthaginians; anJ Selinus^ Ttrra dii Puici, nmiAiAk 1^ 
the number of palm-trees nhirh greiv In it> neighbourliood. On LftMPl 
Ueom Pr. wa* the splendid and well fortified city Lilyhieum Mar«iiJ», WHU 
most Western city of Sicily : il nas the chief hold- of Ihe Cattba^Dianilt' ^ 
the island, and the captal of their possessiona there. ||,, 

24, On the Northern coast of Sicily, near iw Western t 
Drepanum" rrnpnni, where Anchises died on his voyage lo Italy » 
.£iieai: it derived its name fiom its shape resembling a licKle (fpJTrnvtr 
and was fortified hy the Carthaginiaos, who under Adhurbal defeated the K 
loansander CI. Fulchei between it and Lilybteum. Farther Eastwai d w -^ 
Eiyj Mons S. Julian, on the top of which was the famous temple of Vb 
hence frequently surnained £rycina": and i^gesla or Segesta Barbi 
founded by aoine TroJEUis at the conflueiice of two streams which Ihey a 
Scamaader and Simois. Bt^oad these lay Hjccara Caritii. taken bjrN 
Bmonjst whose captives was the beautiful Lais, a native of that city, 
ormus Pattrmo, built by the fbcenicians, and a principal town of tEie C 

thagioians, is remarkable for tlie defeat of Asdrubal, the Carthagioiai 

tal, by Metellui, and that of Himilco by Marcellus : Himera Bim/i 
themouthofHimerafl, was acolonyofZancle, and the country of St»iiS 
rus, the lyric poet ; it was besieged by Hamilcar, who was severely baatBOFi; 
■here by the Syiacnsaos. the same day with the nemoralile battle of SaW~| 
mis. Farther Eastward wai Mils Milaaa, built by the people of Zancls«#S 
a cogDominsl peninsula : in Myle Portua B. «/ Milasso two decisive D»4I'' \ 
Mgagemants took place, in one of which the CirtbaginiaQs were deietMd 
by Ihe consul Duihua, and in the other Seitus Pompnus wai beaten tiji ' 
Agrippa. ■*", 

S5. In the inlerior of Sicily was Engyum Gmigi. near the source of ll»/, 
Soulhem Himera, stud to have been founded by liie CDiapanioat of Slivi^i 
A little lower down the rivet was Enna'^ Cailiv Giouanfli, where Proseipia^ I 

" I'eque dalis 

nquo veotii 

, palmosa Selin 


^n. Ill 


" Hinc Urepani me portus 
Accipit Hie, pelagi tot 
Jleu r genilnrem, omnis 

et illBtabilis ora 

urs ca-iGsque levamen 

Beserii, heu 


icquam ereple peridis. 

Id. Ill 


" Sive tu mavi( 
Quam jocus 

Eiycina ridens ; 
ircumvolit. at Cupido:— 


Cam. I. i 


» Ovid, allet describing the rape of Proseiirine 


grief rfberimn. 

pasioni, proceeds thus : 

Attonita est plangore Ceres : modo venerat Em 

Nee mora. Me miaeram, jilla, dixit, ubi el ! 
Mentis tnops rapitur : quales audire aolemus 

Threioias passis Mcnadas ire conxis. 

Ut ritulo mueit sua mater sb ubeie rapto, 

Kt (jusrit ioDtus per nemus omne suos ; 

Sic De», ooc retinel ^einitus, el concita cursu 

Feitur; et e canipis incvpit, Enna, tms. 

Italia — Corsica, 103 

jed away hj Pinto, and where that goddess and Ceres were espe- 
rshippea; it was on the edge of Peigusa L. Goridan, and was 
the umbilicus of Sicily. Agyrium Argiro, the birth-place of Dio- 
xdns, was near the source of the Symsthus Giaretta : to the S. of 
Leontini, was Palica^ Paiagonia, on a lake of the same name 
) deitiea Palici had an oracle. 

f the Northern coast of Sicily lie the iF«oli» las. Lipari or ^Kan 
e^dence of iEolus, who there confined the winds at pleasure ; they 
led by tha^. Greeks Hephsstiades, and by the Romans Vulcanic, 
ir fiery eruptions ; but they afterwards received the name Liuareo- 
Gnom the pnncipal island of the group. The Northernmost of them 
yle Stramboii, so called from its round figure ; and farther South- 
L Lipara" Upari, called anciently Meligunis, the most important of 
9m Nearer to Sicily is Hiera VtUcano, called also Thermissa, Ile- 
, and Vulcania. To the W. of the iEolian I*, is Ustica or Osteodes 
it is said to have obtained the latter name from the bonss of G,000 
ioa, whom the Carthaginians abandoned there to starvation, in con- 
i of their becoming clamorous for pay. Opposite the Western ex- 
if Sicily are the iEgades or Mgasn le., near which the Romans, 
Btatius Catulus, defeated the Carthaginians, and put an end to the 
lie war, b.c. 242^. At some distance from the Southern coast of 
^osite Gela and Camarina, is the island Melita MaUa, with a cog- 
city Citta Vecchia; it had several convenient harbours, and was 
9r its fertility and its wool. The Apostle Paul suffered shipwreck 
ouffh some critics are of opinion that ne was cast on shore at Melita 
jdnatic Sea. 

Corsica Corsica^ called Cymus and Corsis by 
reeks, lies S. of Liguria and W. of Etraria. It 
elebrated for its woods and honey ; the latter was 
ned noxious, owing to the quantity of yew trees 
i grew on the island ^9. 

[ts earliest inhabitants were Iberians and Lis^rians ; then followed a 
of Phoc«ans, |vho were driven from it by the Tyrrhenians and Car- 
ans : the Romans became finally masters of the island, and used it 
ace of exile ; Seneca was for a time banished hither. On the Eastern 
rere, IVIariana Mariana, colonized by Marius, whence its name ; and 

* Perque lacus altos, et olentia sulfure fertur 

Stagna Falicorum rupt^ ferventia teni : — Ooid Met. V« 406. 

: was the supposed workshop of Vulcan, hence called Liparaeus : 
• jam siccato nectare turgens 

Brachia Vnlcanus Liparsa nigra tabema. Juv, Sat, XIII. 44. 

lence Horace says, 

Sec dirum Hannibalem, nee Siculum mare 

Pceno purpureum sanguine,— Carm, II. xii. 2. 

^ Ite hinc difficiles, funebria ligna, tabellae : 
Tuque negaturis cera refer ta notis. 
Quam puto de longse collectam flore cicuts 
Melle sub infami Corsica misit apis. 

Owd. Amor , \« i\\. 1 • 


104 Italia — Sardinia. Dacia. 

Alulia Tom d'Aleria, founded by the Phocsans vt the numth oCRhq^ii 
nus fl. Tuvignano; they were driven from it by the Carthaginians, -AI^^Ij^ 
latter by the Romans, who colonized it under Sylla and thenceforward! caiIHJ*> 
it Alena. Near the Southern point,* on the Western coast, was PaOai w^b 
nif'acio , and to the N. of it was Urcinium Castel Vecchio near Ajaccia, Cf^tM 
sica is separated from Sardinia by the Strait of Bonifacio, which the uncjcfifc.. 
called Taphros or Fossa. ^ 

29. Sardinia Sardinia was called Sardo by tJ^P 
Greeks, and Ichnusa or Sandaliotis from its resemb1[aii|te'i^ 
to the print of a foot or sandal. ' *'*' 

30. The name of the island is said to have been obtained from Sardovjf** 
son of Hercules, who settled there with a colony from Libya, and dispos-'3 
sessed some Ilians who had gone thither after the destruction of Troy. Tt^l 
Iberians followed the Libyans, and after these came other colonies of ThMiL 
pians and Athenians under lolas ; the Tyrrhenians had settlements then Av 
a time, and the Carthaginians were long masters of it, till it fell into At 
hands of the Romans with Corsica. It was called by some one of the gn-->. 
naries of Rome ; its climate was fertile though unwholesome : no serpentMi'. 
wolves were there to be met with, and only one poisonous herb^, whiebV. 
eaten contracted the nerves and produced a grin of laughter {" SardiWL 
risus") under which the patient died. On the Eastern of the isbM-: 
were, Tibula Longo Sardo, and Olbia Terra Nova ; the latter was at mIk*' 
time the residence of the governor of the island, and was the usual liinUnJi •'. 
place from Italy. On the Southern coast was Caralis Cagiiari, built ttf- 
the Carthaginians ; it gave name to Caralitanum Fr. C. S, EHom, and tt^^ 
Caralitanus Sinus G. of Cagiiari. At the S. W. comer of the island MV ' 
Palmas was the Carthaginian city Sulci, on the edge of Sulcitanus PoitH 
G. of Palmas. The North Western point of Sardinia was called Goidilii'' 
num Pr. C. Falcone : not far £. of it was the Roman colony Tunis Lifiii*. 
sonis Porto Torres. 




1. DACIA was bounded on the S. by the R. Danube, 
on the E. by the Euxine Sea, on the N. by the R. Da- ,^ 
naster Dniestr, and on the W. by an ima^nary hrte ^. 
commencing near the source of this river and terminat- ;| 

ing on the Danube a few miles to the East of Belgrade. , 


♦• The ranunculus ; Plin. XXV. IS. 

ZmiDo ego Sardois videar tibi amarior herbis. — 

VtT^. Efil.VII.41. 


^S. it bordered on Moesia, to the N. on Sarmatia 

ma, and to the E. on the territory of the Jazyges 

ULstaSy who separated it from Pannonia and Ger- 

It included the Eastern part of the Banaty the 

of Walachia and Transylvania^ Moldaviay Bes- 
41, and the Southern part of Galicia ; in all, 87,000 
i miles. The inhabitants were called Daci* or 
> the former name being more familiar to the Ro- 

and the latter to the Greeks; the Getae were, 
er, considered by some as dwelling in the East- 
art of the province, and the Daci as cantoned 
i West of them about the upper course of the Da- 
le Daci, who were Thracians, dwelled originally between M*. Hcmus 
Danube ; but they were driven beyond Uie river, by the victories of 
ind his son Alexander the Great. The new territory, which they ac- 
lere from the Scythians, increased rapidly, till it extended at length 
e K. Danaster to Pannonia ; but at a subsequent period they were 
from the oeiglibourhood of Pannonia and the R. Tibiscus by the 
; Metanasts. The growing power of the Daci, and their incessant 
upon the forts with which Augustus had lined the shores of the Da- 
Irew upon them the jealousy and vengeance of the Romans ; they 
t length attacked and conquered by the emperor Trajan, who, in 
> secure his new province, sent colonies into it from all parts of the 
I world. The Daci were actual or nominal subjects of Rome till the 
Aurellan, who felt himself unable to defend this extended frontier, 
:ordingly contracted his empire within narrower limits : he withdrew 
man colonists into MoBsia, where he established a new province un- 
name of Dacia Aureliani. 

Carpates M. Carpathian M^, is the continuation 
iciburgius M. in Germany, and enters Dacia near 
sources of the Danaster and Tibiscus ;. from it all 
rivers which water the province and flow into the 
ube, take their rise : its Southern part was called 
js BastamicBB. Cogseonus M., reckoned sacred by 
jetae, was probably the Southern extremity of the 
;amic Alps, now called Kaszorn; the Serrorum 
ites were a continuation of them to the Westward, 
sing the Danube near. Orsova and forming The Ca- 

* Aut conjurato descendens* Dacus ab Istro : — 

Virg, Gemg. II. 497. 

* Non qui profundum Danubium bibunt, 
Edicta rumpent Julia ; non Getae, &c. 

F & 


106 Masia. 

taract (The Narrows) in that river, where its nami^ 

Danabius is said to have been lost in that of later'. '1 

4. The Tibiscns or Pathiflsus fl. Theiss is the Ion| 
tributary of the Danube ; it rises in the Bastaniic 
and flows through the country of the Jazj^s M*;*v< 
naatEB into the great river near Belgrade. The Poitt^ 
Prut/t, called by the Greeks Pyrethus and HierBsn 
rises on the Eastern side of the Bastamic Alps, aBg 
flows with a Southerly course into the Danube ne^ 
Galaiz. The Tyras*, called in a later age Danaaw 
Dniestr, rises in the Carpathian Mountains, and entflki 
the Euxine Sea near Odessa : upon its banks dwelUJS 
the Tyritae or Tyragita;, who are thought to have dsr' 
rived their name from Tiraz, a son of Japhet. -• 

5. The famous bridge of Tiajan, nhich he built over tbe Dsaulie loifiq^ 
pleting his conquest of the Daci, is now in raim near ietcriii nt the '^Sg 
em CJttteinLh of Walaehia ; it was raised oo twenty piers of hewD MhB 
one hundred and fifty feet from the fouodadou, sixty ftet bioad, al^CAH 
hundred and leventy feet distimt from each other. It was iboul UineBHi 
tand four hundred English feet long, and was defended on each ude tC3t 

fortress; it was destroyed bjr his successor Hadrian, 

soured the irmplions of ll 
a Roman coloay and a place oi eonsiilerable atrengtb, was not tai 

pretext that it favoured the irmplions of the bnrbuians. Zemes TVitt^MQ, 

Pons Trajani. To the N of it were, nbiscus Cavirran, and SanniuM- 
Ihusa Tarhilfi : the latter city was situated near Sar^tia fl StrtU. a tfllfc 
tary of the Itlarisus Maros, and was the old capital of the province, ad^ 
tatf which it maintained aAtr its subjectioD by Trajan, who made Xa 
{toman colotiy with ihe epithet Ulpia Trajana. Beyond these to the ^vit' 
ward were, Cedonia HermanaadI ; the colony A pulum CarUbitrg, mm 
river Marisns ; and Saline Tharda, one of the most productive iiiiM iiiil^lil 
Traiisi/ttiiaia. In tbe EasterD part of the province were, Ilermonautii 4klf- 
nuR; 'I'ytas Palanka, called rormeily Ophiusa, a Milesian colony, Mft 
the mouth of Tytas H. ; and lassii Jauy, ' ' 

8. M(£siA, called also Mysia^ (with the epithet Bi^ 
roptea, to distinguish it frora the Mysia of Asia Mino^ 
was bounded on the N. by the Danube ; on the W. hy 
Drinus fl. Drin ; on the S. by a high range of mou&- 
tams, known under the various names of Scardus, Or- 
belus, ScomiuB, and H»mus; and on the E. by Qu 
Rusine Sea. To the W, it touched on Dacia, to tbe 

* Stat vetua urbs, ripat vicina binominia Itlri, — 

Ot'iil. uPtffll, I, viii. 11. 

* Fartheniusque raaai, et volvens saia Cynapes 

libituT} et nullo tardier amoe 'I'yms, Id. IV. i. iu, 

* Hie leauit Mysai gunles in pace fideli : 

I/.--. _.^.. r ^„ .^_ :»,_- i...L-.- n TU i, ?T 

Mossia. 1.07 

n Illyricum, and to the S. on Macedonia and 
e. It corresponded g;enerally with the modern 
LCes of Servia and JBie^aria, and contained 41,000 
3 utiles. It formed originally a portion of the 
district of Thrace, and is said to have first ob- 
1 the name of Moesia on its subjugation by the 
ins under M. Crassus. 

lais latter appellttioa was probably used originally as a collective one 

the Thracian tribes between the Hemus and Danube, and was sup- 

y the ancient heathens to have been communicated by them to toe 

e of Mysia in Asia Minor; but there seems better ground for sup- 

thaft the Asiatic Mysi were the ancestors of the European Mysi, -or 

erents that th^ were originally a colony from Madai, Japhet s son, 

[ not pass over from Europe into Asia. The name of Mcesia was not 

; IB Hs full extent to the European province till the time of Augustus, 

chided within its limits the possessions of the Dardani and Triballi. 

, in a later age, divided by the little river Cebnis Zibritsa into Su- 

ind Inferior, so called with respect to the Danube ; the former touch- 

inyiicnm and Macedonia, the latter on Thrace and the Euxine Sea. 

ortition of Moesia lasted till the time of Aurelian, who formed within 

3rovince of Dacia, bounded on the N. by the Danube from The Cata- 

rtJtiis fl. Vid, on the £. by the latter river, on the S. by the mountains, 

I tiie W. by the upper course of the R. Margus or MorwM, 

The range of mountains which formed the Southern 

idaiy of Mcssia was the continuation of that chain 

idy described as striking off from the Alps and in- 

seting the whole of lUyricum. It entered the pro- 

e at Scodrus or Scardus M. Rachka and Tchar 

fkf shortly after which it assumed the names Orbelus 

Mbotiiiy and Scombrus or Scomius Ghiustendil; 

58 to the Eastward it was called Ha^mus Balkan^ a 

le still preserved in JEmineh Dagk, and in C. Emineh 

termination on the Black Sea, which promontory 

\ known to the ancients as Hsemi Extrema. The 

aaoius^ was erroneously said to be so lofty, that from 

summit the Alps and the Danube, the Adriatic and 

sdne, could be at once seen ; it was fabled to have 

SI so called from the Thracian king Haemus, who 

8 changed into a mountain for aspiring to divine 


. - » ■■■■III ■ I I . •xfc . . - I ■■ , 

' Aut in umbrosis Heliconis oris, 
Aut super Pindo, gelidove in Haemo ? 
Unde vocalem temere insecuts 

Orphea sylv©,— Hot. Carm. 1, x\\.^» 

F 6 

496 Memo. 

9. Moesia Sfiperiot comprehended Servia, the EaAtem |»art of Bwlgark 
and the South Eastern part of BotnUi, The pnncipal rivers of Mob^ wtm 
the Brongus or Margus Morava, which joins the Danube near Senumdrm 
the Timacus Timok, about which dwelled the Timachi ; and the Cebnu o 
Ciabrus Zibritza, Amongst the inhabitants of Moesia Superior were tki 
Mo&si or Mysi, the Merdi, and the Treres who are said to have occupied tfrf 
country round Troy after its destruction. Dardania comprehended at ofe 
time the whole Southern part of the province, and extended into MacedoM 
from the Drilo to the Strymon, as well as into Mcesia Inferior, but it yn 
afterwards much reduced in extent : the Dardani, pretended by some authoi 
to have been the ancestors of the Trojan Dardani, are said to have bee^^i 
savage race, living in caves, but possessing a considerable knowle(^)e 1 
music. The principal places in Moesia Superior along the Danube w«n 
Singidunum Belgradet at its conflaence with the Sav« ; Vinceia Semendiii 
Viminacium Kostellacz, a Roman colony and a city of some consequenof 
and Ratiaria Arcer Palanka, a strong Roman post. In the interior of tn 
province was Naissus Nissa, the birth-place of Constantine the Great, an hA 
portant and flourishing city, destroyed like most of the other cities in MoenJ 
and Dacia by Attila. 

10. Moesia Inferior comprehended nearly the whole of Bulgaria, Its prip 
cipal rivers were, the Cius, called also Oscius and (Escus, Jiker ; the latio 
or Athrys lantra ; and the Tibisns Cara Lom^ of which the Lyginus, mlm 
Alexander defeated the Triballi, was perhaps a tributary : all of these rise ii 
the Haemus and flow Northwards into the Danube. The Triballi were 009 
the most powerful people of Mcesia, and indeed of all Thrace ; their donv 
nions, extending from the Margus to the (Escus, and at one time consideraUi 
to the Eastward of the latter river, were subsequently confined to the Nord 
Western portion of Moesia Superior. To the E. of the Triballi were tb 
Crobyzi, extending as far as the coast of the Euxine ; and to the N. of tb 
latter people, in the angle formed by the Danube, were some Scythian Tnw 
lodyt», whose territory when they conquered it the Romans called Scythv 
Parva or PontusJ. 

11. Descending the Danube, we meet with the cities Augusta or Regiamifl 
Rahova\ Nicopohs ad Istrum Nikopol, built by Trajan, in memory of hii 
defeating the Daci ; and Durostcrum Silistriaf the birth-place of the genera 
i^tius. Farther JRastward on the Danube were Axiopolis Rassoca ; Trosm 
Matchiiif a Roman post of some consequence; and Noviodunum JassatM 
near which Darius Hystaspis threw a bridge over the river when waging wai 
against the Scythians. On the coast of the Euxine were, Istropolis Vistim 
a Milesian colony and once a very powerful city ; Constantiana Kustendji 
and Tomi Tamisumr or Baba a Milesian colony, said to have received ilf 
name from ^etes there buryine the mangled remains of his son Absyrtut 
and remarkable as the place whitlier Ovid was banished •. Farther S. were, 
('runi, called afterwards Dionysopolis, Baldchik, so named from its springs: 
and Odessus Kama, a Milesian colony at the mouth of Potami fl. Pravadi, 
In the South Western extremity of the province was its metropolis Sardica 01 

^ Ut sumus in Ponto, ter frigore constitit Ister : 

Facta est Euxini dura ter unda maris. Ovid, Triit, V. x. 1. 

^ Quam grata est igitur Latonse Delia tellus, 
Erranti tutum quae dedit una locum ; 
Tam mihi cara Tomis : patiia quae sede fugatis 
Tempjis ad hoc nobis ho^pitu hda manet. 

la.tx Pout.IV. xiv. 59. 

Tkrada. IW 

Vf/ihia, f}i« capital of the modern Bulf^ia ; the rotd from it to Phi- 
W^^wised the Hmniis at the famous defile Anguitis Succorum, now 
Mbnr Kavi or The Iron Gate. 

f Thracia^ in its extended sense comprehended 
lole country bounded on the N. by the Danube, on 
Lby the Euxine and Propontis, on the S. by the 
fgi Sea, and on the W. by the rivers Strymon and 
Bf connected by the chain of Mons Scardus. This 
itetent of country, governed by many princes, wus 
(3l on its conquest by the Romans into Moesia and 
ia properly so called. The latter province, answer- 
i tne moclem district of Mumilia in its confined 
,] was bounded on the N. by the Haemus, on the E. 
fr Euxine and Propontis, on the S. by the -Sgaean 
jad on the W. by tne river Nestus MestOy though its 
in this last direction extended once to the Strymon ; 
btined 21,100 square miles, 

Pbe Thracians are said to have obtained their oame from Thrax, the 
lars, but the later Greek writers- regarded it as originally derived fi-o-a 
ff tpa\Eia, denoting rauok in their language, and thought that this 
was so named from its mountainous nature. The appellation, how- 
led by the Oriental writers to distinguish Thrace, plainly shows that 
up of the country was originally derived from Tiraz or Thiraz, the son 
St, who probably settled in the North Western extremity of Asia Minor, 
his descendants afterwards sent colonies into Thrace in Europe, 
racians were a cruel, though brave, and warlike people '°, whence Mars 
1 to have been born in their country, and to have resided amongst 
but, notwithstanding this, they attained to a remarkable state uf 

The lofty and snowy range of Rhodope^^ Despoto, 
rth-place of Mai-s, detaches itself from Scomius M . 

junction with the Haemus, and winds through the 
ern and Southern parts of Thrace ; it was fabled to 
received its name from Rhodope, the wife of the 
•ian king Haemus, who was changed into this moun- 

is more commonly written Thraca, or Thrace, in poetry : 

gemit ultima pulsu 

Thraca pedum. Virg, jEn, XIL 335. 

*® hello furiosa Thrace, Ilor, Carm II. xvi. 5. 

'heocritus classes Rhodope with the highest summits of the ancient 

'Evrs xiwv ^C TiQ KariTaKiTO fiaKQov v0' Alfiov, 
"H'A3-w, if 'Podoirav, rj KavKaffov i<7Yoro4vTO. 


110 Thracia. 

tain for presuming to rival Juno. The Hebrua '- Maritza , 
is the only great river of Thrace ; it rises in the angl(<; - 
formed by the mountains Scomius, Hsemus, and Rhodop^' '' 
and enters the ^gfean Sea at jEnos, opposite the isl^d «, 
Samothrace. The Hebnis is called OEagrius, an app* k 
latioa which it derived according to some from a Tliraci^ " 
king of that name, who was the father of Orplieus W " 
Calliope, or as others maintain from the httle rivw <■ 
OEagi'ms, the waters of which supply the streams of fliS 
Hebrus. It was in this neighbonrnood that the mytf^ • 
legists represent the poet Orpheus to have played egk\' 
his lyre with such a masterly band, until the Thrac^uf id 
women, whilst they were celebrating the orgies of BftlP * 
chus, tore him to pieces, and threw his head into tht * 
Hebrus". The Nestus Mexto rises in the same moua^ « 
tain with the Hebrus, and enters the Mg^axi Sea oppoeitS '! 
the island of Thasos. . '■ 

15. The donuQioQB of the Odrysie, ane of the mosl powerful anJ wafK* ,;, 

of the Tbtacian Irilies, citended at one litne from Uie Neiituii to the rawtOk n 

01 the Istet, and as far inland as the source of the Strymon ; but the; wm (^ 

ffteiwarda confined wilhin a small lerritny on the banks of the Hebrus >tMli i^ 

kdrianople. The Beui ", iahabiting the angle I'ocmed b; the junction oTtH ^ 

Hsmus and Rhodope, were the most hanlj and unprincipled of all theTlrri' ^ 

cum lobben. The Tiauai rieiv cantoned ahoul the npper coarse of ffi ^ 

B. Ttaususj they were rcniartahle for the cuslnai of weeping at the binbrf k 

amn, and rejoicing at his death. Oa the coast of the Blarh Sea were tlli ^ 

Tbjoi. who in conjunction with their brethren the bilhyni, were said bj tte «, 

■Ddent historians to have crossed over into Asia Mitior, and given oanett . 
Ihe province Bithynia. The whole Eastern part of Thnce, from PeriDlbintD 

U'. Heidus, Wft9 subsequently called Astica from the Atte. The DDhmci '^ 

lahabiled tbe Thracian Cheisoaesns, and the Cicones the Southetn coait of '{ 
the province, between the mouth of the R. Hebms and Bistonis L. Im^ 

Bum; the latter were attacked by Ulyssea for having assisted Priam agaiiul , 

Lhe Greeks. The Bislones vrere cantoned in the Soalh Western conitr Bf ' 
Thrace, and from theia the whole counliy was occasioually called Bislooia. 

IG. The principal places on the Eastern coast of Thrace wera, Itlesembn* r 
Jfiuiuri.said to have been a colony from Megara and Chalcedon ; Apollonii, 

Frigidior Thtacam, nee purior ambiat Hebrus,- — 

Hot. Epfa(. I. rvL 11. 
" Turn quoque roamiorea caput a cervice revulsum, 
Gurgite cum medio porlans (Eagrius Hebrus 
Volveret, Eurydicen roi ipsa et frigida lingua. 
Ah I mberun Eurydicen. animiL fu^eote. vocabat^ 
Euiydioen loto referebant flumine np<c. Virg. Gtotg. IV. G3t. 
" Virere quaia miserum est ioter Beuosque Getatque 

Wi guipopulisempei io ore foil'- Ovid.Triil, IV. i. ST. 

Thrat^. Ill 

Arsrds SoKopefis, ^xAoU, a Milesito colony, ncred to Apolio ; and 
wi or Halmydessus MidUh, on a river of thf same name : a littie 
of this last was fiizya Vka, the citadel of Tereus, king of Thrace, 
^^tital of the Aste. The whole coast, from lliynias Pr. to dM 
BoBportLi, was sometimes called Salroydessum Littus, and was ez- 
duigenras and inhospitable. At the Northern entrance of the 
or Gkann^l cf CmutantinopU as it is now called, were the Cja- 
:Pacoran€, known also by the names of Sympleeades " and Plancte ; 
- Cabled to have floated; and to have crushed all vessels to pieoas 
d the straits, till Minerva guided the Argo through, and fixed them 

e communication between the i£gean and Euxine Seas was by 

tpontus, Propontis, and Bosporus Thracius. The UellespontuB*% 

f the Thracian Chersonesus in Europe from the district Dardania 

arms fabled to have been so called from Ilelle, the daughter of the 

ing Athamas, who was drowned there ; but it probably derived its 

n EHshah, the son of Javan, and grandson of Japhet, whose family 

lave possessed themselves of the most considerable islands lying in 

wtween Europe and Asia. The Hellespont was famous for the 

r boats thrown across it by Xerxes, from Sestus to Abydus, which 

ooner completed than it was rent in pieces and utterly destroyed by 

aeznpest. Its modem name Chaiinel uf the Dardanellei was first 

the Greeks of the middle ages, who derived it from the district of 

I, but il is rendered more familiar by the two castles, colled The 

Uea, built by the emperor Mahomet lY. a. d. 1650, a little to the 

itQS and Al^dus. Toe Propontis** Sea of Marmara was so called 

situation before the Pontus Euxinus. The Bosporus*' (improperly 

Bosphorus) Thracius Channel rf Cojistantinople is said to have re- 

M name from the Greek words /3o($c Tcopo^ bovis meatus, owing to 

imstance of an ox being able to swim across it, or from lo's passing 

persecuted by Juno. Darius, when advancing against the Scy> 

threw a bridge over the Bosporus about midway between the Euxine 

pontis, where it is only five stadia across. 

■ ft . ■ ■..., ■■■■.,, ■ , 

^* Ilaec precor evincat, propulsaque flantibus Austris 

Transeat instabiles strenua Cyaneas : — Ooid, Trist, I. ix, 14. 


■* Ei^* vj^iX *Apyovg fii^ diairrdcrBrai andtpoQ 
'S,6\\(ai^ ig alav Kvavkag 2v/i7rXi}yadac,-r- 

Eurtp* Med, 1. 

^^ Forsitan ad pontum mater pia venerit Helles, 
Mersaque roratis nata fieatur aquis : 
Aut mare ab inviso privign^e nomine dictum 

Vexat in sequoream versa noverca deam. 
Non favet, ut nunc est, teneris locus iste puellis. 
Hac Helle periil : hac ego laedor aqua. 

Ovid, Heroid. XVIII. 123. 

** Frigida tarn multos placuit tibi Cyzicus annos, 

Tulle, Propontiaca qua fluit Isthmos aqua, 

Propert. III. xxi. 2. 
19 ■ ' Navita Bosporum 

Poenus perhorrescit, neque ultra 
CtBca timet aliunde fata ;— Hot, Carm. 11. i\v\% \^. 

133 Tkruoia. 

18. At the- Nortbem tennination of the Bosponu in tbe Euxine Sea wyv 
two temples, Sarapeum Fanaraki on tbe coast .-of Europe, and that of Jupim 
Urius C. Major toe dispenser of favourable winds, said to have been baij|^ 
by Jason, on the coast of Asia. At its South Western extremity, on i^^ 
shore of the Propontis, was Lyeos, colonized afterwards by some Meganfi% 
under Byzas, who, from their leader, named the city Byzantium^; a litK 
inlet of the channel to the N. of it was called, from its curved figure as wflE 
as from its great beauty, the advantages which it possessed, and tne valuaijlii 
cargoes which floated on its waters, Chrysoceras or The Golden Horn, Bj^ 
zantium suffered much at various times from the attacks that were made. 41 
it, and was twice nearly reduced to ruins; but the emperor Constantina tj|% 
Gxeat disliking Rome, and finding it necessary to remove his seat of — " 
vemment to a more central situation, constituted it the metropolis of 
Roman Empire, a.d. 328, after which it was called Constaatinopolis,;j 
name it still preserves in Cmntantiiurple: its Turkish appellation Stm 
or JLMtamhoul is corrupted from the expression ig rdv iroXiv, used by thg| 
inhabitants to denote their going into the city. Byzantium occupied orig^ 
nally little more than is now covered by the Sultan's Seraglio ; but Constat^-, 
tine, affecting to call his metropolis Roma Nova, increased it exceedingly.* 
till at length, under the younger Theodosius, it stood like Rome upon seven 
hills and was divided into fourteen regions, one of which was Sycs 
Per a. 

19. On the Northern coast of the Propontis, near the entrance of _ 
Bosporus, stood Selymbria Silivria, to the W. of which lay Perinthus, u' 
important city, so strong as to have withstood a severe siege by Philip dr 
Macedon; it was afterwards called Heraclea Erekli, from Hercules, t£ 
honour of whom it was originally founded. Farther Westward on the cotH 
were, Bisanthe or Rhaedestus as it was afterwards named Rodostoi ani% 
Ganos Ganos below a mountain of the same name. To the S. of these tor 
Chersonesus Thracia, called sometimes simply Chersonesus, stretched <MV 
into the ^E^an Sea. On its Eastern coast lay Pactya fiu/atr, whither A^y 
cibiades retired when banished a second time by his countrymen ; CalIipoli|| 
Gallipoli, the common crossing-place to Lampsacus or Abydus ; and •^:^ga^ 
Potamos, where the Athenian fleet under Conon was totally defeated by Bi? 
Spartans under Lysander, b. c. 405, which put an end to the Peioponneti 
sian war. Besides these, there were Sestus^' Akbachi, on the shores o( 
which Leander was drowned, after swimming from Abydus to visit his 
mistress Hero the priestess of Venus here ; Cynossema, the scene of lit* 
Cuba's metamorphosis and burial ; and Elsus, situated near Mastusia Acn- 
Heiiei BonmUf the Southernmost point of the Chersonese. On its Western, 
coast were Alopeconnesus Alexiakeuiy one of its chief towns ; and Canlia 
Cardica, said to have taken its name from the word Kap^ia ctrr, owing to 
the shape of the ground on which it stood resembling that of a heart, A 
little E. of the latter was Lysimachia, built by Lysimachus, who transferred 
hither the inhabitants of Cardia and Pactya ; in a much later age it obtained 
the name Hexamilium Ecsemil from the length of the wall across tiie 
Isthmus, near which it stood. 

*^ Qua(^ue tenent Ponti Byzantia liltora fauces. 

Odd. TriiM. ix. 31. 
^ Hei mihi» cur animis juncti, seccmimur undis, 
Unaque mens, tellus non iiabet una duos ? 
Yel tua me Sestos, vel te mea sumat Abydos : 
Tarn tusi terra, mihi, quam tibi nostra placet. 

Id. Htm4.^\U.l25. 

Maoidonia. 11A 

iiie SoatSieTii CMurt of Thrace we find Cobryt JhHdgi ; Sarpedo- 
C. Or€mia ; and iEnos ** Eno$ at the mouth of the Hebrui, where 
said 'to hare landed after the burning of Troj, and commenced 
. cilj, until having discovered the tomb of Polydoras, he was 

the f^ost of his murdered countiyman to quit so barbarous a 
io Zona Tehdk, whence the woods aod beasts are said to have 
hrpheus as he sang; Ismaras near Meri, the chief hold of the 
ittacked in vain by Ulysses, and situated at the foot of a mountain 
ne name, much iPamed for its wine ^ ; and A l)dera on the cape 

the inhabitants of which are said to have been subject to a spe- 
renzy, wheuce the adage " Abderitica mens ;'' it gave birth to 
IS. A few miles above the mouth of the Nestus was Nicopglis ad 
>fikopati built by Trajan : between nt and the Ilebrus were, Sta* 
iomedis Tajardi, the residence of the Thracian king Diomedes, 
is horses with human flesh ^, and Scapte Ilyle Chapdjilar famous 
1 mines, where Thucydides retired on his buishment from Athens, 
the history of the Peloponnesian war. Ascending the HelHus we 
1 Hadrianopolis Adrinaple, built by Hadrian ; and Philippopolis 
uilt by Philip, the father of Alexander. 

^Macedonia. The limits of Macedonia varied 
ngly at different periods of its history. In the 
f Philip and Alexander they were, to the N. the 
yf Orbelus and Scomius, to the E. Nestus fl. 

to the S. the -Egean Sea and the Cambunii M*. 
a, and to the W. a chain of mountains known by 
nes of Bermius Magna Petrinia, and Canalovii 
nos. The river Strymon was the Eastern boun- 
r Macedonia before the time of Philip, who added 
litory between it and the Nestus to his dominions. 
} conquest by the Romans these boundaries re- 
1 for some time unaltered ; but at length the 
m frontier was extended to the Adriatic, and it 
Deluded what was before known as Grsecian Illy- 
id named in a much later age Epirus Nova. Ma- 
ia considered under these limits touched to the N. 
yxicum and Moesia, to the E. on Thrace, and to 

« Feror hue, et litore curvo 

Moenia prima loco, fatis ingressus iniquis : 
^neadasque meo nomen de nomine fingo. 

Virg. JEn, III. 18. 

^ drdp aiyeov dcTKbv txov fisXavog olvoio, 

*B.5koCt '6v fioi tdutxe Mapuv, Eifdv^tog vlAf, 
'Ip£^t 'ATroXXwvof, Sc*I(r/iapov d/i0i/3Ej3^jcei. 

Horn, Od, 1. 197. 

** Non tibi succurrit crudi Diomedis imago, 
Efferus humana qui dape pavit equas. 

Ovid, Heroid. W « ^*l « 

114 Macedonia. 

the S. on Thessaly and Epirus : it included the North- 
em part of Albania and Macedonia i in all, ^'^fi^i 
square miles. '^ 

22. The Macedonians are said in mytholo^ to have obtained their VBU^ 
from ^lacedo, a son of Jupiter, and the fouiuler of their nation. But ^Smf 
probably deri\-ed both their name and their origin from the deKendaiiti «f 
Japhet, though the learned are not agreed as to which of his sons m^ ]m 
looked upon as their ancestor. Some trace their origin to the Kittiif^ 
who were the grandsons of Japhet, observing that Macetia is not viif^J 
quently used to denote this countiy, and Macets its inhabitants r oikn 
howerer, are of opinion that they derived their name fitom Madai, a MriiZ 
Japbet, and think this the more probable from Emathia having been wL 
ancient name of Macedonia. The Macedonian dynasty is said by the Oim^ 
authors to have denved its origin from Perdiccas, the youngest of tfaM 
brothers, who v»-ere dncended fiiom Temenus, son of Hercules. Thij k||j 
their native city Ai|;q8 in company with a body of colonists, and went ■> 
ouest of fortune amongit the lUvrians, who, though they allowed them atfirtt# 
u«ell in their country, dro\*e them subsequently into Macedonia. Here thfll 
soiled u(H)a the district of Emathia, then governed by Midas, and fomdBu 
ihc ' acedonian kingdom b.c. 814, the first ruler of which was Perdioeiil 
il continued in existence 646 years, till the defeat of its last king, Penepf 
bv the Romans at IVdna, when it became subject to that ambitiooa prflpijjf 
'i\» Maetdonians were naturally brave and warlike; their phalanx wW 
fameti for its irn^istible strength. ' Macedonia is sometimes mentidhed vow 
the names of Kmaihta, Pconla, Mygdonia, «£monia, Edonia, and BmtanaiS^ 

£:). The range of mountains called Bermius is thromL 
otr tKuu Sounlus M., and proceeding Southwards und% 
llio muuo of Canalovii, enters Greece, where it is knowft: 
tis Uio Pindus : it divides all the Macedonian rivers whidf 
flow into the Hudriatio and .¥^:«an Seas. At the peat^ 
of Laonios, where it enters Greece, it sends off a ridge tou 
ihe l\astw;mi known as the Cambimii M»., and now calle^^ 
IWm/cci frvmi the old pass Volustana : the Eastern eir;; 
trenutv of this was Olympus Mons^ ElymbOy iamoW 
fuMU t)io fable of tlie giants, and fancied by the andenti;; 
t\* Ih* so lofty as to touch the heavens ^^-ith its summit' 
wltetxMoix* they made it the court of Jupiter, and the resi- 

^ \t<- m«'(uen« imi lv>w4a habiutor Olympi 
I xivvutvw usi* i^>nftt iKVtibus Anrtoo. 
lUvfL :»ier »v»K^ RM\i:a \{ui \.i!ie piemuntur, 
IV:^vVo,uiL v;uo::KU*.:t U:u^nr pikludibus agri : 
Kuiioiju xluitt oA».v^i :v;:n;rr.t. rwc peiria Tempe 
PA(t; AsU:;*.* (vIas^\ sra^r.umH^ue implenobus undis 
T'A^xvVx* ou^>x;« eJJi; iv»sT*;u4ta discessit Olympo 
Uviv.:Wv« ^:m:n vHna r.:4v.u» su'xtri^ue ruinam 
Sx'«x;: A,;v,jir N <-«•«*. Liiraii. \^. 341. 

i'^Niu(H(%. t'AMu Wr.\^ the r^<JLNkwv \^' :be fods^ is sooietiBes used by the 
)\>ets *» »vtt\>«k\m\H» «k;st\ ,v^x«t. 

Macedonia. 115 

* the gods. In the Eastern part of the province 
igaeus M.^ Negrokdpy striking oiF from Scomius 
terminating on the sea-coast opposite Thasos ; 
oted for its gold and silver mines. 

trymon fl.^ Stroma^ the Easternmost river of 
nia, takes its rise in Scomius M.^ and runs into 
f the^£gsean Sea, to which it communicated the 
trymonicus Sinus G, of Contessa : not far from 
th it passed through Cercinitis Palus Tikinos. 
W. oi the Strymon was the Axius Vardar^ the 
1 river of Macedonia, which rises in Scardus M., 
3 into Sinus Thermseus G. ofSalonica: it receives 
ight bank the Erigon Kutchuk CarasoUy and is 
it its mouth by the Ludias Caraismak. To the 
is is Haliacmon fl. Indje Mauroj at one time the 
y between Macedonia and Thessaly ; it rises in 
lalovian Mountains, and after being increased by 
2rs of the Lyncestis Nazilitza, runs into the G. of 


B district of Chalcidice, so named from the Cbalcidians of Euboea 

d bere, extended between the Gulfs of Contessa and SalonicOf and 

1 on the ^gsan Sea in three extensive promontories : the Eastern- 

hese was Acte, the central Sithonia, and the Western Pallene or 

', famous in mythology as the scene of the battle between the Gods 

OS. Farther N. was Mygdonia, and above it was Paeonia, the 

f an ancient and powerfal people, who assisted Priam daring the 

*roy, and occupied at one time the whole Northern part of Mace- 

e South Western portion of Paeonia was called Pelagonia. Emathia 

o the N. on Pelagonia, to the E. on Mygdonia, to the S. on the 

m, and to the W. on Eordaea and Lyncestis ; part of it was inhabited 

ftttiaei. Pieria ^, the early seat of the Muses, and the country which 

h to Orpheus, extended from the Haliacmon to the borders of Thes- 

inbabitants, the Fieres, who were Thracians, fled from the conquer- 

snidffi and settled to the £. of the Strymon. The Taulantii were a 

* Altaque Pangtea, et Rhesi Mavortia tellus, — 

Virg. Gearg, IV. 462. 

' . Quales sub nubibus atris 

StrymoniflB dant signa grues, atque sethera tranant 
Cum sonitu, fugiuntque Notos clamore secundo. 

Id, JEn. X. 265. 

• ■ •, — ceeini plectro graviore Gigantas, 
Sparsaque Phlegrseis victricia fulmina campis. 

Ovid. Met. X. 150. 
M Muses were hence named Pierides : 

Surge, anime^ ex humiJ j : jam carmina samite vires : 
j&ndes, wagni nunc ent oris opus. Propert.W. VmA^. 

116 Macedonia. , 

powerful nation, who extvided at one time along the coast of the AdiigMA^ 
trom Acra Ceraunia to the mouth of the Drilo ; to the N. of them were tHi^ 
Albani, from whom the modera province of Albania has derived its name. ^^ 

26. In the Eastern part of Macedonia was Neapolis Cavalla, the port j]^' 
Philippi, opposite the I. of Thasos ; it was formerly called Datos. A '" 
miles to the N. of it, on a branch of Gangites fi. Anghista, was Philipi 
Fitibah, so called by Philip of Macedon : it is celebrated for the defeat wi 
Brutus and Cassius there suffered from Antony and Augustus, b. c. 42. 
is likewise rendered very interesting from bem? the first place in Kr 
where St. Paul preached the Gospel, a. d. 50. At the mouth of the St 
and surrounded by it, was Arophipolis lenikeui, built by the Athenians 
spot called 'Evvla *OSoi, where nine ways met ; it was the cause of mi 
contention between Philip and the Athenians, as well as between the 
people and the Spartans. Some distance above it was Heraclea Demir HUaOm 
surnamed Sintica, from its being the chief town of the Sinti ; and near yjk 
source of the Strymon was Tauresium, called afterwards Justiniana Priig| 
Ghiustendil, from the emperor Justinian, who was bom there. 

27. Returning to the coast, we may notice Bolbe Palus Betchik, at 
junction of which with the sea was the valley Arethusa, where £uii] " 
was buried ; and Stagira Stavros^ the birth-place .of Aristotle thence 
named Stagirites. Acanthus stood at the Eastern termination of the 
cut by Xerxes across the neck of the peninsula Acte, to afford a passage 
his immense armament and prevent its encountering the dangers attem 
the doubling of the Promontory Athos : this canal was a mile and a 
long, broad enough for two galleys to row abreast, and occupied three 
in cutting^'. The lofty M^ Athos, called now Monte Santo from the nui 
of religious houses built round it, was said by the ancients to cast its shi 
upon the Island of Lemnos, a distance of 38 miles. The gulf between 
and Sithonia was called Sinus Singiticus G. of Monte Santo, from the 
Singus Sigga in the latter peninsula ; that between Sithonia and Pallene wdl 
named Toronaicus Sinus G. of Cassandra^ from Torone Toron a town ob tt 
Eastern shore. At the head of the last mentioned gulf was Olyathaf" 
Agios Mamas, celebrated for its many contests with Philip and the Athennd£| 
and for the eloquence of Demosthenes in its behalf ; it was at last taken ^ 
destroyed by Philip, and its inhabitants were sold into slavery. On the 
of the peninsula Pallene was Potidsa Pinacat founded by the Corinthi 
from whom it was taken by the Athenians, and from the latter again 
Philip, who gave it to the Olynthians ; Cassander increased and beautif 
it, after which it was called Cassandria. 

28. At the head of the G. ofSalonica wasThermaorThessalonicaSa/oiuciib* 
an important city ; it is rendered very interesting from the labours of tW 
Apostle Paul, who, together with Silas and Timothy, preached the Gospel to 

^ Ergo inter sese paribus concurrere telis 

Romanas acies iterum videre Philippi. Ftr^. Georg, I. 490. 

** Juvenal ranks it with the fables to which the expedition of Xcrxei 

gave rise : 

Velificatus Athos, et quicquid Grscia mendax 

Audet in historia : Sot. X. 174. 

But its existence is too well attested by Herodotus, and subsequent writers, 

as well as by the remains of it which are yet visible, to be considered as t 

subject of douht» 

'' callidus em^lot OX^nXSo^v. 3ux, SoX. ILU. 47. 

MiKddonia. HI 

in the tynagogues bere^ till they were compelled to leare the city 
-secution raised against them. St. Paul wrote two epistles to the 
»f Thessalonica. Continuing along the coast we come to Blethone 
yri, which Philip razed to the ground, after having invested it for 
iDths, and had alt eye struck out by an arrow during the siege by a 
archer named 'Aster. Below Methone lay Pydna Kidrat, famed 
ecisive victory gained there, b. c. lOS, by P. i9!'.milius over the 
an anny under Perseus, which put an end to that celebrated em- 
r it was Dium Standia, situated on Baphyras fl. Mauronero. This 
>ves the waters of the Helicon PeUica, on the banks of which was 
of Orpheus, whither it had been removed from Libethrum^^, which 
rhelmed by the waters of the river Sus Nesiva, To the W. ofThes- 
n £niatbia, was Pella^ Allahkilissiaf an important and ancient city, 
residence of the Macedonian kings. Philip and his son Alexander 
1 bom here. Above it was Edessa or i£gs Vodena, the ancient 
r Macedonia until eclipsed by Pella, and the burying place of 

I the S. of Pella was Beroea Verim, the inhabitants of which were 
ed by St. Paul for their reception of the gospel on a fair and irc- 
earing of it. In the district of Lyncestis lay Heraclea Lyncestis 
its chief city, subsequently called Pelagonia ; and close by was the 
ncestis, remarkable for its intoxicating qualities. Stobi, the chief 
ilagonia, still retains its name, and is situated on the K. Erigon : 
r the capital of Paeonia, was near Ohrmar, and Scupi is still called 

a the coast of the Adriatic was Epidamnus, the chief city of the 
i, founded by the Corcyreans on the rough and craggy peninsula 
lium ; on its falling into the hands of the Romans, they called the 
Dyrrhachium Durazzo, considering its foimer name one of ill omen : 
i considerable importance from its vicinity to Brundusium in Italy, 
here was a common passage across. Apollonia PoHina^ a favourite 
place from Brundusium and Hydruntum, was fartlier S. near the 
r the Aous ; Augustus, when young, spent many years here in the 
sn of literature and philosophy. Below it on the coast were, Aulon 
and Oricum ErkJw, founded by the Abantes, and surnamed Dar- 
Lychnidus, the capital of the Dassaretii, was situated at the foot of 
, Mons, on the Eastern shore of Lychnitis Palus L. of Okhridaf a few 
the S. of the modern Okhrida, The Via Egnatia was a paved way 
i Adriatic to Cypsela Ipsala, on the Hebnis, and was continued after- 
> ConstantinopU, 

snce the Muses were named Libethrides : 

Nymphae, noster amor, Libethrides : Virg. EcL VII. 21. 

eus himself was said to have been born at Pimplea, a small place 
lom and Libethrum. 

•* Unus Pellaeo juveni non sufficit orbis : 

Juv. Sat, X. 168. 





1, THE name of Hellas, which was applied toT 
country now known aa Greece, designated originally. | 
a small district of Thessaly, whose inhabitants were c 
Hellenes, and though in this term the whole of X 
Greeks were latterly comprised, it was at first empld^ 
to distinguish one of the clans then dwellin^ 
try, and not as a collective name for the whole f 
these are called by Homer Achaei, Argivi, Daoai, a 
one instance Panhellenes. The Romans obtained 1 
name of Girecia, by which they knew the country, i 
the Grseci, an inconsiderable tribe in Epirus, with wbcat% 
they were first acquainted. But when they had cotf-,, 
pleted the conquest of the whole couiitry by the redtictMU^ 
of the states which constituted the Achtean league, t'""' 
borrowed the name of the last nation that opposed t' 
ambition, to denote their new province ; and in all tl 
official proceedings Greece was thenceforward terani0L 
Achaia, although the recollection of its former names WIH ,„ 
still preserved by the orator and poet. ■' ^ 

2. The earliest inbablladts of tbe muntry are ptesumed to bare betf k 
descendants of Japhct. and to have quilted the banki of the Kugihraui Ml . 
Tigris for the shores of the <Ee«an Sea. Theit great ai ~ ' 

have been Javaii the son of Japhet, and two of Eii^ eons, 
Dodanim. Javan himself is thougtit to have dwelled on the Wetlem si 
of Asia Minor, in that part of die couatry wliich was called Ionia, a Bum 
plainly derived from that of Javoo: to the N. of hisomn setllementu bM ' 
were those of Elishsh. or the .^tians as they are called by profane vriUa, (t 
and (o the South of hia settlements neie those of the DDdanim or Dorian, l 
These three great fimilies appear in process of time la have migrated Wnl- 
ward into Greece, and to have communicaled their name' lo that connliy: 
and although ancient hisloriaos generally assert that (he Asiatic loniant, ' 
Dorians, and .lioliani, were colonists from Europe, this can only be true with 
reference to some few bauds of people sent from G reece lo Asia in a much 
hUer age. The descendants of Elishah passing over into Europe, ar« sup- 
posed to have been afterwards termed "EXXi/vif and Iheir country "EWac, 
names, which id process of lime became commou to all (ireece. As to dw 
iJodaaiai or Dotiaia, in oddilion lotliitWingvWcommotta^yillalion for all 



etlem shoni ^ 


itaats of the Peloponnese, their name was attached to a part of the 
J» of the isthmus, hence called Doris : iodeed, the whole Greek na- 
NDetimes denoted by the profane authors under the appellation 

The origin of the name Pelasgi is referred to Pele^, the descendant 
in whose days the earth was divided : this great nation, which spread 
* so large a portion of Greece, is said to have dwelled originally in 

of Asia Minor, called in after ages Ionia ; their migratory hsibits 
n upon them from the Athenians the nickname of iriXapyoi or 
k>iinected with them were the Tyrseni or Tyrrheni, who appear to 
ved their origin from Tarshish, the fourth son of Japhet 

later times the principal nations inhabiting Greece were eqiAl in 
) the dialects spoken in the country, which were four. Of these the 
I Attic may be considered as the same, since the inhabitants of 
Ik> were once called loniaos, sprung from one common stock with 
iaiis who colonized Asia Minor, and used the dialect called Ionic, 
neeks beyond the Isthmus, excepting the Athenians, Megareans, 
^I>oriaDs who dwelled round Parnassus, were called iEoIians, and 
£olic dialect ; this, however, was not con6ned to these countries, 
noken by some of the people in the Peloponnesus, especially by the 
■ and Eleans. The nations inhabitiD| the peninsula were all called 
«ftnd in conjunction with the small tnbe near Pamassns, spoke the 
]«ct, which partook more or less of the JEoUc, ia proportion as the 
had intercourse with each other. 

hreece was bounded on the N. by the Cambunii 
flutza, and Ceraunii M^. Khimera : on the E. by 
raum Mare Archipelago ; on the S. by the Creti- 
fare Sea of Candia ; and on the W. by the Ionium 
being washed by the sea on all sides except on 
urth, where Macedonia alone separated it from the 
I Europe. It contained with its islands^ excepting 
» are in the JEgsean Sea, 21,290 square miles, or 
8,000 less than Ireland. The Northernmost range 
intains in Greece is that of the Ceraunii M^. iSTAi- 
BO called from Ktpawoq fulmeriy owing to their being 
ftt of storms and tempests ; they commence at Acra 
joia^ C Zinguetta on the Adriatic Sea, and trend 
above Dodona and the L. of Janinay till they join 
aznbunii M^. Volutzaj which attach themselves a 
ibove the mouth of the Peneus to the magnificent 

11, ' Dorica Castra' is used by Virgil to denote the whole Grseciaa 

juvat ire, et Dorica castra« 

Desertosque videre locos, litusque relictnm. Mtu II. 27. 

' Quern mortis timuit gradum, 

Qui siccis oculis monstra natantia. 
Qui vidit mare turgidum, et 
Infames scopuloB, Acroceraunia? Hor. Carnu\.m«^^« 

'IW GroBcia. 

Olympus Elymho, Hence the chain winds hIoi^ tihb 
coast of the ^gaean Sea, under the names of Ossa, Pelid* 
and Tisseus, and terminates in the South Eastern 
of Thessaly. The great range of Pindus, one ol 
haunts of the Muses 3, now called Agrafa or Pindus^ 
a continuation of the Canalovii M^. in Macedonia, 
enters Greece at the sources of the Peneus and Ai 
thus, where it crosses the Cambunii M^. ; it nearly divic 
the continent from North to South, and after throi 
out the various spurs of Othrys, CEta, and Corax, h 
itself in the heights of Parnassus and Helicon. L 
diately above Attica and Megaris is the ridge of P; 
and Oithseron*, stretching across from the Channel 
Negropont to the Gulf of Lepanto, There are two prfll 
cipal chains of mountains in the Peloponnesus, one in'*' 
Northern part between Achaia, Arcadia, and Ai 
known by the names of Scollis, Aroanii, and Arachm 
the other, called in its different parts Artemisius, Msfii- 
lus, and Taygetus, diverges from it, and nearly intersectilA^ 
the peninsula, terminates in Taenarium Pr. C. Matapim,\ 
the Southernmost point of the continent of Europe. * ; 

5. Amongst the principal rivers of Greece may &v 
mentioned the Achelous, called formerly Thoas aiidi 
Thestius, Aspro Potamo ; it rises in the Northern parti 
of M^. Pindus, flows through Eastern Epirus, and after* 
dividing Acarnania from ^Etolia, enters the Ionian Sct^ 
opposite the Echinades Ise. The Peneus* Salembnax 
rises in M^ Pindus, and after winding through the middle ^ 
of Thessaly enters the jEgaean Sea a little below Tempe;^ 
it was celebrated for the fable of Daphne, who is said \ 
to have been changed into a bay tree on its banks when ' 
pursued by Apollo, an adventure which by others is re- , 
ferred to the R. Ladon in Arcadia. The beautiful vale » 

• Nam neque Parnassi vobis juga, nam neque Pindi 
Ulla moram fecere, neque Aonia Aganippe. Virg, EcL X. 11. 

* vocat ingenti clamore Cithaeron, 

Taygctique canes, domitrixque Epidaurus e(iuorum. 

Id, Gwrg, III. 43. 

^ Kst ncmus ^l^monis, prsnipta quod uudique claudit 
Silva : vocant Tempe. Per quae Peneus, ab imo 
Effusus Vindo, spumosis volvitur undis : &c. 

Ov\d. Mtt, L 5C9. 

Ofwcia. Ul 

ipe^ Tsampatf so often sung by the ancient poets, 
sscribed by them as the most delightful spot upon 

was situated between Olympus and Ossa ; it is 
Bu&tic defile of difficult access, in length about 6 
1 miles, its least breadth being about 100 yards: 

PeneuB rushes violently through it, with consi- 
B noise, and is supposed to have found this outlet 

waters (Which once flooded Thessaly) in some 
sonvulsion of nature. The two CTeat overs of the 
^onnesus are the Alpheus^ Rouphia, and the £u- 
Eure or Ires: the former rises on the Southern 
8 of Arcadia, and runs past Olympia into the Cy- 
.U8 Sinus 6r. of Arcadia ; the latter has its spnUi^s 

Northern limits of Laconica, which province it 
etely traverses, and enters the Lacomcus Sinus 
Kolohythia. The Alpheus was remarkable for its 
. chace of the nymph Arethusa into Sicily, and for 
iters being used by Hercules in cleansing the 
B of Augeas: the Eurotas^ was called Basilipota- 
y the Spartans, who worshipped it as a god, and 
.ed its banks for the exercise of their young men, 
he river itself for the bath of their maidens ; it is 
ailed Basilico Potamo, 

le names and sizes of the various couDtries, or provinces, into which 
was divided, may be seen in the following table : 

Sq. IVIiles. 

lessalia 4.2S0') 

srus and its isles (including Corcyra) ... 4,690 

Arnania (including Leucadia, Ithaca, Cephallenia, 

and the adjacent isles) ..... 1,350 

;toUa 930 

ims and Dryopis -.---- 280 

I *^ . 
icri Ozols - - - - - - . 850 f H a 

x^ Epicnemidii and Opuntii - - - - 175 

liocis ---.-.-- 610 
CBOtia - 1,000 


ttica (including Salamis and Macris) 1 g^^ - • 700 
[^^s - ... .J - - 200^ 

* Confestim Peneos adest viridantia Tempe ; 
Tempe, qus silvae cjngunt superimpendentes,'— 

Catull. Carm, LXIY. 286. 
^ Aut Alphea rotis prselabi flumina Pisae, 
£t Jovis in luco cuitus agitare volantes. Virg. Gecrg, III, 180. 

* Qualis in Eurots ripis, aut per juga Cynthi 
Ezercet Diana choros; quam mille socuts 

Jfinc atqae bine glomematuT Oreades :— - Id« £n. \. \^% 


GrcEcia — Thessalia 


Elis (iacluding Zacynthus) 

Aiaolii (iaotuding £g1ni, Aiistera, Tiparenus, 

the oUier isles) ..... 

Lacoaic^ (including- Cjthera and adjaceac isles] 

M«>secia aod its isles ... - - 



7. Thessalia Thessaly was bounded on the E, 1^ ' 
the JEgsioii Sea, on the N. by Olympus M. and tw '^ 
Cambunii M*,, on the W, by the great range of M. Piau -. 
dus, and on the S. by (Eta M. Catavothra Vouiio, wtucK " 
is a spur of M. Pindus extending to Thermopylre. 14 '* 
the N. it touched on Macedonia, to the W, on Epinis 
and £toha, and to the S. on Doris. In earher times it T 
bore the several names of ^monia, Argos Pelasgicum, i, 
Hellas, Pyrrha, ^olis, Etc. ; that of Thessalia being dft- '* 
rived from Thessalus, one of its kings. It included the ^ 
BCFcral divisions of Hestieeotis, Pelasgiotis with the p(* .; 
■essions of the Perrhsebi, Magnesia, Phthiotis, uid tba '' 
territory of the Malienses and j^inianes. ^ 

8. Tbeasaly appears to have been one of the weakest and most iiuigiut ^ 

east piovinces in the whole coimtij, at the sune time thai its tesources, in ^ 

extent, and its capability of defence, suebt to have gained for it the toj i: 

highest rank amongst the othes states. Next to Boeotia it was the moH U 

fertile part of Gicece, abounding in com, wine, and oil. The inhalnlanb ^ 

were eiceedinglj wealthy, hut were much reprnbaled for theii many tice* l , 

their treacheiy was so prnveibial that false coia was called Thenaliu ■ 

mune;, and a peifidiouB action Thessalian deceit Th^ were likewise >•■ '' 
Diarkably superstitious, and much addicted to wilchctaft, Inca&taliODS, ind 

the study of magic'. t 

!t. Opposite Olympus, and on the Southern side of Tempe, is the noai. 

lain Ossa Kiaom, the continuation of which eitends along the Magneaiui ^ 
eoasl till it joins M. Pelion PUmid, and terminates in the South Kaslan 
point of Thessaly ; these three mountains were famous for the ladder, which 
thi giants are said to have made of them in their war against the gods ", 

* Quffi sidera eicantala voce Thessaly 

Lunamque ccelo deripit, Har. Upai. V. 46. 

H^Xiov liyoiripvXkov, iv oipavbt Aii^arAE ttrt. 

H<m.Od. t>..\W 

Qf^aKAa-^ TkesBalia. ] ts 

Mim 'dwelkd in the Talliei tround Ona, but thej extended their 
IB to Pelua, whence th^ drore out the Centaun ; die cave of 
raa on the highest point of thii mountain. Towards the source of 
diins wan the lidge of Othiys, now known by the names of HMuvo 
s ; it was noted tor its fiirests of pine, and struck out firom M. Pin- 
ward to the haibour of Aphets. To the S. of it was the range of 
mwcAra Fo«fM,so lofty that the ancients feigned the sun, moon, and 
behind it : it was the scene of Hercules' last sufierings when under 
en<M5 of Dejaniia's poisoned tunic ^*. (Eta was a spur of the Pindus, 
nJed Eastward as rar as the memorable defile of ThermopylsB; its 
Mint was called Callidromns. 

jESTSiEons, the North Western part of Thessaly, was so called from 
; of that name in Euboea, whose iohabitants, the Perrhebi, removed 
In the Northern part of the district dwelled the ^thices, a set of 
to whom the eentaurs fled on their expulsion from Pelion. The 
. towns in Hestiaotis were, .£ginium, given up to plunder by 
£niiliu8, for refusing to open its gates to the Roman army, after 
e of Pydna ; Gomphi Ckuoura, considered the key of Thessaly on 
of Epinis ; Tricca^ ZVieoia, close to a small tributary of the Pe- 
led JLethsus TrietUa, on the banks of which .£sculapius was born ; 
ime Hautm K§ui, whence Minerva, who bad a temple here, was 
d Ithonuea. 

'kuksoions was the North Eastern portion of Thessaly. llie lower 

f the Peneus was first inhabited by the Perrhtebi, who were driven 

•rt of their possessions by the Lapithie, and retired nearer to Pindus 

be Northern limits of Thessaly. About the springs of the Titaresius 

district of Pelagonia Tripohtb, so called from the three cities of 

Doliche, and Pytbium. Oloosson, remarkable for the whiteness of 

is now AUusona ; to the S. £. of it were Cyphus, Pbalanna, and 

The celebrated defile of Tempe was guaided by four strong for- 

the two most important of these were Gonnus and Condyles. Op- 

le junction of the Titaresius or Saranta Porot with the Peneus was 

fessouis L. Nezero, formed by Onochonus fl. R^ani, which has its 

n Mount Ossa ; the waters of this little river were said to have been 

ip by the army of Xerxes**. Higher up the Peneus was Larissa 

, one of the most ancient and most flourishing cities of Thessaly, the 

Ter sunt conati imponere Pelio Ossam 

Scilicet, atque Ossa ftondosum involvere Olympum. 

Ktrg. Georg, 1. 281. 

'' An tuus in media conjuz lacerabitur (Eta ? 

Ovid. Heroid. IX. 147. 

iomer phu:es Tricca under the dominion of the sons of iEsculapius : 

Ot 6' dvop TpiKKfiv, Kal *lOiafiffv Kkittf^aKotoirav, 

TAv ovd* riyiiaB'nv *A<rK\rj7riov Svo Tralde. II. B. 729. 

nvenal alludes to the circumstance in connection with the other fables, 
ch the expedition of the Persian monarch gave rise ; 

"• ■ — credimus altos 

Pefecisse amnes epotaqne flumina Medo 

Pkandente,-*- Sat. X. 17G. 

6 2 

124 Gracia — Thessalia. 

counlry of Acliillei ", and fniiuerly the geoeral capital of the Felaxg^i 
Acrisiua was here iDRdvenaQtly lulled by his gniiilsoii PeraeuE. the ton g( 
'l>anBE. To the S. of Latisaa, in the heart of I'hessaly, were the ThCM||p 
or Pelnsgici Campi ; their Norlh Kastem eilremity, called DoCiui Camiw ' 
was the ori^na) uattif the jfi-oianei, and touched on Bcebeis Faliu L. iStff 
lot, the laigest lake in ThessaJy. At the Southern extrecai^ of thia laK 
wuFhersTilnlitia, one of the oldest and luoat important cities in the Ii% ; 
vince : here were the fanntains of Hyperia and MeEseis ", so celebralad J^ 
the poets. The Idhd of Anneaium on the Kasiem shore of the laka m 
the binh-place of AtmenuB, who accompanied Ja»in, the Argonautic chi(t ' 
to Colchis, and there founded a colony to which he coniinunicated the mfM ' 
ofAnnenia. At the Eastern eilremity of the Thesutlian plain was Scotiyi^ ' 
Sni-fikt, near which, at Cynoscephalie, the Roman consul T. Q. Tiamititf ' 
gained his important victory over Philip of Macedon. I9T years h. c. ^ 

12. Magnesia was the maritime part of Thessaly, extendiog from tm , 
Biouth of the Feneui to the Pelas^c Gulf; the people wens called Hi(- 
BGlei. Near the mouth of the Peneui was Mount Homole, fatnoui fygt ' 
the story of the Centaurs and Lapthai. Lower down on the coast <*M^ * 
UelibiBa, where Philoctetes reigned, Caatanca Twnkanuia, and Sepias Sc * 
C.S. GtoTg; the South Eastern extremity of Thessaly. It was od this lu^ ^ 
of coast that a great pan of the fleet of Xerxes was wrecked in a sloM ^ 
upwards of 400 vessels hating been dashed □□ shore, with the loss of t^^ *< 
(ands of men and a prodigious treasure. Here the coast trends to the V^.J^ "'• 
far as j£aatiuDi Pr. C- Trikeri, which with the opposite one, PosidiumPb * 
C. Stawoi. formed the eotrance to the Pel^gicus or Pagasxus Sinus (^S '*. 
Volo. At tlie bead of the gulf was lolcos Boritia, celebrated as the 1>>^K '^ 
place of Jason, and situated near the mouth of the H. Anaurus in irl«n '^l 
that liero lost his sandal. Close by were Demetrtas ruin, the chief tOw&2 ■> 
Magnesia ; and Pagas*, now known as Iht Cattle of Vole, where the sbf •* 
Aigo was tuilt, and whence she set sail for Colcliis'^! *i 

13. Phthiotis comprehended the Southern port of Thesialy, fnMn |b| t 
Pelasgic Gulf to the Pmdua, and appears to have been almost synonyinoBI * 
withllietsaliolis; it included the districts of Phchia and Hellas, KsweUS ' 
the tract of country inhabited by the Dolopians. Pharsalus $nia(4g*'il ^ 
Phanala, famed (or the battle fought there between Cnsar .ind Pomp^ ^ 
1. e 48. which gained the former the empire nf the world, was situated MS ^ 

where Agesilaus defeated ibt * 

'* AchiHes IS hence surnamed LarissKus [ 

capliciue dolis, iacryiBianue coacli ^ 

Ijuos neque Tydides, nee LarissBUS Aehillei, ^ 

Aon nnni domueni decern, nou millc carinie. , 

Virg. Ma. n. 190. , 
" Kni ttv iiJup ^pioic Jlfffoiiiffoc, ri 'Tir(p(ii)c, — 

Horn. II. Z. 4GT. 

'^ Namquc Ivrunt olim Paeasn navalihus Argi 
Kgressam longe Phasidoe isse viamj — 

Prpp«rt. 1. II. U, 

Pharsalia seoliet ilium, 

Emathiique itemm madclacti ca»le Philippi : — 

Owid. Mtt. XV. S33. 

GfMla— 7%eMa/ia. 125 

( on his vetam ftmn Aua Minor ; Pyrrfaa, called fonnerW Hellu, 

the tomb of Helleo, ton of Deucalion, and king of Phthiotis, 

endants .£o1as, Donii, and Ion, are laid to have given name to 

atkms of JEoHiai, Dorians, and loniant ; and Thaumaci T^aic- 

mg place on the brow of a perpendicular rock. Deicending the 

last of the Pelassic Gulf, we come to Thebs Phthiotidis Armyro, 

Tfaessaty on this side; and Amphrvsus fl. Armyro JR., whera 

en banished from heaven, fed the herds of king Admetos ^*. At 

tmes were celebrated in honour of Protesilaus, and near it was 

laagia or Cremaste : the latter stood at the head of Aphete P^*., 

*h u said to have derived its appellation from the word afiri/ii, 

lip Argo having taken her departure thence to sail on her oistant 

Dolopia " was a small district in the South Western comer of 

its principal towns were Ctimens and Xynis Daoukli, both 

, the shores of the little lake Xynias Xitou. 

t Maubkses occupied the lower valley of the R. Sperchius and 

of Maliacus Sinus G. of Zeitouriy which was so named after them : 

ded in the latter direction as far as the defiles of Thermopylae, still 

muif where Leonidas and his three hundred heroes nobly died in 

the pass against Xerxes and his immense army, b. c. 480. This 

ed by the sea and marshes on one hand, and by the inaccessible 

'. CEta on the other, obtained its name from the two Greek words 

errn^, and iritXai pyi^, owing to certain vjorm springt which were 

in ths pan. In its narrowest part it was only 25 feet broad, which 

le Spartans to withstand for three days the fiercest attacks of the 

my ; but the sea has now retired so far as to render this once im- 

iss comparatively of little value. In one of the narrowest parts of 

^as Anthela, where the celebrated Amphictyonic Council met an- 

the autumn to deliberate on the public afiairs of the whole coun- 

adjust the di£ferences between the various states : in the spring 

year they met at Delphi. Amongst the principal places of the 

s was Lamia Zeitoun celebrated for the war waiged by the Athe« 

L other Greeks, at the instigation of their orators, against the Mace- 

inder Antipater. At the mouth of the Sperchius was Anticyra, 

txluce the genuine hellebore recommended by the ancient physi- 

L cure for insanity'*', whence arose the adage " Naviget Anticyram," 

lecommendation to a person of unsound mind. Hard by was Tra- 

iog name to the surrounding district Trachinia, where Hercules re- 

>r having committed an involuntary murder. — The ^Enianes were 

lian tribe of great antiquity dwelling originally in the Dotian plain, 

iiey migrated to the borders of Epii-us and i^^tolia ; they possessed 

tie consequence, but from their frequent wars with the iEtolians 

•e at last nearly exterminated by the latter people. Their chief town 

pata Castritta on the R. Sperchius. 

" Te quoque, ma?na Pales, et te memorande canemus 
Pastor ab Amphryso. Virg, Georg. III. 2. 

• Quis talia fando, 

Myrmidonum, Dolopumve, aut duri miles Ulyssei, 

Temperet a lacrymis t Id, JEn, II. 7. 

eDoe Horace: 

Nescio an Anticyram ratio illis destine! omnem. 


1 28 Gradtt — E-pirtts. 

15. Epmus was bounded on the N. by Macedonia, on « 

the E. by Thesaaly, on the S. by .Etoiia and Acaraamaj 'i 
and on the W. by the louian Sea : it contained tbt \ 
Southern part o? Albania. It appears to have deriYed •■ 
its name from the Greek word ^xtipoc coutinens, whid} >" 
was probably apphed to it iu an early age, in contradis- 
tinction to the group of islands lying along the cotaL '■ 
Though Epirus was in many parts a mountainous com* J 
try, it was very fertile, and produced excellent cattle, wt * 
well as a large breed of dogs called Molossi " : it wU ' 
likewise feraous for its breed of horses *'. Epime WM ^ 
divided into the districts of Chaonia, Thesprotia, Molo*^ *t 
eia, Athamania, and Aperantia. ^^■ 

10. Tbe Achelous, already menlloned, yita the greatMt riier of Epimn u 

« little to the W. of it runs the Arachlhus Arta, al one [ime the bonndu^ rf ^ 

Greece in Ibis diieetion. Farther W. vas the Acheroa*< or Selttns 5mi1|! » 

■n ineonsiderBble river, but celebrated in antiquity far its supposed eo^ -^ 

mnnication with the infernal regions ; it Sows through Acherusia PiM w 

I. TtftpBtoiido, after which it receivia the niiuieouB waleis of the CocytM'lt ,, 

BuMB, and then enlen the Ionian Sea at Glytys Limen P". Phnnori. Bv ,,, 

tond this, to the Northward, were the river* Thyamis Calamat, astitH . 

Xanlhns Piitrilis, both of which joined llie sea opposiln the laUnd <( , 

Corcjra. ' ^ 

17. Chaonia was the North Western part of the province. eitendiM i 
along the coast from Acra Ceraunia to the hirbour oV Bulhrotum. "SH ^ 
piincipal placea on tbe coast were, Palieste or Pharsalus YaiU dtl Omi \ 
where Cssar landed liom Bnindusium pievioun to his atticking Pompe; in ■- 
illyricum ; and Oochesmus 0( AnchisE P"*. Xolrann, said to hare been M ] 
called after (he felher of ^oeaa. In ihe iotcrior were, Anligoaea jlreyi» ) 
Catlro, a little al>o>e the Fauces Antigoneie, an important defile letdug 
from IltyricuDi into Epirus ; and PhcEnicf Phenyl, wliich surpassed all the . 
Otliei cities of Epirus la opulence, till it was laid waste by the itlyrians. 

18. Tbestrotia was lituated between Buthrotnin and the mouth of lb* 
Acheron, and eitended as fat inland as Pambotii L. Lakt o/Ja-nma. The 
piiDcipal places on the coast were, Posidium Pr. C. Stala, the nearest point 
to Corcyra ; and Felodei Limen L. Vh'ari, communieatiag by a aarrow 
ihannel with the sea, on which stood Buthrotnm" BiilT-tnlii, said to have 

Persouuit canihi... 

•• Virgil, speaking of a fine hone, says, 

Et pitriam Epiram referal, — 

iildomus alti Molossi* 

wrg. III. Itl. 

" Hinc via Taitarei qus feit Acberontis ad uodas : 
Turbtdus hie ciEno vasliique voragine gurges 
jlilEluat, alque omnem Cocyto eruttat aieoam. 

Id. £j>. VI. aw, 

* i^Ciaus aerias Phitacum a\iscandimiii arcw. 

Ormeia — JEpirus. 127 

by Helena^ tlis ion of Priam, after the death of Pynhu. Far- 
>re, Thyamis I^. C. Nitti at the mouth of Tfajamu fl. ; Torooo 
whore the fleet of Augustui anchored prior to the battle of Ac- 
Sybota P*^. Sioata fiunooi for the sea-fight between the Corin- 
Corcyreani. A little above the mouth of the Acheron, and on 
nk, wai Ephyre Tehoukrada the capital of the ancient Thetprotian 

[X>88iA lay to the S. and £• of Thesprotia, extending from the 
. Gulf to the sources of the Arachthus and Aous. The Cassopci 
sonsiderable people near the mouth of the Acheron : their chief 
) Cassopea near LeUmo, and Pandosia Glykyt on the Acheron; 

of Epirus was advised by the oracle of Dodona to avoid the 
tal, which he did, but met his death at the Italian Pandosia. In 
Western comer of Molossia was Nicopolis, sumamed Achais or 

Preuesa ; it was biult by Augustus to commemorate his victoiy 
, and here he established some splendid games, which were cele- 
ry five years **• A few miles above the mouth of the Arachthus 
was Ambracia, founded by a colony from Corinth ; it gave name 
ilKacius Sinus G. of Arta, and was a place of considemble magni- 
.1 it was stripped of its wealth by the Romans. In the interior of 
J at the source of Thyamis fl. was Passaron Drtnuchoux, the cajn- 
sprotia ; it was destroyed by the Romans in the merciless revenge 
y took on the surrounding cities. To the N. £. of this, between 
of Tomanis and the L. of Janxna, stood Dodona '^ Gardiki, the 
ent oracle in Greece, and only inferior to the Pythian shrine ; it 
led by the Pelasgi previous to the Trojan war, though some sfate 
existed in the days of Deucalion. The temple, which was dedi- 
'upitec, was surrounded by a grove of sacred oak, endowed with the 
iphecy ; but the oracles were latterly delivered by the murmuring 
ins, or by the vibration of brazen kettles "^ set m motion by the 

Litoraque Epiri leglmus, portuque subimus 
Chaonio, et celsam Buthroti ascendimus urbem. 

Virg, u£n. III. 291. 

{il is supposed to allude to these ^ames, in compliment : 

Actiaque Iliacis celebramus btora ludis. JEn, III. 280. 

Zev ava, AutdtavaU, HiXadyuck, ti^\69i vaiutv, 
AiodwvriQ fitdk<ap ^vtrxctficpov* afi^l Sk £cXXoi 
Soi vaiovtr* vtrofprjrai dvivrdTrodEi;, xa/xai£vvae. 

Horn. JL n. 233. 

r » ^_ Dodonaeosque lebetas, — 

nrg, Xn. III. 466. 

: kettles are said to have been fixed in the walls of the temple con- 
to each other, so that upon striking one, the sound was conveyed to 
est. But this account is not so much to be depended on as that 
3presents the sound to have been caused by a brazen figure placed 
auldron of the same metal, which had been presented to the temple 
i^orcyreans. This statue held in its hand a whip, the lash of which 
id of three chains, each having an astragalus fastened to the end of 
ie, when agitated by the wind, struck the cauldron, and produced 
I so continued, that 400 vibrations could be counted before it ceased : 
nose the many proverbs of the Dodonsean cauldron and the Corcyreaa 

G 4 

"(iB Grtecia — Corcyra — AcavTiania. 

^wind. NevDodinu was the feilile ditlrictof Hrllopia, inliabitnl bjtlv 
'Belli or 3el1i, who teem to be identibed with the brave Simlioia of our mm 
times : snd about the sourees of the Ankchlhus Kere the Stjmphci, yAb 
were prob»bly so called from M. Slymphe which wparaled them Iroia Mitc^ 

. 20. The diitncl of Atbahania lay between Molossia aed M'. PiodvL 
About the upper course of the AcheJaas; it was small aud uoimpoitaot, IM 
)n]t for the support of the j^tullana it would scarcely have been noiiccdja 
history,! — Apebantia was a petty slate iu the South Eastern corner of E|i- 
aia, OH tlie conhoes of .£tolia.aiid AL-aruaoia; it was tiie sobjeet of fitquaS 
COntentiou between Philip of JMacedon and the iEtoUans, each posseviiw^ 

21. The island of CoacvUA Corfu, famous for the shipwreck of Uljnm 
■nd for the gardens of Alcinous, is the second in size of the Lnian h^ wl 
Bes to the West of Epinis, from which it is separated by a narrow t>h>iUHl> 
Owine to its tcuthe-Uke shape it was called Drepane, from the Greek. waA 
IptiravT) fetx, but its native name was Scheria'*'. The earliest '-'rliitilB 
of the island were the Piisaces, a people of Libutnian origin, but il waiM* 
loniied subsequentlv by the Corinthians. It became, howevci. <iu£i:i4Bllj 
powerful lo contend nitb the latter people ; and il is asserted, that the 6afl 
savai engigemeat which took place on the seas of Greece, was fouehL htr 
tween It and the Coriathlans. It was otherwise [emaikablti for nai^B§ 
pven rise to ifae Peloponnesiao war, by the conduct it pursued with retp^t 
to its colony Epidamnua. Its chief cily was Coccyra Cur/ii, built Oft * 
promontory on the Eastern side of the islBod, and [losseii^ag caDsidenSa 
itreogth and magnificence; its citadel was, in the middle ages, calU 
Kopvpui; which name, afterwards applied to. tlie town and the isiu4>-ft 
now abbreviated into Corfu. The Notthernmost point of the island is Cat- 
tiope Pr. C. S. CalAimne ; near it was the temple sf Jupiter Cassias, wbo* 
Nero, in a voyage made to Corcyra, sang in public at the allii of the g«£ 
Amphipagum Pr., the Southern point of the iBland, is now called C, finmev; 
offit are Pani lie. Pain and Anti-Pai-i, two small islands. 

22. AcABNANiA was bounded on tlieE. by the Acha- 
lous, which separated it from .^tolia ; on the N. by the 
Ambracian Gulf, which separated it from Epims; and 
on the W. and S. by the Ionian sea : il is at present 
called Carlelia, though a part of it still retains the name 
of Carnia. Its earliest inhabitants were the Cui-etes, 
LelegeSj and TelebofE, all barbarous nations, who occu- 
pied several other parts of Greece before the Pelasgi 
overspread the country. The Acamanes were so aJ- 
dictea to pleasure, that porcus Acarnas became a pro- 
verbial expression ; their horses were especially famed 
for swiftness and beauty. 

Iff" (tw((3ij yXavtSiirii ' XOitrti 

' (jhrmcktr^Zeucadia — Ithaca. 120 

■etflnam Pmtm wis lituated on the North Wettem pramontonr of 

. :. .Bear it wat Acdum Atio, so celebrated for the victoiy which 

gmined there over Antony and Cleopatra, b.c. SI, and hard by 

&ple ^ Apolk^ whence Virgil represents the god beholding the 

i*o the £. of this was Arm Amphilochicum Ambtakia, so called 

sine the chief town of uie Amphilochi. In this neighbourhood 

t. Inachns Kriheli, which was said to rise in M*. Pindus, and 

e Achelons, to pass under the sea till it reached the Peloponnesian 

^escendine die right bank of the Achelous, we come to Stratos 

B primnpaidty of Acamania. Near the mouth of the same river 

:dae Trigardon, founded at the command of an oracle by Alcmcon, 

murder of his mother. Hereabouts, too, was the fEimous i&land 

Q^, forming part of the kingdom of Ulysses, who took some of its 

tik with him to the siege of Troy : its name seems preserved in tlie 

ing lock AnatoHco, Dulichium was the largest of the Echinaden 

dart, &c., a numerous group of islands opposite the mouth of the 

p which, owing to the alluvial deposit of the river, have for the 

, become connected with the mainland : to the S. of them were the 

Oxia, which Homer alludes to under the name Those. 

cccADiA or Lencas, called foimerly Neritis, and now Santa Maura, 
he North Western coast of Acamania ; it was once joined to the 
[, whence Homer styles it 'Acri)v 'Hfrcipoto, to distiDguish it 
ica and Cephallenia. Its chief town was Leucas, called formerly 
AmaxUd, once the capital of the Acamaoes. The Southern eztre- 
he island, Leucate Pr. C. DucatOf so celebrated as the lover's leap, 
its name from the word Xtvxbc aihu$, owing to the white appear- 
he rock ; Sappho, when enamoured of Fhaou, is said to have oeen 
x> try the fatal leap. 

rnACA^* TmM or Ithaca, so celebrated by the poetry of Homer, lies 
tely South of Leucadia, frcm which it is only five miles distant, and 
its name from the hero Ithacus. The fondness with which Homer 
f dwells on the scenery of Ithaca, gave rbe to the report that be 
ative of that place ; hence it is found enumerated amongst the seven 
hich disputca the honour of having given birth to the poet''. Ithaca 
ally speaking a nigged and mountainous bland. The highest and 
markable mountain is in the Northern part of the island, and was 

* Actius base cemens arcum intendebat Apollo 
Desuper: omnis eo terrore ^gyptus, et Indi, 
Omnis Arabs, omnes vertebant terga Sabsi. 

Virg. Mn. VIII. 704. 

** Ot d* <K Aoi;Xt%co(0, *'Exivaiov B* Upauv 

ISrjOiaif, a% valovtri irkpriv dXbg, "HXtdog dvra, 
T£v avO* i^yffiovive MiytiQ, drdXavTOQ 'Aprfi, 

Horn. IL B. 625. 

" *Ev S* 'lOacy ovr &o SpSnot t^pki£j ovrs re Xeifiiav* 
AiyipoTOc, Kal fiaXXov kvripaTog iiriropdroio. 
Oil yap rif vri<rwv iiTTrriXaTog, ovd* tifXtifiuv, 
AIu dXi KEKXiarai' 'lOuKri Sk re cat iripi 'jratrktoit. 

Id. Od, A. (K>5. 

** 'Eirrd iroXeic ndpvavTO ao^'^v Std pi^av *Ojinipov 

Xfi,vpya, Xco£, KoXo^feiv, 'l^dci}, II^Xoc> Apvoi;, * Arrival. 

Antip. Sid. Ep. XLW . ^ftfe- 
G 5 

1 80 GrcBcia-^ CephaUenia — ZoeyiUhui — Mtolia. 

andendy called Neritns Awn\ at the Southern part of it is Nciiu M. Sttfmm 
Bourn, near which was the Acropolis, or residenoe of Ulysses. 

f& CspHALLXNiA, callcd aocieutly Same'^, and now CephaUkmim, is the 
largest of all the Ionian Jslands* It is said to have deriTea its name tan 
Cephahis, who settled there after his expedition against the Teleboe, Sii 
which he was assisted by Amphitryon. It is in general a moontaiiions 
island ; on the suibmit of the most elevated ran^, called JEnvL% M. Nin^ 
was a temple of Jupiter iEnesius. Its principal cities were^ bamoa ov StVM 
Siuno, on the Eastern side, the inhabitants of which were cloiely beri^gid 
and afterwards reduced to slavery by the Romans ; CephaUenia mar Fu St, 
Goorge ; and Palls Lixuri, 

27. Zacynthus'^ Zante is a fertile and woody island, seven miles to ikt 
South of CephaUenia, and about the same distance from Chelonites Pfi id 
Elis, opposite to which province it may be said to lie ; it is the third in soe 
amongst the Ionian hland$. Its principal town was Zacynthna Zmit9, a 
place of considerable importance, with a strong citadel called Psopbis. 

28. Mrohik was bounded on the W, by the Ache* 
lous, on the N. by the mountain-district of Aperantia, 
on the E. by the ranges of Tymphrestus and Corax, and 
on the S. by the Ionian Sea. To the W. it touched on 
Acarnania, to the N. on Epinis and Thessaly, and to 
the E. on Doris and the territory of the Locri Ozolfle: 
it contained parts of the modem provinces of Car2efiz 
and Livadia. 

29. In the Eastern part of the province was Evenus fl.*^ Fidari, so named 
from a son of Mars, who, being disconsolate at the loss of his daughter, 
threw himself into the Lycormas which was thenceforth called Evenvs; it 
is also celebrated from the story of Nessus, whom Hercules killed on its 
banks for oBering violence to Dejanira : it rises at M'. (EtSi, whence it flowi 
with a South Westerly course past Calydon into the Ionian Sea. Coras H. 
Coraka was a branch of the great (Etsan ridge ; it extended towaida Rhima 
or the St, of Lepanto, at the Eastern extremity of which was Taphiassiu M.t 
where Nessus died from his wounds, and thus communicated a fetid odoir 
to the waters which issued from it 

30. The iEtolians were a hardy and warlike race, but at the same time 
illiberal, covetous, and. faithless. During the brilliant dajrs of Athens and 
Sparta they were little known, but on the decline of these republics they 
assumed an importance, which was increased by a wretched alliance fiNrmed 
with the Romans, and which at length humbled them for ever, whilst it 

» 'Ev vopOfiifi 'lOoLKfiQ Ti J^dfioio T€ fraiiTaXoiffarjQ, 

Ham, Od. A. 671, 

^ Jam medio apparet fluctu nemorosa Zacjmthos, 
Dulichiumque, Sameque, et Neritos aidua saxis : 
Kffugimus scopulos Ithacae, Laertia re^na, 
Et terram altricem s«vi execramur Ulixi. Virg, JEn, HI. 270. 

** Semivir occubuH in letifero Eveno 

Nessus : et infecit sanguis equinus aquas. 

Ovid, Hiroid. IX. 141. 

n dM viUiualioii of GuMce, In tha South Weitem oonMr of 

u OrnU Ij. jCmmIoi^ L., on tb« tbore of which itood the iior- 

IS AfenalovM. Near the month of the Evenus was Calydon** 

istro, once the ornament of Greece, and renowned from the stoiy of 

Dus Caljdonian boar sent by Diana to ravage the coontxy, bat 

Mdeaser. Hard by lav Olenus, and Chalcis Galata, and nrther 

was Anti Rhhim VastU cf Rumilia, sO called from being oppcntt 

. in the Pekjxmnesas ; thesie two points, forming the strut anciently 

dum St. cftepanto, are about a mile asunder, and here the Co- 

7ulf properly conmienced. Farther Northward, in the reiy heart 

., was Tnermon, which was considered from its inaccessible situa- 

he citadel of the whole province ; here were held splendid games 

rwls, and here the X^netolic assemblies met to decide upon the 

the republic : this opulent and handsome city was twice attacked 

I to the ground by PhiKp the Third of Macedon, in revenge for the 

committed by the ^tolians at Dium and Dodona. Amongst the 

'he .£tolian tribes were, the £uiy tanes in the Northern part of the 

whose principal city was (Echalia ; they possessed an oracle and 

cred to Ulysses. 

Doris was a small tract of country, confined on 
3S by high chains of mountains ; to the N. and E. 
bounded by CEta, to the S. and W. by Parnassus, 
le great range of Pindus. To the o. it touched 
Phocis and the territory of the Locri Ozolse, to the 
K>n ^tolia, to the N. and E. upon Thessaly. It 
riginally called Dryopis from tne Dryopes*', one 
most ancient Greek tribes, and assumed the name 
ris when die Dorians migrated hither from Thessaly ; 
liter people dwelled in that part of the province 
. lay towards (Eta, the Dryopes on Parnassus. 

rbe Dorians are said by the profane authors to hove derived their 

om Dorus, the son of Deucalion, and to have been driven from their 

icms near Olympus and Ossa by the Cadmeans ; others derive the 

»f the Dorians fnnn their mountainous situation ^Opoc* and by the 

nalogy that of the Dryopes is conjectured to be from the forests of oak 

with which (Eta abounded. On the occasion of the Dorian king 

.OS losing his dominions, he was reinstated by Hercules, and out of 

de for so important a service he bequeathed the crown to the hero's 

yllus : hence Doris became the abode of the Heraclidae, when exiled 

be Peloponnesus, and here they concerted their successful plans for 

ing their possessions. The Dorian republic consisted of four cities, 

as hence termed Tetrapolis ; these were Pindus, Erineus, Boium, and 


^ Invidisse Decs, patriis ut redditus arvis 

Conjugium optatura et pulchram Calydona viderem ! 

Virg. JEn. XI. 269. 
" Cretesque Dryopesque fremunt, pictique Agathyrsi : — 

Id. IV. 146. 

v 6 

199 Gr€Beia — Locri — JRhocis, 

83, LocBi OzoL£. The territory of these people mil 
bopnded ou the W. by Corax M., on the N. by the range 
of Parnassus^ on the £. by the river of Amphissa, and 
on the S. by the Corinthian Gulf; it touched to the W. 
on ^tolia, to the N« on Doris, and to the E. on PhociB* 
The Greeks comprehended under the name of Locri three 
distinct tribes, sumamed Epicnemidii,Opimtii,and Ozohe^ 
the two first of which dwelled on the borders of the 
Euboean Sea, The Locri OaolsB are said to have been « 
colony from their more Eastern brethren, and to have 
derived their name from the Greek word o(ia oleo, owing 
to the waters issuii^ from MK Taphiassus having been: 
rendered fetid, in consequence of the centaur Nessuff 
having been buried there. 

84. Naapactus Lepanto, an important eity on the Corinthian Gulf, tnd 
at the Western extremity of their territory, is said to have dtfived its name 
from the words vavQ navis, and vriyvvfii compingo, owing to the ciicumstanoe 
of the Heraclids having there constructtd thefieet, in which they crossed over 
into the Peloponnesus. Farther Eastward was Glanthe GtUaxidi, on tkl. 
Western side of Crisssus Sinus G, of Salona. Ascending the shore of t\M 
gulf we come to Chalaeon Port of Salona, heyond which in the North Easteft 
part of the province was Amphissa^ Sabna. The last mentioned city, the 
metropoUs of the i(Ocri OzoUe, received its name from its being surroundMi 
by hills on every side : it was razed to the ground by order of the Amphic- 
tyons, in consequence of its inhabitants daring to restore the walls of Cuiha, 
to cultivate the sacred ground of Delphi, and to molest travellers when pasaiBg 
through their country. 

86. The Locri Epicnemidii and Opuntii are generally classed under 
the common name of Locri ^' ; they occupied a small district betwixt Mount 
Cnemis and the Euboean Sea, from Thermopyle to the Southern shores of 
Opuntius Sinus G. of TaUmda ; they touched to the W. on Phocts, and to 
the S« on Boeotia. The Epicnemidii derived their name ^m their situatkm 
under M. Cnemis: the Locri Opuntii were so called from Opus, thdr 
capital, celebrated as having been the domain of Deucalion and Pyrrha, and 
as the birth-place of Patroclus.. To the Epicnemidii belonged Alpenvs 
Anderat Scarphe, and Thronium ; to the Opuntii, Cynus and Naiyeiun the 
birth-place of Ajax Oileus. 

36. Phocis*<* was bounded on the E. by Bceotia^ on 
the N, by the Locri, on the W. by Doris and the Locri 
Ozolse, and on the S. by the Corinthian Gulf. The 

I - I -- - ~ 

*^ Phocaicas Amphissa inanus, scopulosaque Cirrlia, 

Pamasusque jugo roisit desertus utroque. Lucan, III. 172. 

* Ty I* Ufia TStTirapaieoyTa fikXawai vqi^ tirovTO 

AoKpufVt ot vaiovfTi rrepriv UprJQ EvjSoiri^. Horn. IL B. 585. 

^ Separat Aonios Actjeis Phocis ab arvis,. 

T)erra ferax, dum terra fuit : — Ovid. M«t. I. SI 3. 

^^iSfkBcSa—PhoM. l8» 

|»''wei^,dd!icended from the ancient Leleges, and 
ril- to have derived their name from Phocus, the 
''Oriiytion. But they are better known from the 
• or Pnocian war, which broke out 357 years b. c, 
Sequence of their refusing to pay a fine imposed 
hem by the Amphictyonic Council, for having cul- 
Bome land sacred to the Delphic God. The 
IS Mid LocrianSy who at first carried on the war 
t them, were subsequently joined by Philip of 
on, who thus paved his way to the sovereignty 
ece. After ten years of hard fighting the Fho- 
bund farther resistance hopeless, and submitted 
ingly, when their cities were all razed to the 

t the bead of Crisssns Sinus was Ciirha Xerro Pegadia, demolished' 

srritoiy declared accursed by the Amphictyons, in conse4uence of its 

Its having carried off a Phocian maid and some Ai^ve women ; it 

lied at the foot of IVP. Cirphis Ximeno, and at the mouth of Pleistus fl. 

, To the East of it were, the Schiste Odos or Duided way, where 

le Theban king, fell by the hand of his own son ; and Phocicum, the 

assembly of the Phocian states for the consideration of public afl^irs. 

N. of Cirrha lay Crissa Crissoy which gave name to the Crissaeus 

it was famed for the Pythian games^ which were celebrated in the 

T Crisssus Campus. A little zb&re it was the renowned Delphi *^ 

it is said to have received this name from Delphus, a son of Apollo, 

ts anciently called Pytho*' from the serpent Pytnon having been Killed 

' the god. The oracle was said to have been discovered by some 

ho, coming to the mouth of a cave, were suddenly seized with con- 

y and the herdsman, likewise, on approaching the place to discover 

eries, was immediately affected in tne same manner : from this cir- 

ice, which was deemed supernatural, the place was regarded with 

irerence, that a temple and city were soon after built in honour of 

The Pythia or priestess sate on a sacred tripod over the mouth of 

if and bavins caught the inspiration of the prophetic vapour, pro- 

L her oracles m verse or prose : she could only be consulted on certain 

it it would appear that there was little difficulty in bribing her, so as 

; her responses accord with any required design. It was customaiy 

>se who consulted her to make rich presents to the god, and hence 

simulated treasures of the temple became the source of frequent 

^' Te mens ante alios genitor dilexit : et orbis 
In medio positi caruerunt praeside Delphi ; 
Dum Deus Eurotan, immunitamque frequentat 
Sparten -, nee citharae, nee sunt in honore sagitts. 

Ovid. Met. X. 160. 

*• Ov^ 'ova Xd'ivoQ ovdbg d(^r}ropOQ Ivrb^ kkpyei 
^oi/3ov 'A7r6Wf»>vog, UvBoX tvt irtrptiifrffy.. 

Horn. IV. \. ^.V•• 

184 GriBcia — Boeotia* 

Z8, Above Delphi towers Parnassus M.^ Lyahtmra, the highest iqottattiii 
in central Greece ; it extends from the country of Doris and the Locri OzoUs, 
and passing through the centre of Phocis, joins the ridge of Helicmi: its 
summit was especially sacxed to Bacchus. The two. lofty rocks, which nse 
perpendicularly above Delphi, were called Phsdriades : from these tb« Dfl» 
phians hurled their criminals, and in this manner ^sop was barbarously 
murdered. From the chasm between these two summits, and fed hf mt 
almost perpetual snows of Parnassus, pours down the Castaliu SpfOH^ 
sacred to the Muses ; its cool and excellent waters were said to haviTlbt 
power of inspiring those who drank of them with the true spirit of poefei^ 
Higher up the mountain was the Corycium Antrum, sacred to the CoiydaB 
nymphs and to the god Pan. Near the summit of Parnassus was Lyopvpi 
Diagara, once the residence of Deucalion. On the Northern side M Fur 
nassus rises the divine Cephissus ^ Mauro Potamo, to which the Graces w^n 
said to be particularly attached, and are hence called its ffoddesses. It mm 
near the city of Lilsa, and after traversing the whole of Pbocis, it eaten 
Boeotia, where it joins the Copaic lake. A few miles from the left bank of 
the river, under mount Cnemis, was Elatia Eleuta, the most considerabtil of 
the Phocian cities after Delphi : lower down the river was Daulis-Dttuiki, t 
very ancient city, celebrated for the tragic stoiy of Philomela and Procne. 



1. BCEOTIA, now forming part otJLivadia, touched 
to the N. on the territory of tne Locri, to the W. on 
Phocis, to the S. on Megaris and Attica, and to the E 
on the Euboean Sea. It was perhaps the richest and 
most fertile country in Greece. Its inhabitants were re* 
markable for their natural stupidity and untoward genius 
even to a proverb (Boitarla 5c) ^ ; yet no single province 

** Sed me Pamassi deserta per ardua dulcis 

Raptat amor : juvat ire jugis, qua nulla priorum 

Castaliam moUi divertitur orbita clivo, Virg, Georg, III. 801. 

** Qui rore puro Castalis lavit 

Crines solutos; — Hor, Carm. III. iv. 61. 

** O'i t' dpa TrAp jrorafibv Kri^tfTffhv ^Tiv ivaiov, 

Oc Tt AtKatav Ix^"*^* ^)7y^C c^i K}}0(O'(ro7o. Horn, 11, B. 522. 

Quod si 

Judicium subtile videndis artibus illud 

Ad libros, et ad haec Musanim dona vocares, 

Boeotum in crasso jurares aere natum. Hor, Ejntt, II. i. 244. 

Chfwtia — BcBOtia. IM 

ace, save Attica, could furnish a list of poets and 
vriterSy containing such names as Hesiod, Pindar, 
slj and Plutarch : the men were brave, hsirdy, and 
^f the womai were the handsomest and most ele- 
fall Greece. 

BOtia wai fint occupied by the several barbarous tribes Aones, 
Tenmdces, and Hyantes, wlio were all coDoected with the Leleges } 
he^ were expelled by Cadmui, who, passing over from Euboea with 
of Phoenicians and Arabs, founded the cit^ of Thebes, to which he 
i name of Cadmea. The name of Boeotia, which the Cadmeans 
icated to their new possessions, was derived, according to some, from 
•on of Itonus, or as others say from Bovg bot, owing to Cadmus 
een led by on ox to the spot where he built his city. 

e Southern limits of Bceotia were formed by the mountains of Ci- 

Zlatea, and Fames Nona : the former, much frequented by beasts of 

e, was frunous for the metamorohosis of Actaeon, the exposure of 

and the mystic orgies of the Bacchanalian priestesses '. In the 

''estem part of the province was Mount Helicon * Zagora, so frimed 

sat of Apollo and the Muses : on its summit was me grove of the 

ind hard by were the fountain Aganippe ^ Tatesa, the source of the 

ver Permessus, and Hippocrene^, or thg hone* t fountain, which 

th from the ground when struck by the horse Pegasus. Here too 

fountain He-donacon Neochorio, where Narcissus, becoming ena- 

of his own reflection and thinking it the nymph of the place, was 

» the North of M^ Cithseron, and near the source of the Asopus, was 
Kakla, memorable for the defeat of the great Persian army under 
ius, by the confederate Greeks under Fausanias, b. c. 479, on the 
ly with the battle of Mycale. Nearer the Copaic lake was Leuctra 
^lebrated for the defeat of the Spartans by the Thebans under £pa- 
IS, B. c. 871 ; this victory, said by Pausanias to be the most brilliant 
tained by Greeks over Greeks, put an end to the Spartan sovereignty 
06, which had continued for nearly 500 years. Still farther N. was 
I Eremo Castro, especially sacred to the Muses, the inhabitants of 
done of all the Boeotians refused to tender earth and water as a token 
lission to Xerxes : they assisted Leonidas at Thermopyle, and hence 
pon them the anger of the Persians, who burnt their city. Close to 
1 was Ascra, the residence of Hesiod, who removed hither from CumsB 
. Minor. 

- qualis commotis excita sacris 

lliyas, ubi audito stimulant trieterica Baccho 
Orgia, noctumusque vocat clamore Cithaaron. 

Virg.JEn. IX.ZOl, 

' Ut studio majore petant Helicona virentem. 

Hot. EpUt, II. i. 218. 

^ Nam neque Pamassi vobis juga, nam neque Pindi 
Ulla moram fecere, neque Aonia Aganippe. Virg, EcL X. 12. 

* Dicite, quae fontes Aganippidos Hippocrenes 

Crate Medusasi signa tenetis equi, Ovid. ¥ai\.N .1 

IM Graeia — BtBotia* 

•. Copaif Palui L, of Topoiuu, the largest lake in Greece, wm Mdl': 
fJUBfid for its eels : on the Eastern side of it are several subteifinean canalSf-' 
now called KaULhothra, by which its waters fiod their way into the Euboew- 
sea at Anchoe. On the Southern shore of the lake stood HaliaitQi J^- 
hrdkouraf which was destroyed by the Romans in the war with Perseus, kiog 
of Macedon. Orchomenus Scripou, the second ci^ of Boeotia, was on the 
Western shore of the lake, where it is joined by the R. Cephissus. It il 
called by Pindar the City of the Graces, from a temple consecrated to thea ' 
there ; its first inhabitants were the Phlegys, who were destroyed by ib4 ' 
gods for their impiety, and were succeeded by the Minyap, from whom fbtL 
city is sumamed Minyeia. On the coast of the lake, near Alalcomeiub 
Sulinara, was Coronea Corumnies, where the Thebans and their allies wad 
defeated by the Spartans under Agesilaus, b. c. 394. Close by were i&i 
temple of Minerva Itonis, where the general council of the Beeotian statce 
assembled, until it was dissolved by the Romans ; and Libethrius "MouL 
one of the summits of Helicon, sacred to the Muses and the nympths callea * 
Libethrides *. To the W. of Coronea, on the borders of Phocis, was Lebi*-. 
dia Livadia, celebrated for the oracle of Trophonius, and as having givtift 
the modem name of Liradia to a gieat part of Northern Grtece. To the 
K. of Lebadia, on the right of the Cephissus, was Chsronea Kapourm^ 
famed as the birth-place of Plutarch, and for two decisive battles iongbl 
there : in the first of these Philip defeated the Athenians and Bcpntieitt,, 
B. c. 338, and thus put an end to the liberties of Greece ; in the other die 
troops of Mithridates under Archelaus were beaten by the Romans nndtf 
Sylla, B. c. 86. 

6.- CopsBj^giving name to the lake on which it stood, was situated on a smaB: 
island at its Eastern extremity ; it is now called Topolia$f and from h the 
lake still obtains its name. On the Eastern side of the Copaic Lake was 
Ptoos M. PtoOf with a temple and oracle of Apollo, which became sileDt 
after the capture of Thebes by Alexander. At the Eastern extremitv Of 
Ptoos M. and on the Eubcean Sea was Anthedon Xo/cisi, which receivea itt 
name from the flowery plains that suiTound it ; it was the birth-place Of 
Glaucus, the sea-god, and the reputed scene of his transformation. To the 
S. of it were, Aulis^> celebrated for the solemn league into which the 
Greeks entered before sailing to Troy, and for the detention of their ibni 
by contrary winds till Agamemnon had appeased the anger of Diana vj 
onering up his daughter Iphigenia : and Delium Dramesi lamed for die 
defeat of the Athenians by the Boeotians during the Peloponnesian war, 
B. c. 424. To the W. of these, in the interior of the country,, was Messa- 
pius M. Ktypa, so called from Messapius, who afterwards led a colony to 

7. In the Southern part of Boeotia was the slueg^ish river Asopus ^ A$opo, 
which rises in M. Cithxron, and runs Eastward into the Eunpue : a faw 
miles from its mouth was Oropus Qiopo, which,, from its situation on the 

^ Nymphs, noster amor, Libethrides : aut mihi carmen. 
Quale meo Codro, concedite i Virg. Eel, YII. 21. 

' 3r' Iq AvXida vijtQ *Ax(ii*iv 

'Kytpk^ovTO, KaKCL Ilpta/iy cat Tpoxri <pkpovaai * 

Horn. II, B. 303. 

* Quid referam Asopon, quem cepit Martia Thebe, 
Natarum Thebo quinque fiitura parens T 

Ovid, Am. III. vi. 33. 

OfWsU—Bigotia. iVI 

Attica aid BoBOtia, wu a oonsttnt louree of diifnto brtween the 
i Higher tip the Aioput ttood Tanagn, called formerly PoemuH 
■nea, the birth-place of the poetess Coriona : and near its source 
FB P^adia, the parent city of the Ionian Erythne. 

tie to the N. of the R. Asopus, on the small river Ismenus, waa 
inM or Thd>e$, the capital of Bceotia, and one of the most an- 

oelebrated cities in Greece. It was founded by Cadmus, who 
^admea, an appellation which was bubseouently confiued to the 
y, but he afterwards gave it the name of Thebes, from the great 

city : it was originallv without walls, but Amphion and Zethua 

by tha sound of the lyre*; from its geven gates, it is surnumed 
»p. Eteocles and Polyniccs, the two sous of (£dipus, king of 
herited their father's throne, and mutuallv agreed that they should 

a year alternately. Eteocles ascended the throne first by right of 

but when the year was expired he refused to resini the crown to 

r. Upon this Polynices fled to Argos to implore the assistance of 

sa, and there mamed Argia, the daughter of Adrastus, king of the 

iod levied a large army, at the head of which he marchecTagainst 

The command of tlus army was divided amongst seven celebrated 

o were to attack the seven gates of tho city. The battle, however 

ad by single combat between the two brothers, who both killed one 

, fipaminondas under whom the Thebans rose to the highest re- 

was the great ornament of their city. Pelopidas, the fomoua 

eneral, was bom here, as was also Pindar. A little to the W. of 

tniae" Taki, where Glaucus, the son of Sisyphus, was torn in pieces 

hiriated mares ; this catastrophe furnished ifCschylus with the sub- 

eof his lost tragedies. 

i fountain Dirce Dirthe, sacred to the Muses, and from which Pin* 
metimes called Dircaeus Cygnus**'', was the source of the river 
which flowed hence into Hylica Palus L. Likaris : the waters of 
united with those of Cops by means of subterraneous channels. 
the two lakes was Phoenicius Mons Phaga, once the haunt of tlie 
onster, the Sphinx, slain by (Edipus. Farther Westward was On- 
lo called from Neptune's son, Onchestus, and to the S. of it, in the 
• Campus, was the Temple of the Cabiri. 

' ' p* iTiKtv dvo 'iraXS* *Afi(l>iovd r«, Ztj^dv re, 
O* wpHroi B^/3ijc ZSog fKTitrav k-KTairvXoio, 
nvpyunrdv r* ' iirti ov ukv dirvpyutTov y* idvvavro 
Nate/i£v litpvxopov Oqpriv, Kpareput nip tovn. 

Horn. Od. A. 862. 

the play of iEschylus, called "ETrra M 9iiPag, the Seven leaden 
esented as being placed, by lot, each before one of the seven gates 
ity (v. 42. 55). The descriptions of each leader form the principal 
St beautiful part of the play. Euripides has taken the same subject 
play, called ^ivitrffai, and Statins for his poem the *' Thebais.'' 

'* £t mentem Venus ipsa dedit, quo tempore Glauci 
Potniades malis membra absumpsere quadrigae. 

Virg, Giorg. III. 2C7. 

'* Multa Dircieum levat aura cycnum^ 
Tendit, Antoni, quoties in altos 
Natuum tractus. Hor . Com. 1\ » \\. % . 

138 GrtEcia — Anica. 

10. Attica was bounded on the N. by the mountains 
of Cithffiron and Fames, on the W. by that of KeraU 
Gerata and the little river lapis, and on the two other 
$ides by the Myrtoan Sea; to the N. it touched oo 
Bceotia, and to the W, on Megaris. 

' II. Attica is Baid to have derived ib name from Atthis, a daughter of 
Cranang, ooe of its Earliest ktaga, or rrriin 'Aer4 litttii, owiag to iU mori- 
liiM ritufllioni but its earlier appeTlationa were MopsojHa '• frnin the bsi 
Mopsopus, and Cecropia from ila king Cecrop. 'J'ne hisloiy ot the AUii^ 
nians extended to such remote antiqmly, that they vainly boasted they Tai 
tprung from the earth, the universal parent of all things : hence they uot- 
tiines wore golden grasshoppera in their bair as badges of hunour, la dtafib- 
guiih them from other people of later origin and less noble extnctioD, te- 
eauae these insects were supposed to be born of the soil Tlie whole otAy 
Gcs bad been divided as eii]y as the time of Cecrops into four f uXol it 
tribes, which were aflenvanU increased lo ten and latterly to twelve, «»A 
fcriog called after some Athenian hero, and having its separate chief ; tbtft 
were again lubdivided into fq/iot or bnrunglu, to the number of one mil- 
4red anl seventy-four. * 

12. At the Western eitremity of Attica, on the shores of the S«M^I 
Gulf, stood Eleusts Le/iina, the scene of tlie Eleusinian mysteries. thB ing|K 
fcroaus of all the religious ceremonies of Greece : they vrere sacred 10 CemC 
heoce called Elensioa Maler, and to Proserpine, and were so religioiidj 
ebseive4, that if any one revealed their secrets he was publicly nt H 
Oeatb ". They were celebrsted by the Athenians every liflb year, and wM 
fcr nine days ; their origin is ascribed to Eumolpus, b. c I3.^G, and they ui 
nud to have continued for ISDD years, when they were at last abolished fef 
Theodosius tiie Great. Eleusis stood near the mouth of the Cepfak^ 
Eleusinius. close In which, at a spot called Eiineus, Pluto is said to bin 
descended into the earth when carmng otf Proserpine. Neil follows dti 
ThriasiuB Campus, in a part of which, called Rariua Campus, Ceres is nil 
to have first sown com : the Greeks, prior lo this, are reported to hwe W 
■pon acorns and waier ". Farther >.astward was Amphiale Pr. the Weil- 
em ettremily of Mount .itgaleui Scarmagga, from the summit of wbidl 
X«ns beheld the battle of Salamis. 

" Berban Mopsopioa terrebant agmina muros. 

fluid. Mtt. VI, 489. 
" Horace has recorded his eiecration of the man, who should have vis- 
laied the sacredoees of these mysteries : 

Velabo, <\ai Cereiis sacmm 

Vulgfirit arcaoffi, sub iisdem 
Sit trabibus. fragilemque mecum 
Solvat phaielum. Cam. 111. ii. 26. 

" Liber el alma Ceres; vestro si muncre lellus 

Grmda — Attica. 189 

by the Athwiiaiw and Meffareans, each party interpolatiDg the 

Homer to prove tbdr right *^ ; it was, however, finally seiied by 

ar people under Pisiitratui, and was thenceforward always subject 

It was here that the Persian fleet of Xerxes was so gloriously 

yy that of the Athenians, coromaoded by Themistocles, a. c. 4bO, 

eus*^ was the largest and Noithemmost of the three Athenian 

and was not used till the time of Themistocles ; it is now called 

ho, or JL«0M. The port of Munychia Stratioki was a secure and 

lortant position, being particularly guarded when any attack was 

on the side of the sea : Pbalerum Phaitari was the most ancient. 

outbemmost of the Athenian harbours, but it lost all its importance 

ilding of the Pinsus. The whole of the Pirsus was once adorned 

niHcent edifices : on its edge was the tomb of Themistocles, whose 

when the Athenians had repented of their conduct towards him, 

reyed hither from Magnesia by his friends. Both Munychia and 

% bad many beautiful and important buildings on their shores ; at 

' were the altars sacred to the Unknown God, alluded to by the 

PauL lliese three ports were surrounded by walls, which, attach- 

■elves to Athens by means of the Longi Muri, thus formed one great 

Deed witliin massive fortifications ; the whole of this circumference 

i to 174 stadia (17| miles) of which 43 must be allotted to the 

is itself, and 76 to the two long walls taken together. The Long 

re tenned the Leg$ (crKiXi}), and by Latin writers the Arm, 

),'of the Pirsus. 

The city of Athens Atini or Athens^ called Astu 

^ of eminence, wajs founded by Cecrops, 1656 years 

ind received its name from the worship of the god- 

feithy introduced by him from Egypt^ and who was 

ards known to the Greeks as Athena or Minerva*® ; 

also called Cecropia from its founder. The town 

t first small, being confined as late as the time of 

OB to the AcropoSs and the Hill of Mars ; it gra- 

r increased, both in dimensions and splendour, till 

ne of Pericles, when it attained the summit of its 

Y and prosperity ; its extent then was nearly equal 

t of Rome within the walls of Servius, its population 

Dting to about 120,000 souls. 

Athens appears to have had nine principal gates. In the \^'estem 
the ci^ was the Pompeum, so callea from the sacred ve$»el$ (irouveta) 
. certain processions. The Ceramicus, which was the North Western 

*• Atac ^ ix SaXautvoc dyEV SvoKaiBsKa vrjac, 
2r^(re ^ aytav, iv* *Adfivaiiov ^iaravro ^oXayyef. 

Ham, 11. B. 657 (the latter line was said to have been 

inserted by Solon). 

*^ Inde ubi Pirei capient mea litora portus 

Scandam ego Theseae brachia longa vis. Propert. III. xx. 2S. 

>* Cecropi& Pallas scopulum Mavortis in arce 
Pii^ 0t aatiquam de terras nomine litem* Ovid. ' W.*l^. 

140 Gracia — Attica. 

ptit of the cit^, tnd extended beyond the walls, posMssed considenble ia^f 
portance : in it were the Stoa Basileios ; the Metroum, where the archmi of 
the itate were deposited ; the senate-house (/3ovXeur^piov) of the Five Hun* 
died, or national council ; and the statues of the Eponymi, or heroes wkor 
gave name to the Athenian tribes. On its Eastern side was the Stoa PcecUi^ 
to called from the variety of paintings it contained ; it was here that ZeM 
first opened his School, thence sumamed the Stoic. The Agora was dhrided 
into sections, distinguished from each other by the names of the seveni 
articles sold there, such as slaves, provisions, apparel, &c. &c. But vHwv 
the Old Agora had been defiled by the massacre of Sylla, and its hnilHiny 
began to fall into decay, it was removed farther Eastward and was thos 
known as the New Agora : in it was the magnificent Gymnasium of Hadriuk; 
To the Westward of this was the celebrated temple of Theseus, held by tiw 
Athenians in the highest veneration and considered as an inviolable tane- 
tuary ; it was erected after the battle of Marathon, when Cimon was sent fa 
Scyrus to convey the remains of the hero thence to Athens, where they went 
received with great pomp. Passing the ancient Anaceum, or temple of As 
Dioscuri, and to the N. of the Acropolis, we come to the Prytaneum, when, 
tlie written laws of Solon were deposited, and where such citizens as IsmI 
rendered essential service to their country were entertained at the puUift 

16. The South Eastern part of the city contained many buildings erected 
by Hadrian, and was thence called in a later as^e Hadrianopolis. Here wai 
the Olympieum, one of the most ancient of toe sacred edifices of Athene^ 
said to have been originally founded by Deucalion. A more magnificeol 
building was afterwards commenced on its site by Fisistratus, and cob* 
tinued by some of his successors till the capture of Athens by Sylh: 
Augustus, in alliance with several other kings undertook to finish the bnU^ 
ing, but this was not effected till the time of Hadrian, who was present H 
its dedication. The whole peribolus of the temple was crowned with ntttiM 
of Hadrian, each Grecian city having supplied one : here also were sevcnl 
antiquities, such as the tempJe of Saturn and Rhea, the temenus of Olympic 
and the chasm through which the waters of Deucalion's flood were fableoto 
have disappeared. The street leading from the New Agora round the 
Southern end of the Acropolis was called Via Tripodum, from its beiitt 
lined with small temples, where prize Tripods were usually deposited 7tt 
this description was the beautiful little Choragic monument of JLysicratei^ 
vulgarly called the Lantern of Demosthenes. Here was the celebnuted 
Dionysiac theatre, one of the most beautiful in the world ; it contained muq 
statues of tragic and comic poets, and in it the dramatic contests were de- 
cided. Not tar hence was the Odeum of Pericles, for the performance ti 
musical compositions. 

17. The Acropolis or Cecropia was situated on an elevated rock termintt* 
ing in abrupt precipices on every side except towards the West, where aknt: 
it was accessible ; here stood its magnificent Propylaea, erected by Periclei». 
which though intended only as an approach to the Parthenon, rivalled that 
edifice in beauty and dimensions, and were as well adapted for the purpoeet 
of security and defence, as for that of ornament. The Parthenon itself os 
Temple of Minerva stood on the summit of the Acropolis, far elevated 
above the Propylsa and surrounding edifices : it surpassed all other build- 
ings of the kind in beauty and grandeur, being constructed entirely (as 
were the Propylsa also) of Pentelic marble, and enriched with matchless 
works of art by the first sculptors of Greece. On the Northern side of the 
Acropolis stood the Erechtheum or Temple of Erectheus, in which were 

Grwda — Attica. 141 

tuee and the well of salt water, produced by Minerva and Neptont 
ontBEt for Attica. A little to the N. W. of the Acropolii rim tht 
A or Hill of Mars*', so called because Mars was the first person tried 
was an open s|MLce, with an altar dedicated to Minerva Area and 
seats of stone for the defendant and his accuser. The rsnge of 
:h skirts tiie Western part of the city was called Lycabettus : on 
lose against the walls, was the Pnyz or usual place of assembly 
leople, especially during elections. To the S. of Lycabettus was 
elevation, called Museum, from the poet Alussns, who was 
here : herealiouts also lay the populous and well frequented quar« 
leHte. Athens was principally supplied with water from tht 

syond the city walls, on an island formed by the Ilissus, was tht 

im or temple of Ceres and Proserpine, where the lesser Eleusinian 

> were celebrated. Near it was the Stadium, erected for the per« 

I of games during the Panathenaic festival, by Lycurgus, the son 

ifbron. The Lyceum was at the South Eastern extremity of tha 

wzs dedicated to Apollo, and was the usual place of resort for the 

t youths who devoted themselves to military pursuits, as well as 

(Sophers, and such as addicted themselves to study ; it was tht 

walk of Aristotle and his followers, who thence obtained the namt 

itetics. Farther to the North Eastward was the Cynosarges, where 

e philosophers established their school. Passing round to the.North 

extremity of the city, we arrive at the Ceramicus Exterior, near 

ere the celebrated gardens of the Academia, where Plato first opened 

ol of philosophy. A little to the N. W. of the Academy was tht 

Hippius, so called from the altar erected there to the Equestrian 

•, and rendered celebrated by the play of Sophocles, bearing tht 

iEdipus Coloneus, the subject of which was derived from the last 

res of (Edipus. 

lie Southernmost point of Attica was Sunium Pr. ^, especially 

Minerva, who had here a magnificent temple, the ruined columns 

1 have furnished the modem name of C Colonna, This promontory 
Southern termination of the range of hills called Laurium Keratiaf 

irated for its silver mines ; the produce of these was shared among 
enians, but at the advice of Themistocles they applied it to the con- 
n of 200 galleys, a measure which was the chief cause of their naval 
jicy. To the N. E. of Sunium was the island Helena or Macris 
iti, called formerly Cranae, whither Paris is said to have carried 
ifter the rape : others, however, refer this adventui'e to a small island 
LAConicus Sinus. On the Eastern coast of Attica lay Brauron Bra- 
iiere Iphigenia first landed after her escape from Tauris with tht 
>f Diana. Beyond these was the small district Tetrapolis containing 
r tovms Probalinthus, Tricorithus, CEnoe, and Marathon. The most 
.ted of these was Marathon Maraihona, famed for the brilliant vic- 
hich the Athenians under Miltiades gained on its plains over the Per- 
my, 490 years b. c. (01. 72. 3.) : it was here also that Theseus was 

"his hill is rendered very interesting from the labours of the Apostle 
who from it addressed the men of Athens, in that beautiful discourse, 
ed Acts, xvii. 22. 

** 'AXX* ort Sovfiov ipbv a^iKSfieO*, dxpov 'AOiivwv— 

1 4i Gracia—Me^aris. 

■lid 10 have overcome a formidabie bull which ravaged the surrounding 
eonnby". The adjacent piomonlory Cjnusura is now C. Manilknaa ; t 
fittle above it was Rhamnus Eirea Castra, much celebrated for the wnishif ' 
M Nemeiis, hence styled Rhamnosia Viigo. ' 

~ 20. To the S. E. of Athens was H}>niettu< M^ so celebrated for its &■• , 
graal flowers and picellent honey, as well as for its valuable marble"; il H 
ODw called TrtUoixoiKi or Manti MatU. Fhlya Fhifiolr, the binhpltceof 
Xiuipides, was a little to the S. E. oC Hymellus, Belweea Ihit last ud 
marathon was Moual Fenlelicus Peutett, faraed for its quarries of beantiEllI , 
marble; it was connected with the range of Fames by Biilessus Uook 
'TuTco Vmm, Here, near the source of the Attic Cephissus, was OecdM 
Tatai, a town of great imjwrtance, owing to its situation oa the tiwd^ | 
Eub<Ea whence the Athenians derived their inppiies. Lower down wtnl 
AphidDfe, when Theseus is said to have secreted Helen till ihewaa beticffli 
by the Decelcans; and Acbarne Farli/ Sahili, the place where ivj h li-. ' 
ported to have been first discovered : the latter gave name to a pla? of Aiv' 
Uphanes, who represents the inhabitants bi ehircoal-burnera. To iba Wc 
af them, at the foot of Fames, waj the fortress of Philie Viglia Cattnlt 
eelebraled as the scene of Thrasybolus' liisl exploit when rescuing Alhe&i - 
ftom the cruelly of the Thirty Tyrants ; hard by were the fortresses Llptj- 
drium and Fanacton. 

21. Megakis was bounded on the E. by Kerata Mods, 
on the S. by the Saronic GuH'and the ridge of Gerania,' 
on the W. by the Corinthian Gulf, and on the N. by the' 
hills of Cithffiron. To the N. it bordered on Bceotia, to 
the E. on Attica, and to the S. on Corinthia. 

2S. This small territory is represented as an existing kingdom at a very earijp 
period. Pylas, one of its sovereigns, abdii^ated his crown in favour (^ P«a> 
dion, son of Cecrops, king of Athens, by which event Megaris bi^came i^ 
EKxed to the latter state ; from which, however, it was wrested iu the iwgB 
of CodruB, by a Peloponnesian force, v>heu it assumed the laiigua^ aM 
palilical institutions of a Dorian republic. The chief city o! Megaru WH 
Hegara Mrgara, not far from the shores of the Saronic Gulf, wilb whkh it 
communicated by means of its port Nisiea ; it possessed considerabte iplM- 
dour, and wai defended by two citadels on the hilts above it. It wu N- 
lebraied for theMegaric School ofphitoKiiihy founded by Euclid, a diseipU 
□f Socrates, who, when tlie Athenians had forbidden all the inhabitanli M 
Muara on pain of death to eater their city, disguised biniseir in iromeB'* 
cloUes that he might atlend the lectures of his master. The port ofNiHei, 
now called Thi luvlva Chunhti, was united to Megaia by two long wrUi ; 
fiom it the Megareaas are bumamed KisEU, to distinguish them Crrai that 
eolonists in Sicily., Farther Westward, an the confines of Catiath, mi 

" Te, maiime Theseu, 

Mirata est Marathon Cretai sanguine tauri. 

" Nod ebur, neque aureum 

Mea renidet in domo lacunar: 
Non trabes Hymeltii; 
Pmaiuat columaas ultiini recisas 
Africi. I'm . Conn. I 

Grsda-^Pehponnesus. 149 

nd danfiKioiu put of the Scixonidef Petne " Kaka SemU, the 
robber Sctron* UDtU he was destroyed by Theseus; one of tb«M 
Bed Moluris, and {rom it Ino was said to have cast herself and 
o the sea, when pursued by Athamas. The £astem part of the 
jnlf, whidi washed the shores of Boeotia and Megarisy was 
inium Mare, and is now known as the G. of Livadottro, 

23. Peloponnesus. 

9c vn^oQ) is stated to have derived its name from 

tihe Phrygian; it was anciently called Apia^ 

B, a son of Apollo, and Pelasgia from the Pe* 

ts shape resemoles the leaf of a plane tree, beine 

by bays on all sides ; and it has probably derived 

u name Mareoy from its resemblance also to the 

ulherry leaf. It is bounded on the N. by the 

in Gnfi^ on the W. by the Ionian Sea, on the 

e Cretan Sea, and on the £. by the Myrtoan 

contains nearly 6,480 square miles, or 1,120 less 

ily. The Istnmus, now called the Isthmus of 

which separates it from the main land, is only 

^graphical, or six modem Greeks miles broadf, 

> which last circumstance it has obtained its 

name of Hexamilion; a navigable canal was 

id to be cut across it by king Demetrius, Julius 

Daligula, Nero, and others, but always without 

The Peloponnesus was said to have been left 

ales on his death to the Heraclidae, who made 

attempts to ^ain possession of it, during one of 

[yllus was killed by Echemus, king of Arcadia; 

length with the assistance of some Dorians suc- 

and shared the peninsula among them, about 

B after the destruction of Troy. The Pelopon- 

as divided into six provinces, viz. Achaia, £lis, 

, Argolis, Laconica, and Messenia. 

Tutus ad Alcathoen Lelegeia moenia limes 
Composito Scirone patet : sparsique latronis 
Terra negat sedem, s«dem oegat ossibus unda : 
Quae j aetata diu fertur durasse vetustas 
In scopulos. Scopulis nomen Scironis inheret. 

Ovid. Met. VII. 448. 

Kai fikv rdifnv kyia fisOofiiXtov, Ik IIvXov IXO^tv, 
Tf^XoOev IK *AirljiQ yaijic KaXicarro ydo ahroi. 

Horn. lU K.Vn^. 

144 Gracia — Achaia. 

24. AcHAiA, or the Northern portion of (lie Peionoa* 
nesuE, was bounded on the N. by the Corinthian OtS, 
on the E. by M', Gerania and the Saronic Gulf, and qh 
the S. by a choia of hills, which under various nunn 
separated it from the rest of Peloponnesus : to the E.|lt 
touched on Me^ris, and to the S. on Eli», Arcadia, aip 
Argohs. These limits included the territories of Con»> 
thia, Sicyonia, and Phliasia, which, though strictly apeflfe- 
ing tliey formed no portion of Achaia, may yet be fsiiu 
considered as a part of the province, from their esffiF 
admission into the Achcean league, and the desperfln 
resolution with which they maintained its independem 
to the last. By Achaia is also meant that portion pt 
Greece to the North of the Isthmus, which is sometuolk i 
called Hellas, and is bounded ou the N. by Thessaly, aiul ' 
on the W. by the R. Achelous. 

25, Achaia ii laid to hate been first called .^gtalus'^ fmin the mjij 
AiymUi lillui, owing to its maritim lilDation. I'he famous AclMltg 
leBjjue was first s«t oa fool by tbe four ciliea Patm, Dyme, PhuB, Md 
TriliEB, 287 jews b. o., but it was aflerwania joined by all the gteat i Irjw If 
Acliaia, a> well as by CarioLb, Sicyon, Pbliui, An:adia. Argotit, LacoA, 
Megaiis, and uveraJ other states. It rose to luch a iurmidHble h«^t «MB 
the splendid virluea uf Aratus and FhilopceDiea, aa to draw upon it qhi 
watchful jtalousy of ibe Ramam ; who, aner having gained uveral niocMi- 
live victoiies over them, appeared befoia Corinth, when this last ho)d M 
their lolteriog republic was taken and destieyed by Ilie coosul MuidbIm^ 
and their confederacy dissolved after having lasted more than ISO ymn. 
From this period Cireece was reduced to the coaditiun of a Roman pnnriiKa 
Dnder the name of Achaia. ^ 

!1S. ConrNTHii was separated froniSicyaniaby the R. Xemeaor /TiddWI- 
■udi, famoui fi>r a itvere battle fought on its baDks between the ColU- 
ihiuia and their alliei, agaiutt the Spartaoa. Its metropolis Co rinlhui C*rim>, 
is said to have been bo called from Corinthus, a son of Pelops, but it tir*^ 
exiiled under the name of Ephyre long before Uie siege of Troy -, it n i o ti J 
the epithet Bimaris'^ from being close to the Corinthian and Saronic GuUb. 
It was the seat of opulence aud of the arts when the rest of Greece was nnk 
in CDinpatalive haruarustn, and it continued to maintain its rank aiooDntllfl 
mo^I iltnsirious of the Gieek cities, until il was bural to the ground bj Ae 
fiomans under the codbuI Munimius, 14G years a. c. Julius Cxsar relmilt 
Che city and sent n numerous colony thither, ofter which it again became lh« 
metropolis of Achaia : il is farther rendered interesting from St. Paul having 
there preached the Gospel for eighteen months, and Dum the two Epiftlas 

* Aijiakip t' ivi iravra, sai d/i^' 'EXiicipi' tiptiar. 

Horn, II. B. «TS. 

* Laadabnot alit claram Rhodon, lul Mityleoen, 

Aul Kphesum, bimariave CoHnlhi 
. Mania, Hrr. Co™. 1. 7. 

Orada — Achaia. 145 

b^ Mm to hii Corinthian converts. Corinth gave name to thf* 
itkiacus G. of Corinth, sometimeft also calletl Crisscus. A littJc 
:' the city, on a lofty mountain, stood its almost impregnable cita- 
>>rinthns, once named Kpope; it was sacred to Venus, whose 
ributed not a little to the weaJth and luxury of the capital, whence 
rorerb oit iravrhc iiv^pbg ii^ Kopiv^ov itrriv 6 irXovc* or, as 
es it, " Non caivis homini contingit adire Corinthum." Corinth 
nous ports ; the Northern, and nearer one, called Lechaeum Balaga, 
i Connthian Gulf; the other one, called Cenchrete Kekreh, and 
in the Acts of the Apostles as the place where St. Paul performed 
•jood. on the Saronic Gulf. Between Corinth and I^:Ii«um was 
n Pirene, which was sacred to the Muses ". The Isthmus of 
rived vreat celebrity from the games established here ** n. c. 1326. 
nued in vogue when the other gymnastic contesits of Greece had 
neglect, and after the destruction of Corinth they were still cele- 
mlMts of eveiy kind were exhibited on the occasion, when the 
« rewarded with crowns of pine leaves, though latterly withered 
s substituted in their stead. In the Southern part of Corinthia 
,f where (Edipus was bi ought up by his supposed father; it be- 
80 prosperous a city as to assume a government of its own, inde- 
' Corinth. 

roNiA was a small district to the W. of Corinthia, separated from 
the little river Elisson Xiio Castro R. ; it received its name from 
, Sicyon Baiilico, This was one of the mrat ancient cities of 
iving existed under the names of i9;'.gialea and Alet^one, lonff before 
. of Pelops in the Peninsula : it was famous for its olives *. The 
M are characterized by some as luxurious and dissolute, and hence 
b " Sicyonii calcei," used in reference to eHTeminate gaiety. Sicyon 
a few stadia from the sea, near the mouth of Asopus fl. Bakilim ; 
was famed for the games instituted by Adrastus in honour of Apullo, 
re held on its banks. 

[I.IASIA. This little independent state lay on the borders of Sicy- 
inthia, and Argolis : its chief city was Phlius S, Phly, so called 
ius, a son of Asopus, who was one of the Argonauts, but it was 
cnown by the name of Arsthyrea. It was at first dependent on the 
of Mycens, but it joined the Achaean league soon after its organi- 
id met the common lot of that confederacy when it fell into the 
the Romans. The inhabitants were noted for tlieir fidelity and 

I AcHAiA, properly so called, the first town was Pellene near Trik' 
Qous for its wool, cloaks made of which were given as prizes to the 
the gymnastic games held here in honour of Mercury. Farther 
id, on the little river Crius, was Hyjperesia, called afterwards i£gira ; 
is now named Maura Lithari. On the left bank of the CrathL^i 

' Heliconiadasque, pallidamque Pireaen 

lllis lemitto, Pers, Prolog. 4. 

' Ilium non labor Isthmius 

Clarabit pugilem ; non equus impiger 
Curru ducit Achaico 

Victorem ;— Hor, Carm, IV. iii. 3. 

>> Quot Sicyon baccas, quot pant Hybla favos. 

Quid, ex Pont.YV%x.^.\^, 

146 Grecia — £llis. 

Acrata stood ^^gs Acrata, celebrated for the worship of Neptune v euiy 
as the days of Homer ; and to the W. of it was Bura, which with the nei^^ 
bouriog Helice, was destroyed by a prodigious influx of the sea, caused bj 
a violent earthquake : it was said that some vestiges of the submerged dtnt 
were visible long after the fearful event took place ^. Helice was celebrated 
for the worship of Neptune thence sumamed Heliconius, and as being the 
place where the lonians when in possession of Achaia held their gUMial 
council. At the mouth of the R. Selinus Vostissa was iEgium Kosline, 
where the states of Achaia held their assemblies. The Northernmost poiBt 
of the Peloponnesus was Drepanum Pr. Drepano : near it stood Rhium 6uU» 
rfMorea, sumamed Achaicum to distinguish it from the Rhium on the o^ 
posite coast of if'tolia. Farther Westward was Milichus fl. MgUkouku, at 
the mouth of which stood the important city of Patne '* PatroM, fonneriy 
called Aroe. Lower down the coast the K. Peirus Kamenitta enten the 

sea ; near its banks were the cities Olenus Palaio Achaia, Firas Kc 
and Tritsa Gouminitza, The last town of Achaia in this direction was Dymi^ 
called formerly Palea and Stratos : and near the mouth of the Achelontwas 
the promontory Araxus C. Papas, once the common boundary between Efis 
and Achaia. 

30. Elis or Elea was the Western portion of the 
Peloponnesus, and was bounded on the N. by the R. 
Larissus, on tlie E. by tlie Arcadian Mountains, on the 
S. by the R. Neda, and on the W. by the Ionian Sea. 
To tne N. it bordered on Achaia, to the E. on Arcadia, 
and to the S. on Messenia. It was formerly divided into 
several districts^ each occiipied by a separate people, the 
chief of which were the Epei, or Elei as they are also 
called by Homer from their possessing the city of Elis*, 
and the Caucones, from whom the whole province is 
sometimes called Cauconia. But the subsequent divisioQ 
of Elis was into Elis Propria or Coele, Pisatis, and Tii- 
phylia. Coele was the Northernmost of these, Pisatis 
was in the centre, and Triphylia in the South. Elis was 
by far the most fertile and populous district of the Pelo- 
ponnesus, and its inhabitants were much attached to 
agriculture and rural pursuits. 

SI. Elis Propria. Descending the coast we meet with BupraaiaiD, 
Myituntium, and Cyllene i4/(ut7ia, giving name to Cyllenes Sinus : this last 

*^^'"- ■ ■»^— "^^^fi^— ^^.^ 

^ Si quaeras Ilelicen et Burin Achaidas urbes, 
1 nvenies sub aquis : et adhuc osfendere nauts 
Inclinata solent cum moenibus oppida mersis. 

Ovid. M«t. XV. 298. 

^* Messeneque ferax, Patraeque, humilesque Clcona, 

w. ^^. 417. 

" 'H ik ^€pdg ifrkfiaXKsVf kirtiyofikvii Aibg ovptfi* 
'Hdk 7rap"UXi^a Slav, o9i Kpartovaiv '£ireio«. 

Ham, Od. O. 296. 


Kven of the nty Elis, and the port whence the Pelasgi tailed on 
iitione lo Italy. Beyond it were, Hyrmine on a promontory of the 
le now called C. Ktarefoa; and Cheionites Pr. C. Tornae, the 
xtre■ri^f of iht Peloponnesus, between which and the I. Zacynthus 
mites Sinai. A little fSarther S. it the 11. Peneus JgUaco, which 
ymanthui M. Olomos, celebrated in fable as the haunt of the savage 
oyed by Hercules '^ ; it enters the sea near Ephyra Katidero, The 
s Palaiapoti was on the left bank of the Peneus, and was composed 
detached villages, which were united after the Persian war in one 
nopolis : it had no walls, being considered under the immediate 
of the god whose festival was there solemnized. To the S. E. of 
the ancient ci^ of Pylos, which contended with two other towns of 
name for the honour of being Nestor's capital. 

(ATis was that part of Elis traversed by the Alpheus after its junc- 
the Erymanthus ; it derived its name from Pisa **, the city of 
As no trace of this Pisa remained its very existence Was questioned 

ri, some affinning it to have been only a fountain, whilst others 
it to have been the ancient name of Olympia, or to have once 
se to it. The far-famed city of Olympia AntilaUa stood on the 
k of the Alpheus, about ten miles from its mouth : thf* most ancient 
. solemn of all the festivals of the Greeks was celebrated here ; it 
red in the first month of evenr fifth year, and by its recurrence all 
9niputed time, a period of tour years complete being called an 
L The Olympic games were said to have been first instituted by 
B. c. 1822, in memory of his victory over Augeas. They were, 
neglected for many years, until Coroebus obtained a victory at 
c 776, about 23 years before the foundation of Rome, from which 
regular dates of the Olympiads begin. At these games there were 
as in poetry, eloquence, and the fine arts ; running, leaping, wrest- 
tting, and the throwing of the quoit, as well as horse and chariot- 
« only reward that the conqueror obtained was a crown of olive. 

aiPHTLiA is said to have derived its name from Triphylns, an Ar- 

nnce, or from its inhabitants having sprung from three different 

£• the Epeans, Eleans, and Arcadians. On the left bank of the 

and a little to the £. of Olympia, stood Fhrixa Palaio Phanari, 

of which was Scillus Sidero, given to Xenophon by the Lacedae- 

, when he was banished by his fellow-citizens for having served 

rmy of the younger Cyrus. Below this was the R. Anignis, the 

f which were reported to be so fetid as to taint all the fish, and to 

ptible at the distance of 20 stadia ; this was ascribed to the Cen- 

iring here washed the wounds inflicted by the poisoned arrows of 

t. The R. Neda Bouet, the Southern boundary of Elis, rises in 

Mons and was so called from one of the nurses of Jupiter : a short 

up its right bank we come to Lepreum, a place of considerable 

, with a celebrated temple of Jupiter Lycseus. Towards the source 

.matbus fl. Vero R, was Pylos Triphyliacus Biskinif a city of some 

Tf and regarded by many as Nestor's capital. 

" Ut Tegeaeus aper cupressifero Erymantho 
Incubat, et vasto pondere laedit humum. 

Ovid, Heraid, IX. 87. 
** Aut Alphea rotis praelabi flumina Pisse, 
Et Jovis in luco currus agitare volantes j — 

Virg. GcoTgAW %^. 

H 2 

J48 Grceda — Arcadia. 

34. Arcadia occupied the centre of the Peloponne- 
sus, being surrounded on all sides by lofty mountains. 
It was bounded on the N. by the moimtains Cyllene.and 
ScoUis, connected by the Aroanian range; on the E. 
by the R. Erymanthus and M*. Minthe; on the S. by 
Lycseus and Cronius M. ; and on the W. by Artemisius M . 
To the N. it touched on Achaia, to the W . on Elis, to the 
S. on Messenia and Laconia ; and to the E. on Argolis : 
it was the second province in size in the Peloponnesus. 

35. It was anciently called Dry modes, from the word ^pvg quercus owing 
to its j^roducing such a number of odkst but it was subsequently namea 
Lycaonia and Pelasgia ; it obtained the latter appellation from Pelasgn^ 
who was said to. have been its fii-st sovereign : it was likewise occasioiudly 
called Parrhasia from the Parrhasii, who inhabited the South Western put 
of the province It was a rich, pastoral country, producing horses and anei 
of peculiar strength and beauty. The Arcades were for the most part uhsj^ 
heras, and lived upon acorns ; their country was the favourite residence of 
Fan, the god of shepherds, who was therefore especially worshipped by 
them : they were fond of independence, and greatly commended tm their 
love of music®*. 

36. Lycaeus M. Diafarti was the place where the Arcadians contended 
that Jupiter was born, but it was also sacred to Pan, who bad a temple 
here : the rites performed in honour of the latter were called Lycasa, and 

being carried by Evander to Latium, were there solemnized under the 
of Lupercalia'''^. On the slope of the mountain was Lycosura Agim Gior- 
gios, built by Lycaon, and said by Pausanias to be the oldest city in tiie 
world. Crossing the Alpheus we come to Megalopolis Sinano, the largest 
of all the Aroadian cities, and the place where the general council of the 
province was convened ; it was thie birth-place of the general Philopoemen, 
and of Polybius the historian. In the South Eastern comer of the provinoe 
was Tegea Pialiy one of the most ancient and important cities of Arcadia. 
It was said that a war with the inhabitants of Pheneus was prevented, by 
referring the decision to a combat between three brothers from each city, in 
whiph one of the Tegeats obtained the victory, after he had slain bis anta- 
gonists, and seen his brothers killed ; the story of the Horatii and Curiatfi, 
recorded in Roman history, is probably derived from this. The beantifiil 
Atalanta was reputed to have been a native of Tegea, Hard by stood Tri- 
polis TripoUtza, and Pallantium Thana, whence the Romans affiirmed Evan- 
der led his colony to the banks of the Tiber*^, 

^ Forte sub argutsi consederat ilice Daphnis, 

Compulerantque greges Corydon et Thyrsis in unum : 

Thyrsis oves, Corydon distentas lacte capellas. 

Ambo florentes statibus. Arcades ambo : 

Et cantare pares, et respondere parati, Virg, Ed, VII. init 

^ Hinc lucum iqgentem, quern Romulus acer asylum 
Rettulit, et gelid^ monstrat sub rupe Lupercal, 
Parrhasio dictum Panos de more Lycaei. Id, JEn, VIII. ^3. 

^ Arcades his oris, genus a Pallante profectum. 
Qui regem Evandrum comites, qui signa secuti, 
Delegere locum, et posuere in montibus urbem, 
Pa.V\uitis oroav de nomine, Pallenteum. Id. VIII. 51. 

Grmcia — Argolis. l\t 

09e these rises Mount Msoalus Boino, sacred to Pan, and the 
haunt of that rural deity. On the Northern side of the mountain 
tinea OmMo, situated on the little R. Ophis, and famed for the 
gfat there between the lliebans and the combined forces of Lace- 
s. c. S02, Ol. 104. 2.), in which Epaminondas terminated his glo- 
er. To the Eastward of this was Artemisius M. Mallevo, with a 
Diana on its summit; it was the boundary of Arcadia in this di« 
ad united with Cyllene M. Zyria in the North Eastern comer of 
pee. The latter mountain was exceedingly lofty, and celebrated 
th-p1ace of Mercury, who bad a temple on its summit ; the shell, 
ih he oonstructed the lyre^, was said to have been found by him 
ighbouiing Chelidoria M. Immediately under mount Cyllene was 
as Kiona; it stood upon Stymphalus L. Zaracca, the shores of 
re said to have been infested by birds called Stymphalides, which 
human flesh, until they were aestroyed by Hercules. To the W. 
e lay Pheneos Phonia, where Hercules is said to have lived after 
aire from Tiryns. 

» the N. W. of Pheneos* on the confines of Achaia, was Nonacris 

on a rivulet called Styx : farther Westward stood Cynastha Kata- 

tose inhabitants were abhorred and shunned by their fellow-country- 

iieir de^aved and barbarous manners, said to be the result of their 

g the study of music. The Northern part of Arcadia, called Aza« 

watered by the Ladon fl. Klitor, a tributary of the Alpheus ; the 

phosis of Syrinx into a reed happened on its banks ^. It was ioined 

I bank by Tragus fl., towards the source of which stood Orchome- 

whif a town of some antiquity, founded by Orchomenus, the son of 

The R. Erymanthus Tripotamia, the Western boundary of Arca- 

I in Lampea M. ; at its source was the ci^ Psophis Tripotanua, 

iciently Erymanthus and Fhegea. 

Argolis was the Eastern portion of the Pelo- 
3US. It was separated from Arcadia on the W. by 
isius M., from Achaia on the N. by the mountains 
lene and Arachnaeum, and from Laconica on the 
the little R. Charadrus : on the E. it was washed 
5 Saronic Gulf, and on the S. by the Argolic Gulf 
[yrtoan Sea. 

!lie original inhabitants of Argolis, or Argea as it is sometimes called, 
elasgi, who on the arrival of an Egyptian colony under Danaus, 
I their name to Danai, and subsequently to Argivi and Argolici ; the 
ppellations are not unfrequently applied to all the Greeks without 
ion. Argolis was at first governed by one sovereign : but the two 
OS of Tiryns and Mycenae were subsequently established, and re- 
independent of Argos until they were united in the person of Atreus 

^ Vobis Mercurius pater est, quern Candida Maia 

Cyllenes gelido conceptum vertice fudit. Virg. Mn, VIII. 138. 
Mercury is called " Cyllenius ales," and " Cyllenia proles." 

^ Donee arenosi placitum Ladonis ad amnem 
Veoerit : hie JlJi cursum impedientibus undds, 
Ut se mutarent, iiguidas orasse sorores', — Oold«\.l^^« 

H 3 

160 Grceda — Argolis. 

son of Pelops ; this hero acquired the possessioD of nearly all Petopomwii, 
which ample tenitoiy he transmitted to his son Agamemnon, who is caUed 
by Homer sovereign of all Argos and the islands. The government, hoip* 
ever, afterwards assumed a republican form. The whole Eastern coast of 
the province, as far as Scyllsum Pr. was known by the name of Acte Ar- 
aK>lis. The first ci^ here, after leaving the Corinthian frontier, was £pi- 
daurus Pidavra, which derived its principal celebrity from the neighboBnog 
temple of iEsculapius, the resort of all who needed the assistance of tba 
god, and built where he himself was reputed to have been bomandedn* 
cated. Above £pidaurus, on the Corinthian side, rose the loiW mountaia 
Arachnsum Sophko, the last station of the telegraphic fire by which the ci^ 
ture of Troy was announced at Mycenae the same night it was taken. 

41. Lower down the coast was the peninsula of Methana or Methone Mf- 
thaTia, and to the Eastward of it was the island Calauria Calauria, recrired 
by Neptune from Apollo in exchange for Delos '*^; it contained a temple to 
the former deity, with a sanctuary deemed inviolable: it was hither that 
Demosthenes took refuge when pursued by the vengeance of the Macedo- 
nian sovereign, and, swallowing poison to prevent his falling into the bands 
of his enemy, died on the threshold of the temple as he was in the act of 
quitting it. At the Southern extremity of Calauria was the small island 
Sphsria Poros. Troezene DamaU, the Easternmost city of the Pel(^[N>Bne* 
sus, was very ancient, and was the place where Theseus was bon, and 
where he long resided : many of his adventures, as well as those of Pbsadra 
and Hippolitus, are represented by the tragic poets as occurring at this 
place. Scyllflsum Pr. Skifllo, the Eastermost promontory of Peloponnaraa^ 
was so called from Scylla, daughter of the Megarean king NisBS, wfasie 
treachery to her father is well known : it is said her body was here wnlniid 
ashore. Scyllsum Pr. formed, with the opposite Sunium Pr., the entrann 
of Saronicus Sinus G. of Egina ; the principal island in the Gulf ig JEmuk 
Hgina, or Enghia^ the country and kingdom of ^acus, who named it 
JSgina after his mother, it being before called CEnopia^*. From the Scyl« 
lean promontory to the Southern cape of Argolis called Acra or B§ar C 
stretched Hennionicus Sinus B. of Ilydron, the coast of which was lined 
with several islands. The principal of these were Aristera Hydron, Hydrea 
Hydra, and Tiparenus Specie. The gulf derived its appellation fW>m Her- 
mione Kastri, founded by the Dryopes whom Hercules had expelled from 

42. Argolicus Sinus G. ofNauplia was so called from its running up into 
the heart of Argolis : its modern name is taken from NapoU di Romania, the 
ancient Nauplia, the port of Arsos. A little above Nauplia was Tiryni or 
Tirynthus Anapli, founded by King Prcetus, and celebrated as the residence 
of Hercules^' till he killed Iphitus, and fled hence into the Trachinian coun- 
try. The Tirynthian citadel was defended by massive walls of gigantic 
structure built by workmen from Lycia : these are the Cyclopes, who also 

^ Whence its epithet Latois : 

Inde Cataurea; Latoidos aspicit arva, — Ovid, Met, VII. 384. 

** latere inde sinistra 

Gilnopiam Minos petit iEacideVa regna. 
(Enopiam veteres appellavere : sed ipse 
iEacus iEginam genitricis nomine dixit. Id, VII. 474. 

**' Whence he is sumamed " Tiiynthius** by the poets; Virg. JEn, VII, 
662; Ovid. Met. XII. 664. 

Or^ecia — Lacania. 161 

krMDmiy «t Athens, u well as parts of Argot, MyceniD, and the 
>rchomenns. Th^ appear to have been altogether different from 
MS giants of Homer, and to have derived their name from 
ixe of Ihe materials they employed : they were said by some to 
I i£gyptian8, from the similarity subsisting between their works 
>loisal zemains of the Utter people. Argos Argot, a little to the 
iiyna, and at the head of Argolicus Sinus, was looked upon as 
uici«it city of Greece. The Kiver Inachus Xera flowed past the 
le AcropoUs into the G, of NaupUa ; its source was in LyrcaBUS 
it the poets feigned it to be a branch of the Amphilochian Inachus, 
ker jomin^ the Achelous, passed undei|pround and re-appeared in 
A few miles to the N. of Argos was Mycenae^ Krabata, which 
rned by its own kings, amongst whom Agamemnon was the most 
le ; under him the empire of Mycenae reached its highest degree of 
and power, since his authority was acknowledged by the whole of 
Considerably farther Northward, and on the borders of Corinthia« 
mea Kutehuhnadi near the springs of Nemea fl. ; it was celebrated 
aunt of the lion killed by Hercules ^^, who revived the triennial 
memoiy of Archemorus, son of the Nemean king Lycurgus, who 
I here killed by a serpent. Close by was Cleons Klegna, where 
defeated and slew the Elean chiefs called Moliones. 

etnming to the coast, a few miles S. of Argos, we come to the lake 
b Muloi, celebrated for the fable of the many-headed monster slain 
Hercules; it is formed by several sources, the most famous of 
ras the fountain Amymone. Farther Southward was Parthenius 
trbema, where Pan was said to have appeared to the celebrated 
.'bidippides, who in two days ran from Athens to Sparta to beg as- 
against the Persians. Still farther Southward was the small district 
, on the borders of Arcadia, Argolis, and Laconia, which was such 
of contention betvreen the two latter countries, being alttrnately lost 
1 by each. Its principal town was Thyrea Stib, near which the 
ed battle was fought between 300 Argives and as many Spartans ; 
jes, a champion of the latter people, remained master of the field, 
y lived long enough to raise a trophy on the spot to Jupiter, which 
ibed with his own blood ^. 

Laconia, called also Laconica and sometimes 
Isemon, celebrated as the kingdom of Menelaus, 
ihe South Eastern, and the largest portion of the 
>onnesiis. It was bounded on the S. by Laconicus 

** Ot Sk MvKrivag c^xov, kvKTifiivov wroXU^pov, — 

Ham, II. B. 669. 

Millia quot magnis nunquam ventre Mycenis. 

Fir^.^n. XL 381. 

** ' tu cressia mactas 

Prodigia, et vastum Nemeae sub rupe leonenu 

W. Vm. 294. 

^ Si tu signasses olim Th3rreatida terram ; 
Corpora non leto missa ti-ecenta forent : 
Nee foret Othryades congestis tectus in armis. 
O quantum patrie sanguinis ille dedit I 


152 Orascia — Lacania. 

SinnSy on theW. by the little River Pamisus and Moant 
Taygetus, on the N, by the mountains of Cronins and 
Paraon, and on the E. by the Myrtoan Sea. To the 
W. it bordei'ed on Messenia, and to the N. on Arcadia 
and Argolis ; it is now known by the names of Zcunada 
(a corruption of Laconia), Baraunia, and Maina, At 
an early period a great portion of Messenia, and subee- 
quently tne whole of it, belonged to the dominion cf 
Sparta, but it was ultimately wrested from it. 

45. L^conia was a rugged and mountainous country, naturally bum 
and difficult of culture. Its inhabitants rendered themselves illustrknn fer 
their courage and intrepidity, for their love of liberty, and for their aveiiiQii 
to sloth and luxury ; they were inured from their youth to labour, accof- 
tomed to undergo every hardship ^^, and commanded by their laws to reganl 
war as their profession. They were forbidden to exercise any mechanical 
arts or trades, which, together with the labours of agriculture, devolved on 
the slaves called Helots. Their jealousy uf the power and heroic greatnoi 
of the Athenians determined them on the reduction of their obnoxious rivals; 
they were supported in this by all the Peloponnesian republics except Ar- 

folis, Messenia, and a part of Achaia, as well as by Mesaris, Boeoda^ 
^hocis, Locris, Leucadia, Ambracia, and Anactorium. Athens, on tbo 
other hand, was joined by Messenia, Argolis, PlaUea, Doris, Acarnaiua, 
Zacynthus, Corcyra, Thracia, Lesbos, Chios, and Caria, with most of tlie 
Cyclades. This was the famous Peloponnesian War, which raged for 27 
years mostly in favour of the Athenians ; but the gi-eat naval superiority of 
the latter rendered them proud and negligent, till at iEgos Potamos their 
fleet was attacked by Lysander, the Spartan admiral, and completely de- 
stroy oil. The conqueror then sailed to Attica, and after having leauced 
Athens by famine, forced it in eveiy thing to follow the will of the Lacede- 
monians, who took possession of the city, and appointed the despotic and 
bloody administration of the Thirty Tyrants. 

46, The first place in Laconia after quitting ArgoHs was Prasise Prastt^ 
once an Argive city : lower down the coast were Minoa Napoli di Mo/Msis, 
and ICpidaurus Limera Paluio Emixisia. Farther Southward lay Epideliuin 
Agio Lindi, and Malea Pr. C. S. Angela or Malioy the South &astem ex- 
tremity of the Peloponnesus, account^ by the ancients the most dangeroui 
point in its circumnavigation. Off this promontory was Cytheba I. C«rwi^ 
once called Porphyris from the Greek word Trop^vpig purpura^ owing to the 
quantity of purple fi>h found on its shores^'' ; but it derived more celebrity 
from having received Venus on her birth from the sea, to whom the whole 
island was especially sacred ^^. Its chief town was Cythera, a little inland. 
Laconicus Sinus extended between the promontories Malea on the East, and 

*^ Me nee tarn patiens Lacedaemon, — Hor Cartn, I. vii. 10. 

*' Hence the celebrity of the Laconian dye : 
Nee Laconicas mihi 
Trahunt honestae purpuras clients. Id, II. xviii. 7. 

** Est Amathus, est celsa mihi Paphus, atque Cythera, 
Idaliaeque Domus. Vi^g* -^n, X. 51. 

Chmeia — Laeonia. 163 

D im the Wcit; it wu lometiiiMi called Ojtheatii^ t uuaa which 
aerred in its modern appellatioQ G. of Kolih/thia : at its head was 
yti, the inhabitants or which, having revolted against the Hera- 
sre redneed to slavery and called Helots, a name afterwards ez- 
. the Tarioiis people hdd in bondage bj the Spartans. Beyond the 
the Eurotas was Gy thium Marathotia, the port of Sparta, and op- 
it was the small island of Cranae, alluded to by Homer in his ac- 
the rape (^ Helen. 

Beorium Pr. C. MtOapan, so called from Tcnams, a son of Neptune, 
uthemmost point of the Peloponnesus and of the continent of 

Here was a celebrated temple of Neptune, in which Arion, who is 
ive been landed here by the dolphin, consecrated a small brazen 

a man seated upon a dolphin's back. Taenarium was also &med 
lutiful green marble, which the Romans held in the highest esteem^. 
alf way up Uie £astem shore of the Messeniacus Sinus G. tf Kala- 
the torrent Pamisns, which formed the boundary between Laconia 
tenia ; at its mouth was Pephnos, opposite an island of the same 
w called Pekni, where the Dioscuri were born, and where they had 
11 statues, which are stated to have remained immoveable though 
Uy beaten by tlie waves. 

1 the Northern part of the province was the border district Sciritis, 

bitants of wbicn were reckoned distinct from the other Spartans. 

3wn was Pellene Agrapoulo, where Tyndareus resided when exiled 

irta : and opposite to it stood Caryse, whence the statues termed 

es derived their name. Sellasia SelUisia was an important town on 

of the EuTOtas, and lower down the river, on the same side, was 

e of hills called Menelaium, opposite Sparta : near it stood the town 

pne Vardonia, where was a noted temple of the Dioscuri, who are 

imamed " Therapnsi fratres." The city of Sparta*" or Lacedaemon 

ated in an ejctensive plain, on the ri?ht bank of the Eurotas now 

)ure, which was here so full and rapid as to be seldom forded. It 

:rst an inconsiderable place, presenting the appearance of a collec- 

illages, and resembled a great camp rather than a regularly planned 

1-built city. It continued without walls during the most nourishing 

of its history, Lycurgus having taught his countrymen, that the real 

of a town was solely in the valour of i^ citizens ; but when it was 

d by despots, fortifications were erected which rendered it capable 

ining a regular siege. The name Lacedtemon is frequently employed 

te both the city and the country of which it was the capital, but 

he word Sparta is used, it is always with reference to the former : 

was also called Lelegia from the Leleges, and CEbalia from (Eba- 

e of its kings. To the S. of Sparta was Amycls Sclavo Chorio, one 

Qost ancient towns in Laconia ; it was celebrated for the magnificent 

of the Amyclaean Apollo, and for the Hyacinthian festival, Hyacin- 

Lving, as it is said, been buried there: it must not be confounded 

e Latian Amycls. The great Spartan plain was bounded on the W. 

^ Quidve domus prodest Phrygiis inuiza columnis, 
Tsenare, sive tub, sive, Carjrste, tuis ? 

TibuU. III. iii. 13. 

•*^*Hrot kftol rptig fjikv TroXt) ^iKraTai ehi v6\tieg, 
'Apyog T£, iirdpTfi re, leal fvpvdyvia MvKf|VT|. 

Hom.ll. £i.^\* 

H O 



154 (Jracia — Messenia. 

br Taygelus Mom Ptnit Paetpien, which slriliia off ftom the Arcadian and 
'Eiena hills, aod terminates in the promuntory Txnariuio. It aliooaded 
with benEts of the chafe, and with a race of hounds much vSLiued for their 
ugacity and keenness of scent" ; it likewiw prodiiceii a heautilul gieca 
iHible much esteemed bj the Komans. 

49. Messenia was the South Western part of the 
Peloponnesus. It was bounded on the N. by the R. 
Neda and M'. Lycfeua, on the E. by the range of Tay- 
getus, and on the two other sides it wa.s washed by toe 
sea ; to the N. it touched upon Elis and Arcadia, and 
to the E. on Lacoaia. It was in some parts a momttain^ 
ous country, but abounded in rich and well-walked 
plains, furnishing pastur^e for numerous herds aiid 
nocks ; hence it was heartily coveted by the Lacedaa- 
monians, whose land was barren and hani to cultivate. 

so. The Gist toiras in Meascnia, after ciDEsiiig the Famisus, were Leoc- 
trutn LtuiToi founded by Pelops, and Cardamjla which slill oreserres iU 
lUTne. Farther Norlhwanl was Nedo B. Dolaas, celebrated for a temple 
CDmecrated to Mioerva Medusia ; on its banks was GereQia Dnhut, where 
Nestor is said to have bBen educated, and whence he derived tlie epithet of 
Gerenian" hj which Homer so freijuenlly mentions him : above it stood 
Limnsm, where was a temple of Diana commnn to the Messenians sod 
Spanaai. At the head of the Messemaa Gulfstoad Calami Katamala; 
and SlenyeleniB A'^iii, n-hich was once the capilai of the counlry and gata 
name to the Campus Stenyclericus, where the Messenians twice defoied 
the SuiirtaTis. On the Western side of the Messenian Gulf was Corane. 
called formerly jEpea, Koran, during the siege of which by the Achaajii, 
their general Phitupcemea (aumamed by his countiymeu the LbsI of UkC 
Greeks') was taken prisoner, and shortly afterwards put lo death. Melholw 
or Mothoue Modaa is said to hare received its name from (he tf>ck Ho- 
Aon at the the entrance of its harbour. To the N. of it was Corypb-ltutia 
Nmvrina, at the Southern entrance of the Harbmir if Karanno: al Ae 
Northern enlrance of which Blood the famous Pylos Old Nuiiarina, Ixult'by 
**' ' , son of Cleson, and accounted by some the royal residence of Neitaf, 
: and tomb were both shown there. The haven of Pylos «u (ha 
scene di a severe contest between the fleets of Athens and Sinjtai it wu 
shellerad on the W. by the island of Sphacteria or Sphagia Spha^a. tlK 
maiilime situation" of this Pylos accords better with Homer's ^icripAn 
<tf the Nelean city, than either the Pylos of Triphylia or Elis, bat the «*« 
is one of some uocertainty. Above Pylos was Cypariaiius Sinus 0. nf At- 

Pylus, S( 
whose he 

" vocat ingenii clamore Cithsrotu 

Taygelique canes, '''rg. Georg. III. tt. 

" ToT; apa uiSaiy OpX' ftpwivtef IririTa Niirrwp. 

Horn. Od. r. 66. 

!» Oi Ji niXof, NljXSoC IfiKrlfMl-Dl' TToMlSpov, 

'Unv- Tfi J' liti Srivi ^aXaonqc Itpd piZov. 
Tavnnvc waaui^avaf 'EvootySow icaavoxairji. 


Inmim Maris JBg^L 156 

idiftmtehad Nottfawtnii to IchUiyi Fr. in £lii» and d«rivod iti name 
1o#n of CypariMia Artmdia situated on its shore. To the West- 
Cypariwria, in the open sea, lay the islands Strophades or Plots 
4b, whhher die Harpiea are said to have retired'^. 

n the right bank of the K. Pamisus Thmatia, aboat seten miles 
montby was the city Messene Mauromati, founded by Epaminondas 
fter the battle of Leuctra, with such zeal and activity that its forti* 
and chief e(fifices were completed in 85 days. Its citadel was on 
Ine Vmarkmno, celebrated for the obstinate defence which the Mes> 
Ihfve made agsdnst the Spartans : it and Acro-Corinthns were reck- 
tvo strongest places in the Peloponnesus. (Echaliay the city of Euiy- 
fiirs to have b^n in Ais neighbourhood, aid must not be confounded 
hai&Bi in Euboea which was conquered by Hercules. To the W. of 
. was Borium, situated on the K. Coeos, now called Coehia ; it was 
these two places that the Thracian baid, Thamyras, was deprived 
t and his eyesight by the Muses, after having been oonquoed by 
• trial ofskiU. 




THE Mare iBgeeum, now called the Archipelago, 

arm of the Mediterranean Sea separating Europe 

Asia, and was accounted by the ancients very 

iy and dangerous to sailors ^. It is bounded on the 

y Greece, on the N, by Macedonia and Thrace, on 

E. by Asia Minor, and on the S. by Crete, which 

were locks it entrance on that side. The islands 

le MgBssin Sea are presumed to be mentioned in 

Sciiptures as the Isles of Elishah, a name which 

denved from Elishah, the son of Javan, and grand- 

3f Japhet. 

^ Servatum ex undis Strophadum me litora primum 
Accipinnt. Strophades Grain slant nomine diets 
Insula lonio in magno : quas dira Celaeno, 
HarpyiflBqne colunt alis : — Virg, Mn. Ill, 209. 

' Otium divos rogat in patente 
Prensus ^gseo, simul atra nubes 
Condidit Lunam, neque certa fulgent 

Sidera nautis : Hor. Corm, II. rvi. 2, 

H 6 

14&0r JEgtBumMtvte — Tkatoi — Sdmotkraee — Imbros. 

2. The origin of the word ^g»um is involved in oeosidenibte doilbC«o 
Sofloe derive it from the Greek word alyt^ caprte, owing to its many islands 
appearing at a distance like goatt, or nrom its freqnent ttonu, vnrich tha 
Dorians called by the same name : others from .£ga, qaeen of the Amanoi^ 
or from iEgeus, father of Theseus, both of whom perished in it : and others 
again from the town iEgs on the Western coast of Euboea, or from the 
rock i£x, which is said to have suddenly emerged from the sea between 
Tenos and Chios. It is doubted also, whether the modem name Ankipeto' 
go is (^ived from Egio, or Agio-Pehgo ; the former being a corroption of its 
ancient appellation, and the latter arising from the number of rtligiotis 
houses at the foot of M^ Athos : the term Archipelago is now sin^Urly 
mis-applied to a group of islands instead of to a sea. The PhqeoicianSy 
Persians, Carians, Greeks, and Romans, all of whom aspired to be masters 
of the sea, colonized at various times some of the iEgean Islands, and seized 
upon others ; several of them preserved their rights and immunities under 
the Roman yoke till the time of Vespasian, who reduced the whole of them 
into the form of a province. 

3. To the S. of Thrace are the islands of Thasos, Samothrace, Imbros» 
and Lemnos. — Thasos Thaso, a few miles to the S. of Abdera, was remark- 
able for its fertility, its mines of gold and silver, as well as for its beautiful 
wine ^ and marble. Its chief town was Thasos Thaso, — Samothrace Samo' 
thraki, to the E. of Thasos and opposite the mouth of the R. Hebrus, is 
stated to have been named Samos by a colony from the Ionian island of 
that name, and to have received the epithet Thracia by way of distinction*. 
It derived its chief celebrity from the mysteries of Cybele and her Cory- 
bantes, as well as from the Cabiric worship which was iutimately con- 
nected with them. In it was the mountain Saoce, whence Homer repre- 
sents Neptune as contemplating the fight before Troy. — Imbros Imbro lies 
to the S. £. of the precedmg island, and about midway between it and the 
Hellespont ; it was sacred to the Cabiri, to Ceres, and Mercury. 

4. The fertile island of Lemnos * Lemnos or Stalimene is equidistant from 
M^ Athos and the Hellespont. It was formerly called H^psipyle ^ from a 
Lemnian oueen of that name, and Dipolis from its tu>o chief towns. These 
were Hepiiasstia Cochino on the Eastern side of the island, and Myrina 
Lemnos on the Western : in the forum of the latter was the famous statue 
of the ox, on which the ancients affirm M^ Athos threw a shadow at the 
time of the solstice. In the North Eastern part of the island was Mosych- 
los Mons, the smithy of Vulcan, and the place where he is stated to have 
fallen when kicked out of heaven. Near it was the promontory Chryse, off 
which lay the island of Chryse, celebrated as the abode of Philoctetes during 
his misfortunes, and which has been completely swallowed up by tbe sea. 
Lemnos was rendered infamous by the massacre committed by the Lemnian 

^ Sunt Thasiae vites, sunt et Mareotides alb« : — 

Virg. Georg, II. 91. 

^ Threiciamque Samum, quie nunc Samothracia fertur. 

Id. iEn. VII. 208. 

* Dos tibi Lemnos erit, terra ingeniosa colenti. 

Olid. Heroid. VI. 117. 

^ ValcMnum tellus Hypsipylaea colit. Id, Fast. III. 82. 

»^ tba aiale kh^biUuitt of the isUnd^, which, with other eoor. 
uare perpetrated, induced the Greeke to call erery atrocioos crime 
i-r-Setween Lemnos and the South £astem extremity of Thessaly 
qaall ishuMb PeparBthus^ Piperi, famous (ot its good oil and wine ; 
IS SeUdaronu, about which the Athenians and Philip of Macedon 
war ; Scopelus Samelo ;^and Sciathus Skiatho : the last mentioned 
Ls only two miles distant from the shores of Thessaly. — ^To the £• 
ft lies Scyzoe I. Skyro, where Achilles lay concealed in the habit of 
escape going to the Trojan war ^ : here also Theseus, king of Athens, 
|to exile, and is said to have terminated his existence by falling 

lie Island of Euboea, stretching along the coast 
ris, Bceotia, and Attica, is said to have derived its 
from the passage of lo, who here gave birth to 
us ; it tvas anciently called Macris from the word 

longuSy owing to its great lengthy and Abantia 
ts inhabitants the Abantes 9. The modem name 
ipo or Negroponty formed by a series of corrup- 
Tom Euripus : it was by this latter name that the 
ts knew the narrow strait between the island and 
ain, supposing it to have been formed by some 
convulsion of nature which separated the two. 
rhole island was exceedingly fertile, and from it 
ihenians drew such great supplies that, if their 
Bs wished to starve them, their first step was the 
ation of Eubcea: it is the largest island in the 
pelago after Crete. Its principal city was Chalcis 
K), the birth-place of the poet Lycophron, situated 

mid-way on its Western coast, and connected 
he Boeotian shores by a fortified bridge ; owing to 

which Ovid alludes : 

Lemniodesque vires nimium quoque vincere norunt : 

Milite tarn forti vita tuenda fuit. Heroid. VI. 69. 

^ ■ nitidseque ferax Peparethos olivae, — 

Ovid. Met, VII. 470. 

jnce Virgil (JEn, II. 477.) calls the followers of Achilles " Scyria 

Quid latet ? ut marin^e 

Filium dicunt Thetidis, sub lacrymosa Trojse 
Funera, ne virilis 

Cultus in caedem, et Lycias proriperet catervas. 

Hor. Carm. I. viii. IS. 

• Ot d* EvPoiav txov ukvia irvtiovTtg "A^avTiCt 
XaXKiSa T, Elpkrpiav Tit TroXuord^vXov 3"' 'Ivriaiav, 

VA JEffaum Mare — Cyclades loi 

tile sdTsntages of its eitiiatioii and the streno;th of itE 
4efences, it was considered one of the most impoi'tant 
ibrtresses in Greece, The inhabitants were supplied 
Ifcith water from the fountain Arethusa, celebrated, by 
Euripides. It was razed to the ground by the consul 
Uummios, shortly after the deBtruction of Corinth. 

6. Iq tbe Northern put of Eubcea was Htslia:a Xenxluirion, coiled aftCT' 
»r>nls Oreu5, it gave the name HisliiBOtis 10 the Enirounding countrj, the 
inhabitants of which were carried away captive into Thessaly by the Perr- 
ttebi. Near it lay the pcomontoiy Arlemisiuia Sgrachmi, memorable for 
tbe first sea-engagement between the Gieeks and Xerxes. Loner down the 
Sastern coait were, Cerinthus Kiaai, and Caphar«um Pr. C. Dora, where Ihe 
Crtecian fleet was deslrojed on its return from Troy". The Southern coJpff 
itf Enbceawas called Lence Acte C. Maaiilo: offil lies Myrtos 1. EnglM 7^ 
#beDce some imagine the Myrtoaa Sea" obtained its name ; this sea was l&lt 
girt of Ihe iEgiean which extended between Greece and the Cyclades. AbovB 
IHe cipa was Carystus Caslit Bam or Caryita ; it waa situated at the foot vt 
Oeba M. S. Eliai, and was much rained !br its beautiful green marble. 'Hie 
HomDntoiy which terminates the islaod to the South West, was ancicDlSv 
Mlled Genestum C, Can/sto: the sea between it and Chalcis was teimea 
^la Euboae CAonnri o/ Egripo. Ascending the Western coast of Enbrta i 
we come to Petaliffi Is. Pitaliaus ; Dystos DUto ; and Eretria, the secood d^ i 
m, Ihe island. Between Eretria and Chalcis lay the Campus LelantiiL I 
which formed a subject of contention between the two cities : and n^'i^ < 
it the fool of tbe lofty monQtunDirpheDefpAi, stood the (Echalia of BttfJS 1 
tu, ssid to have been destroyed by Hercules". The sea between Chadmi I 
Hut the Maliac Gulf was termed Euboicum Mare Charmtl if Ta/anrfa ; Ad I 
lb Eastern share, some miles above Chalcis, stood .£gse Alcip, from whfe^ I 
}n the opinion of some, the Mgaaa Sea derived its name. CenmuD ft. i 
f:, Lithaita was the North Westera extremity of Etibma, and slretehed' fb i 
g)lo the Maliac Gulf; off it lay lichades Is. Lithada, io eail«d ftoM | 
juchaa. whom Hercules is reported to have there hurled into tlic sea. < 

7. To the South East of Eubcea are the Cyclade&» 
jPodekanisa, which received their name from the word 
KivXoc drailus, owing to their surrounding Delos, as with 
ft circle, this island containing tbe venerated shrines of 
Apollo and Diana, and being the great scene of religious 
worship for all the neighbourbg people. They were at 

■" ScilttisteMinervtE 

Sidus, et Euboico cautes, ultoniue Caphareus. 

VWg. Mn. XI. 260. 
" Nunquam dimoveas, ul trabe Cypiiil 

Myrloum pavidus naula secet mare. Rar. Car*. 1. L 14. 

'* Gralnlor CEchaliam titulis iccc-dere veslris. 

Ovuj. Htrmd, IX. 1. 
" laterfasa nit«ai«a 
Vites asguora Cycladas, Hor, Carm, I, xi*. M. 


JBgamm Mare-^Cydaden Zae. 169 

)ii8idered to be only twelve in number, bnt were 
irds increased to fifteen ; these were Andros, Tenos, 
LOBy Naxos, ParoSy Olearos, Prepesinthos, Siphnos^ 
y&j MeloS| SeriphoSy CythnoSy Ceos^ Gyaros, and 
Many others, noweyer, were in a later i^e added 
36, to the number of about 53, so that tne name 
e an indefinite term for the whole group of islands 
Eastward of the Peloponnesus. 

los De/of 18 said to have fonnerly floated about die iEgean, but to 
!Ome suddenlv fixed as a resting-place for the persecuted Latont, 
\ brought forth Apollo and Diana. As early as the days of Homer, 
le great rendeivous of the lonians, who met here to celebrate their 
festival. When the island fell into the hands of the Athenians, 
reed that all births and deaths amongst its inhabitants should take 
the neighbouring Rbenea, whither all persons labouring under any 
as disease were commanded instantly to remove. After the Persian 
Athenians established the treasury of the Greeks at Delos, where 
meetings of the confederacy were subsequently held. The town of 
'as situated at the foot of M^. Cynthus*^ Cintio, whence Apollo de» 
e name of Cyntbiusw — Rhenea Sdili lies to the W. of Delos, and so 
that Polycrates of Samos is stated to have connected them by means 
un. — Andros Andro, the nearest of the Cyclades to Euboea, was 
i and well cultivated island ; it had a port and harbour of the 
ame, near which stood a temple of Bacchus, with a fountain, the 
yi which during the ides of January were said to taste like wine. — 
Vino lies to the S. of Andros, and is separated from it by a channel 
r a mile broad. It contained a noted temple of Neptune frequented 
inhabitants of all the surrounding isles, and the tomos of the sons of 
slain by Hercules. — Myconos Mifconi, to the S. of Tenos, was a 
id banen island : its inhabitants, who were avaricious and rapacious, 
eir hair at a very early age, whence the epithet ** Myconion" was 
lially applied to a bald person. — Naxos NaxiOf the largest and most 
jf the Cyclades, lies to the S. of Delos, and was especially sacred to 
IS, who was said to have been born there ^^ : it had a city of the same 
—Faros Pm'o, to the W. of Naxos, was besieged in vain by Mil- 
after the battle of Marathon, for 26 days, and thus proved the cause 
dis^ce. It was much celebmted for its beautiful marble '^ and 
le birth-place of the poet Archilochus, the inventor of the Iambic 
^ — Siphnos Siphanto, to the W. of these, was famous for its gold and 

Delum malernam invisit Apollo. 

Ipse jugis Cynthi graditur, mollique fluentem 

Fronde premit crinem fingens, atque implicat auro : 

Tela sonant humeris. Virg. Mn, IV. 147. 

* Bacchatamque ju^s Naxon, viridemque Donusam, — Id. III. 125. 

• Stabunt et Parii lapides, spirantia signa,— • Id, Georg, III. 34. 
Hence Horace says, 

«_« Parios ego primus iambos 

Ostendi Latio, numeros animosque secutus 

AicbUocbi, E^, \. xa.^'ft^ 

VW JElgamn Mare — Sparades la. 

silrer mSnes, of which a tenth part was for a time offered to Apoib at IM' 
phi, but this being subsequently withheld* the whole of the mines wtn 
destroyed by an inundation. 

9. Melos MiU) is equidistant from Deles, Sunium Pr. in Attica, MaleaPr. 
in Laconia, and Dictynnxum Pr. in Crete. It refused to join the Athe- 
nians in the Peloponnesian war, and thus drew down upon the inhabitant^ 
the merciless revenge of the latter people, who put all the males to death, 
and enslaved the women and children. — Seriphos Serpho is a rocky islud 
North of Melos, and was used by the Romans as a place of banishment"; 
Cassius Severus, the orator, died here in exile. — Sdll farther N. was Ceoa. 
Zea, stated to have been once united to Eubcea, from which it was torn bj 
an earthquake. It is said to have introduced a great degree of elegance io 
female dress : its chief city lulis Zea gave birth to the lyric poets Simonidei 
and Bacchylides. — Gyaros Ghioiira, probably the same with Homer's Gyre^ 
is a barren rock between Ceos and Tenos : it was used by the Romans as a 
place of exile for theii* criminals. — Syros Syra, between Rhenea and Cyth- 
nos, a fertile and salubrious island, was the country of Pherec^'det, the 
philosopher, who first taught the immortality of the soul. 

10. The islands called Sporades lie to the South and 
East of the Cyclades, and are not unfrequently con- 
founded with them ; they received their name from the 
word tnreipw sparffo, owing to their dispersed situation, 
being scattered over the Cretan, Carpathian, and Icarian 
Seas, as well as along the coast of Caria in Asia Minor* 
The chief of them belonging to Europe were, Amorgos, 
Donusa, los, Sicinos, rholegandros, Thera, Anaj^e^ 
Astypaleea, and Carpathus. 

11. Amorgos Amorgo lies to the S. E. of Naxos, and was chiefly remaik- 
able for a peculiar linen dress manufactured there. — ^los Nio to the S. of 
Pares, was celebrated as the place where Homer's mother was bom, and 
where he himself, in the opinion of some, died on his voyage from Samoa 
to Greece.— To the W. of it were, Sicinos Sykino, called formerly (Enoe 
from dlvog, owing to the quantity of wine it produced ; and Pholegandros 
PolycandrOf so barren and rocky as to merit the appellation of the " Iron 
Isle." — Below these, in the Cretan Sea, was Thera Santorin, fabled to 
have been formed by a clod of earth thrown from the ship Argo. It was 
colonized by the Lacedaemonians, who settled here the descendants of 
the Minys after they had been expelled by the Pelasgi from Lemnos; 
Theras, who headed this fugitive colony, gave his name to the island. Se- 
veral generations afterwards these Minyse, under Battus, founded Cyrene in 
Africa. — Anaphe*' Anaphi, to the Eastward of Thera, is said to have risen 
spontaneously out of the Cretan Sea; and to have received its name from 
the word dvaiftaivia ostendo, owing to the Argonauts, when in the midst of 

'" yf'^stuat infelix angusto limite mundi, 

Vt Gyarae clausus scopulis, parvaque Seripho. 

Jtto. &t. X.170. 
'' Hinc Anaphen sibi jungit, et AstypaleVa regna ; 
Promissis Anaphen, regna AstypaleVa belkx 


: .dSyifim Mare — Crtta L . Ml 

airiiig Asm inddenly teen the new moon mpffmr. — Astypftlaa, 
tween Tber* tod Cos, is now SiampalM. — CarpaUiiu SemrpamHo 
a Rhodes and Crete, and gave the name of Caqpathium Pelagus 
ninding sea*^. 

!reta I. At the Southern extremity of the 

Sea, and as it were closing its entrance, is Creta 

ed Candia, the largest of tne Grecian isles : it is 

lave derived its name from Cres, a son of Jupiter 

nymph Idsea; it is otherwise called Doliche, 

a, A'ena, and Idaea. It gave name to the Mare 

n Sea of Candia, which extends between it and 

[ades. Crete was sumamed 'E*:ar<J/iiroXtc from its 

! dties^^, and was famed for having given birth to 

and as the place where his tomb was shown. 

labitants were excellent light-troops and archers, 

dily offered their services for hire to any state 

eded them. The Cretans in the earlier part of 

story were a just and wise people, but they dege- 

so far as to be charged with the grossest vices. 

i Eteocretes, who were governed by Minos, were the earliest inha- 

the island. It was not reduced under the power of the Romans 

ime of Metellus, thence sumamed Creticus, when, together with 

;, it was formed into one province and governed by the same pro* 

A. range of mountains extends through the whole of Crete : their 

extremity obtained the name of Leuci Ms. Lefka from Xsviedg 

ing to their appearing, at a distance, like white clouds. In the 

the island rises the lofty Ida M. Psiloriti, where Jupiter was edu- 

the Corybantes (thence surnamed Idaei), and where his tomb was 

>eyond this, and towering above the Eastern cape of the island, is 

SitiOf in a cave of which the infant god was fud with honey by 

Amongst the promontories of Crete, we may mention Samonium 

>ne Salamone, on the East, which was passed by St. Paul in his 

) 3^me ; Metallum Matala^ on the South ; Criu Metopon Crio, on 

t ; and Psacum Pr. C. Spada^ on the North. 

Q the Northern coast of the island, near Psacum Pr., was the 
f Dictynna Magny, one of Diana's attendants, who first invented 
nets, and after whom the goddess herself is sometimes called Die- 
Farther Eastward was Cydonia near Canea, one of the most ancient 
ortant cities of the island, the inhabitants of which were admirable 
K Continuing in the same direction we come to Cnossus or Gnos- 

te dominam aequoris, 

Quicumque Bithyn^ lacessit 

Carpathium pelagus caring. Hor, Carm, I. xxxv. 8. 

" *AXXot &*, 01 Kprjrrjv tKaTOfiwoXiv dfiiffevkfiovTO. 

Horn. IL B. 649. 
*■ Primusve Teucer tela Cydonio 
Dimxit arcu ;— Hor, CormAN /vlAI . 

162 .^ieum Mare— Tenedas— Lesbos — Chios — Somas. 

sus" MacrUicha, the -capital of Crete; it was situated about two miles in* 
land, on the banks of the little river Cciatus Cmrtero, and owed all its spleii- 
dour to Miuos, who fixed his residence here : it was hither that DBoafaH 
iled from Athens, and here he is said to have constructed the oelefantei 
labyrinth that contained the Minotaur : it is also famed for the adventme of 
Ariadne and Theseus. A little more inland stood Lyctus Hieraki, the 
country of Idomeneus, who led its inhabitants to the Trojan war : not flu 
from it was Lycastos Lakido, On the Southern coast of the island la? 
HierapjTtna Girapetra, and farther Westward was the spot called Cakn Li» 
menes CaloHmiouas, mentioned by St Luke as the " Fair Havens nigh iinlo 
the city Lasea." Gortyna Metropoli, a veiy strong and ancient dty on dii 
banks of the R. LethsBus Messara, was famed for the excellent bows nd 
arrows^ which were made there: there is a famous labyrinth here, which b 
supposed to be that of the Minotaur, as no traces of any labyrinth havt 
been discovered near Gnossus, although searched for as far back as the tiiM 
of Diodorus Siculus. Farther Westward was Phcenicis P*. SphakU, whm 
the ship which conveyed St. Paul to Rome endeavoured, previous to ill 
being overtaken by the tempest, to put in and winter ; and about 20 milal 
off is the little island Gauaos or Clauda Gosxo, under which it ran shortly 

15. All the islands which have as yet been mentioned 
in the ^Egaean Sea, belong to the continent of Europe; 
we shall now briefly describe those which remain, and 
are reckoned to Asia, viz. Tenedos, Lesbos, Chios, SamoSy 
Icaria, Patmos, Cos^ Rhodus^ and a few others of littk 

16. I'he first of these below the mouth of the Hellespont is Tenedoi 7«> 
nedos, a small and fertile island. It was especially sacred to Apollo, and 
was the place to which the Greeks retired, in order to make the Trojans be- 
lieve they had returned home without finishing the siege. — ^To the S. of 
Tenedos, and off the coast of iEolis, lies Lesbos MytUene, the fourth island 
in size in the ^!^gean sea. It was veiy fertile, and the wine which it no- 
duced was much esteemed : the Lesbians were celebrated for their musictl 
skill ^, but the general character of the people was so dissipated, ^that the 
epithet Lesbian was frequently applied to licentious extravagance. It was 
the birth-place of Sappho, Alcaeus, Arion, Theophrastus, Terpander, &6. 
Its chief cities were, JMethymna Molivo on the Northern side of the island: 
and Mitylene or Mytilene Mytilenef its capital, on the strait between it and 
^olis. — Lower down is Chios Scio, off tne coast of Ionia ; its wine was in 
high repute^, and it was one of the places which contended for the Inrtfa of 
Homer, whose school was still shown there : its chief town was Chios StiOk 
— Samos SamOf to the S. of Chios, lies also off the coast of Ionia opposite 

^ Jupiter omnipotens ! utinam ne tempore prime 

Gnosia Cecropiae tetigissent litora puppes ; 

Indomito nee dira ferens stippendia tauro 

Perfidus in Cretam religasset navita fiinem j — CatuU. LXIV. 171. 
®* Spicula torquebat Lycio Gortynia comu. Ftr^. JEn, XI. 778. 

** Hunc fidibus novis, 

Hunc Lesbio sacrare plectro, 

Teque tuasque decet sorores. Hor, Carm. I. xxvL 11* 

^ Quo Chium pretio cadum 

Mercemur^ Id. III. xix. 3* 

II Mare — learia — Patmos — Cos — Rhodus. 163 

ad is divided from the promontoiy Mycale by a narrow channel ; 
(OS for the worship and temple of Juno ''> who was said to have 
n the island. It was the birth-place of Pythagoras, and the re- 
>ne of the Sibyls : its chief town was Samos Megali Choral near 
f the R. Imbrasus, from which Juno and Diana were sumamed 
-To the W. of Samos is Icaria NigariOf whence the surrounding 
ilcd Icarium Mare; the island itself derived its name from Icarus, 
from Crete to escape the resentment of Minos, ^ is said to have 
ily directed his course too near the sun, when the wax with which 
were cemented, melted, and he fell into the sea : Hercules buried 

ffsen Ae Icarian Sea and Rhodes was Patmos Patino, used by 
IS a> a place of banishment, and rendered very interesting hv 
■ St. John ; to the S. of it lay Cos Cos or Sitan-co, opposite Hali- 
ind at the mouth of Ceramicus Sinus. The latter island was the 
of Apelles, Hippocrates, and Philetas, and was famed for its ex- 
lility, as well as for its beautiful and sanative wine ; its manu- 
tilk^ and cotton were also in high reputation. To the S. of Cos 
Nisirvs, whence Neptune, who is said to have here overwhelmed 
*o1y botes, was sumamed Nisyreus : below it are Telos Pucojria, 

the Southern coast of Caria is Rhodus Rhodes, the largest island 

san Sea after Crete and Kubcea ; it is presumed to have obtained 

tion from the Dodanim, otherwise called Rhodanim. Its capital 

08 Khitdes near the Northern point of the island, famous for its 

)razen statue of the Sun, called the Colossus and reckoned one of the 

iders of the world. Rhodes was especially sacred to the Sun, and 

said to have never been so overcast but that he might he seen. 

itants were celebrated for their navigation, and were during many 

most powerful nation by sea. Their maritime laws were so uni- 

ispected that they were adopted by other commercial nations, and 

reduced into the Roman code, whence they have been extracted to 

>asis of the maritime regulations of modern Europe, The Colossus 

ibits high : its feet rested upon the two moles of the harbour, so 

I sailed between its legs; a winding staircase ran to the top, 

ie shores of Syria and ships sailing by the coast of Egypt were said 

(>le. After having stood about a hundred years it was overthrown 

thquake, 224 years b. c. On the Eastern coast of the island stood 

in city Lindus Lindo, the birth-place of Cleobulus, one of the wise 

i of Chares, the architect of the Colossus ; here the Danaides built 

to Minerva, in which one of Pindar's odes was written in letters of 

>n the Western coast were the Dorian cities Camirus Camiro, and 

Veoeactro the chief hold of the Telchines, whom Jupiter is said to 

troyed by a deluge ^. To the £. of lalysus was the lofty mountain 

Madona, on which stood a temple of Jupiter, hence sumamed 


^ Quam Juno fertur terris magis omnibus unam 

Posthabit^ coluisse Samo. Virg. ^n. 1. 16. 

' Transit et Icarium, lapsas ubi perdidit alas 

Icarus, et vasts nomina fecit aqus. Ovid* Faa. IV. 283. 

• Nee Coae refemnt jam tibi purpura, — Hor, Carm. IV. xiii. 13. 

* Phoebeamque Rhodon, et lalysios Telchinas, 
Quorum oculos ipso vitiantes omnia visu 

Jajdter exosns, interms subdidit uiid^ Ovid^ Md . NW.. ^ft& • 

Asia Minor, 



1. THE country, which for distinction's sake we Ewopeans call Am 
Minor, was not known to the Ancients by any general name. The appeOff' 
tion Asia Minor was first used in the ,4th centuiy, and only then with rafitt^ 
ence to the country previously called Asia Propria, to the exclasion of tlfe 
provinces Fontus, Cappadocia, and Cilicia Propria. After the Romans h^j 
contrived to entangle themselves in the affair^ of Asia Minor, and bad A- 
tained actual possession of Mysia, Lydia, Caria, and Phrygia, they ereeltti 
these into a Prstor's Province ' under the name of Asia. Augustus eulm^ 
quently gave it many immunities, and raised it to the dignity of a CoDSuliy 
Province, which is frequently alluded to under the names of Asia Propn]^ 
Asia intra Taurum, and Asia Proconsularis. The two first of these niiafc 
are not unfrequently applied to the whole of Asia Minor, with the exceplisQ 
of the provinces Cilicia Propria, Cappadocia, and Pontus. 

2. The peninsula of Asia Minor is bounded on the N, 
by the Euxine, on the E. by the rivers Acampsis aojd 
Euphrates, and by M^. Amanus, on the S. by tne Medir 
terranean, and on the W. by the JEgssan Sea : to the £L 
it bordered upon Armenia and Syria, being separated 
from the former by the Euphrates, and from the latter 
by M^. Amanus. Its situation is one of the happiest in 
the world, being washed on one side by the great riv^ 
Euphrates, and on the other three by the sea : it copr 
tains 164,500 square miles, or about 7,000 less than the 
peninsula of Spain. 

8. The principal promontories of Asia Minor are ; on the Southern coast, 
Anemurium Pr. C. AnamouVf the Southernmost cape of the peninsula, and 
Sacrum Pr., which derives its modern name of C. Khelidonia from the adja- 
cent Chelidonis Is. Khelidonia Is. On the Western coast are Triopium Pi; 
C. Krio, on which stood the famous city Cnidus, sacred to Venus : Tragi- 
Hum Pr. C. S, Mary, a prominent foot of M^ Mycale, opposite the Island 
of Samos : Lectum Pr. '^ C. Baba, the Westernmost point of the peninsula, 
formed by the jutting out of M^ Ida into the sea; and Sigeum Pr.' 
C leuishehr, forming with the opposite point Mastusia in Thrace the en- 

Bruto Prstore tenente 

Ditem Asiam, Hor» Sat, T. vii. 18. 

• "Idijv y iKtvOriv iroXvTiSaKa, firiTSpa ^tip&v, 
AiKToV 001 trp&TOV XnrETTjv tiKa. Horn, 11, 2EC. 284. 

' Sigea igm freta lata iduowiV. Vw^, £<iuW« Wl. 

Asia Minor. IM 

le Hellespont. This last promontory was adorned with a temple 
lent of Achilles, who was buried there, and was the place where 
in their war against the Trojans drew up their ships, and where 
part of the battles between them was fought. The two chief 
ae Northern coast are, Carambis Pr. Kerempe, and Acra Lepte or 
fU^eh, where the coast runs out farthest to the North. 

e most considerable ranges of mountains in Asia 

re, the Taurus, Anti-Taurus, and the Paryadres 

lisses. Taurus M.* Ramadan Oglu or Kurin 

3 rise in Sacrum Pr. and the Southern parts of 

nd after traversing the Southern provinces of the 

[a, crosses the Euphrates into Mesopotamia. The 

urus is a spur of tne Taurus, which it leaves near 

OB Ciliciae, and passing through the midst of Cap- 

^ crosses the Euphrates into Aimenia, where it is 

he tops of Ararat. It is more elevated than the 

; and from one of its peaks, named M^ Argaeus 

t, the ancients asserted that the Mediterranean 

xine Seas were visible*. The range of Paryadres, 

lisses Tchisheghi as it was afterwards called, is a 

the Caucasus, which enters Asia Minor near the 

of the Euphrates, and after connecting itself with 

i-Taurus, runs Westward to Paphlagonia and the 

[alys. It was from M^. Theches in this mnge, 

ew miles above Trapezus, that the 10,000 Greeks 

w the sea during their masterly retreat. 

"he principal rivers of Asia Minor are, the Halys 
ingarius, which enter the Euxine ; the Hermus and 
ier, which run into the jEgeean Sea; and the 
which flows into the Mediterranean. Of these 
alys^ now called Kizil Irmak is the largest; it 
I the angle formed by the junction of the mountains 
.Wrus and Scydisses, and after passing through 
ovinces of Cappadocia, Galatia, and Paphlagonia, 

* An te, Cydne, canaro, tacitis qui leniter undis 
Caeruleis placidus per vada serpis aquis 1 
Quantus et, stherio contingens vertice nubes, 

Frigidus intonsos Taurus arat Cilicas ? TibvXl, I. vii. 16. 

. ArgiBus was famed for its fleet horses : ^ 

. jam pascua fumant 

Cappadocum, volucrumque parens Argseus equorum. 

CUudian. \n,B,uJ,"W,%\% 

' Cneso Atalis Halys, ■ ,, . LwyMiw.WV.'Kl'l. 

166 Asia Mimor. 

enters the sea a little to the W. of Amisus. It is said to 
hare obtained its name from the Greek word ^oc^ owing 
to its waters having a salt and bitter taste : it is &mous 
for the defeat of CrcBSuSy the Lydian monarch, of whose 
dominions it formed for a long time the Eastern boun- 
dary, and who was tempted to cross it by the ambigui^ 
of an oracle'. The R. Sangarius or Sagaris Sakaria is 
W. of the Halys ; it rises on the frontiers of Gralatia and 
Phrygia, and after passins^ Pessinus traTerses Bithynia. 
The flermus Sarabat or j^edous is smaller than either of 
the foregoing ; it rises in the Xorthem part of Phrygia, 
and after running through Lydia, and receiving the tri- 
butaries Pactolus and Hyllus, enters the G. of Smyrna; 
its waters were said by the poets to roll down gold*. 
The MsBander Mendere is to the S. of the foregoing, and 
formed the boundary between Lydia and Caria ; it rises 
in the Western part of Phrygia^ near the cities CelsmB 
and Apamea Cibotus, and falls into the Sinus Latmicus. 
It is celebrated for its innumerable windings 9, fit>m ipdlich 
all sinuosities have received the name of Mseandeis. 
The Sams Syhoon is the largest river in the Southein 
part of Asia Minor ; it rises in the district of Cataonia, 
and afl;er breaking through the range of M*. Taurus flows 
into the Mare Cilicium. 

6. Asia Minor was divided into twelve great provinces, four Noifben, 
fioiitr central, and four Southern, the superficial extent of which may be sees 
in the following table : 

Square Miks. 
g fMjsia 8,260 

Paphlagonia ...... 13,700 

Pontus 22300 

gjBithynia 12.600 

:=• fLydia 9,»00 

gIPhiygia t - 23,200 

glGalatiaf 14,100 

u t^app^ociA ...... 30,700 

^ The words of the oracle were : 

JLpoXaoQ "AXwv diapdg fityaXriv <ipx')*' ^wtXvcrei. 

Herod. I. 53. 

• — auro turbidus Hermus. Virg, Georg. II. 137. 

* Non secus ac liquidus Fhrygiis Msandros in arvis 
Ludit; et ambiguo lapsu refluitque fluitque: 
Occurrensque sibi venturas aspicit undas : 

Et nunc ad fontes, nunc in mare versus apertuni, 

Ittcertas exercet aquas. Ovid. Met. VIII. 162. 

Aria MmoT^Mysia. 107 

fCitfia 6,700 

iLyda S,200 

|JPamphjlia 8,800 

I CUiaa 12,800 

ToUl - - 164,500 

[ysia was bounded on the £. by the R. Rhynda- 
the N. by the Propontis and Hellespont^ on the 
the .Sgsean Sea^ and on the S. by the range of 
ins which divides the waters of the Hermus and 
To the E. it bordered on Bithynia and Phrygia, 
S. on Lydia, and on the N. it was separated from 
radan Chersonesus by the narrow strait of the 
lont. In the South Western comer of the pro- 
ti8 the district of ^olis or ^Eolia^ so called from 
I, the son of Javan, and grandson of Japhet ; but 
ifane writers state it to have obtained its name 
BoluSy the son of Hellen^ who led a colony of 
hither sixty years after the fall of Troy (1124 b.c.) ; 
xtended from the Gulf of Adramyttium to the 
mus. Their league, like that of the lonians, con- 
)f twelve cities, until the latter people, who were 
nore powerful, wrested Smyrna from them. 

name of Mysia is presumed to have been derived from Madai, the 
aphet, whose descendants crossed over to Kurope and colonized 
dcBsia and Macedonia : it was not at first applied in the extended 
swards assigned to it, its ^Ve8tern parts being called Troas and 
u Its Northern ai¥l Eastern parts, from Abydos to the R. Rhyn- 
eie inhabited by a band of Phrygians, and hence obtained the ap- 
of Phrygia Minor '®. Troas extended from Abydos to Adramyt- 
lading the sources of the Granicus and iEsepus ; its limits do not 

> have altered during the various changes which the country under- 
m those which are given as the boundaries of Priam's kingdom., 
jans are thought to have derived their name and origin from Tiraz, 
of Japhet, whom in their mythology they appear to have distin- 
as their king and progenitor Xros : they were also called Teucri, an 
on which they are said to have denved from their king Teucer. 
sians were once brave and warlike, but they degenerated so much 
lygorum Ultimus" was a term proverbially used to denote a des- 
person. They were frequently hired to attend funerab^as mourners, 

> their melancholy and lachrymose habits. 

jice also Virgil uses " Phrygius " for " Trojanus :** 

Namc^ue ut conspectu in medio turbatus, inermis, 
Constitit, atque oculis Phrygia agmina ciicnmspexit: — 

168 Asia Minor-^-^Myiria. 

9. The principal mountain in Mysia is Ida or Idsus M. Km Dag or Ida, 
famous amongst the poets for Paris having there adjudged the prize of beauty 
to Venus, and from the gods having thence beheld tne attaas made upon 
Troy ; its highest peak was named Gargara^^ Amongst the principal riven 
of the province we may mention the Caieus Grimdkli, which rises in Tern- 
nos Mons, and enters the Elaiticus Sinus G. of Sandarli, a little above 
Cuma. The Simois Mendere, or river of Troy» rises in M^ Ida, and after 
a tortuous course of forty-five miles, enters the Hellespont a little within the 
promontory Sigeum '^ : a few miles above its mouth it receives a little biook 
nardly ten miles in length, which is the famous river called Xanthus or Sea- 
mander*^. The Granicus Oustoola, flowing from M^ Ida into the Pn^n* 
tis, was famous for the first battle gained upon its banks, b. c. 334^ by 
Alexander over Darius, when 100,000 of the Persians were left dead on the 
field: it was here also that the army of Mithridates was cut to pieces by 
LucuUus, B. c, 69, after raising the siege of Cyzicus. 

10. On the frontiers of Mysia, towards Lydia, stood Cuma or Cyme Gmt 
salhissar, on the shores of the iEgean Sea, one of the oldest and most im- 
portant of the iEolian cities : it was the parent ci^ of the Campamaa 
Cums, and the birth-place of Hesiod and Ephorus. Farther to the North- 
ward was Pergamus rergamoy the residence of a famous line of kings, and 
the capital of the kingdom or province of Asia ; it was celebrated for a noUt 
library of 200,000 volumes, of which Ptolemy, king of Egypt, became to 
jealous as to forbid the exportation of Papyrus from his dommions. Upon 
this, the Membrante Pergamenae (parchment) were invented, and the libniT 
continued to increase, till it was transported to Egypt by Cleopatra, witb 
Antony's permission, where it adorned and enriched the Alexandrian collee* 
tion. Pergamus is one of the seven churches mentioned in the RevelatioD 
of St. John. The district of Teuthrania, the residence of the first Mysiaa 
kings, extended along the Caieus to its source. Elsea Kliseli, the port of 
Pergamus, gave name to the Elaiticus Sinus G, of Sundarli, at the eztrfr* 
mity of which lay the small islands Arginuss Kanot, where during the Pe* 
loponnesian war the Lacedsmonian fleet was conquered by the Atheniam 
under Conon, b. c. 406. Farther Northward was the Adramyttenus Siaoi 
G. ^ Adramyti, so called from the city Adramyttium, which lay at ill 
head : it had a very convenient port, and is supposed by some to have been 
the same with Lyrnessus, the city of Driseis'^, taken by Achilles during the 
Trojan war. A little N. of Adramyttium was Thebe Hypoplacia, the birth- 
place of Andromache, around which dwelled the petty tribe of the Cilices : 
between it and the promontory Lectum was Antandrus ArUandro, near 
which ^neas built his fleet after the destruction of Troy. On the Western 

** Illas ducit amor trans Gargara, transque sonantem 
Ascanium : superant montes, et flumina tranant : — 

Virg, Cearg, III. 269. 
'^ Kai Si/i6c(f, o9i voWd jSodypia xai Tpv(f>d\tiat 
KdwmfTov iv Koviyai, Kai rffiiOkiov yivog dvfp&v' 

Horn, IL M. 22. 

*' AtlTCfi S* aVTifTTI) (TlJKOg, IplOVVlOQ *Epfl1JQ* 

"Xvra d* dp' 'H^rtioroto fityac Trora/ioc pcidv^ivriCt 
*'0i/ %dv^ov KoKiovui Srioi, dvdpBQ H ^Kdfiavdpov* 

Id, Y. 74. 

" domus alta sub IdA, 

Lymeasi domus alta *, solo Laurente sepulchrum. 

Vug. JEn. XII. 546. 

Am Miner — Mysia. 169 

fnMt was ChiyM. where was the famous temple o# Apollo Smin- 
Fliaae pneit was Chryses, the father of Briseis. To me N. of it 
adrift Troas £ifci SUmM, called sometimes sin^y Troas, one of 
mpoitant places in the province. 

» city of Iliam*', immortalized by the poetiy of Homer and Vir- 
tnaiad in a plain on a small eminence a few miles from the mouth 
lUespoot, and between the two riven Simois and Scamander ; its 
iposed to be now occupied by the village of Bunarbadti, but the 
lore than 3,000 years has not only obliterated every trace of -the 
has also efiected such changes in the face of the country, as lo 
mponible to ascertain its exact position, farther than that against 
ancient descriptions ofier no objections. It was also called Troja'^, 
by the Latins. Its citadel, Pergamos, was in the highest part of 
ittd contained the temple of Minerva. The siege of Troy, under- 
he whole of confederate Greece to revenge the cause of Menelaus, 
id on with valour and intrepidity for ten years, but at the expira- 
it time the city was taken and destroyed, when the neater part of 
itants were put to the sword, the others being carried away uy the 
s. This happened 1,184 years before the ChSristian era, 431 years 
I building of^Rome, and 408 years before the first Olympiad. Troy 
bowever, to have partly risen from its iiiins, for Xerxes and Alex- 
kh visited it, but it never ^ned its former importance, being 
w Ilium Novum Tshiblak, which was built about 80 stadia lower 
&mois than the old city. 

qxMite Troy was the steep eminence Callicolone, and above it, on 
ank of the Siraois, was Nea Ene, remarkable for its silver mines, 
^tem side of Ida, near the source of the iiilsepus, stood Scepsis, 
residence of iEneas : and nearer Troy, on the Southern shore of 
spont, was Rhceteum, not far from which, at a place called JEtn- 
ax was buried. Farther Northward on the same coast lay Darda- 
ire peace was concluded between Sylla and Mithridates ; Abydos 
famous for the loves of Hero and Leander, and for the Imdge of 
own to the opposite point of Sestos by Xerxes ; Percote, given by 
es, king of Persia, to Themistocles for maintaining his wardrobe ; 
tpsacus Lamsakif assigned by the same monarch to Themistocles for 
e his table with wine : the last was the birth-place of the deity 
'", whose orgies were there constantly celebrated. Farther East- 
1 the Southern shores of the Propontis, lay the district and town 
, where Adrastus first erected a temple to Nemesis ; and hard by 

* K\v9i fitv, 'Apyvporo^*, 8c Xpvaiyj/ afupij^priKaQ, 
KiWav Tt }^adttjv, Tevkdoio re l^i dvdacnQ * 

2/iti/dei)* Horn. IL A. 37. 

* E( /K?) '0Xi;/i7rid^£C Moi/crai, Ai6c aiyioxoio 

GvyaHpeg, fivfiffaioB* haoi virb "iXtoif ^Xd-ov. Id. B. 492. 

^ Postquam res Asias Priamique evertere gentem 

Immeritam visum superis, ceciditque snperbura 

Ilium, et omnis huroo fumat Neptunia Troja ;— 

Virg. JEn. III. 3. 
^' Hunc lucum tibi dedico, consecroque, Priape, 

Que domus tua Lampsaci est, quaeque silva> Priape. 

Nam te prscipue in suis urbibus colit ora 

Hellespontia, cetens ostreosior oris. CatuW.^NAW. 


170 Asia Minor — Uit&ynia. 

UBS fsepus S. Bakbi , or Setaldere, wbich rises in M'. Ida, and paaiiog b; 
ZeJeia Sw-iiiiii, enlere the Pnipontia. 

I IS. Tlie island of Cpicus,. which lav in the Propoatis, was separated 
from the maia-litid by a very oarrow cbanoe!. dd the Nortbeni shore of 
friiitb sidod CyiicQi Kyiik, one of tbe noblest (Cities of Asia, rendered fir 
two* by the BiGge of Mitbridatei, which was raised by Lucullus. The dCf 
Was sacred to Proserpine, wbo was said to have recened il from Jupitets 
hei dowry ; it was exceedingly beautiful, and became a lavourile place «r 
tttreet amongst the wealthy anJ discontented Latins. A few miles lo tha 
N. W. of tbe penineula of Cjiicus lies Froconaesus, mncb funed for iB 
•dmirable while marble, whieb has pven rise to its modem name Mamiaim. 
CyiicuB was situated al tbe fool of DindymuB M. Kapudag, where JiMO 
•TOCted a temple to Cybele, from whicii, in the opinion of some, she received 
the name of IJindymene". I'be island of Cnicus was alio called Daliom* 
from the Doliones, a Thiacian tribe, who inhabited the counliy between 
the .iCsepus and Bhyndacus ; the latter river rises in the dijdict aodenlly 
Mlled Atiiettene, a name which is lometjmes put for Ihe whole proviDoe. 

14. BiTHVNiA'" was bounded on the E. by the R. 
PartheniuB, on the S. by M*. Olympus, on the W. by 
tJie R. Rhyndacus, and on the N. by the Propontis and 
Eiucine, To the E. it touched on Papblagonia, to the S. 
on Oalatia and Phrygia, and to the W. on Mysia. The 
Bithyni were Thracians, who crossed over from the bankfl 
of the StrymoD, and seized upon a tract of country occu- 
jued by the Bebryces : they were composed of two tribe^ 
the Thyni and Bithyni, the former occupying the sea- 
coasts, the latter dweUing inland. The Mariandyoi ajirr 
pear to have been another branch of the nation, thou^ 
independent of them ; and with them may be also classed 
de Caucones of Homer, who touched to the EastnanE 
on Papblagonia. 

15. In the South Western part of the province was Olympns M. lUf: 
tldth Dag, one of the loftiest mountains in Asia Minor, wheace the sm- 
rounding countiy was called Olympeua. At its NorEtiem foot stood Pnua 
■d Olympnm Buns, so called ftoDi haviog been built by Ptuiiai, Viag oC 
Bithynia : it was hithet that Ilannilial lied from the vengeance of his eat. 
mie*, and was it first kindly received, but Prusias waa preparing to betray 
his gnesl to (he Romans, in order to gain Iheir favour, when Hannibal pre- 
Tented his plans by ■ voluntary death, n. c IBS. Cius Kia, catted alw 
Fnisias, w>;S situated on Ciavus Sinus G, of Kaniaiitti, at the mouth of the 
two riveia Cius and Hjlas. The Inuer of these is said to have received its 
same from Hjlas, llie favourite boj of Hercules, who waa Ibare stolen away 

" Nod Dindymene, non adytis cjuaiit 

Menlem Saceidotum incola Pythius, 

Noo Liber eque, Har. Carm. I. ni. 6. 

" TVijni Thracea arant, qua nunc Bithynia fetiur. 

CUiidian, m Eutrup. II, J|8. 

Af/Ut Mhidr-^ PapAlayonia. 171 

Apia, and was son^bt hj Hercules for manj days in the iieiffh* 
ouDtain ArgAnthonius**. The other river was the Cius or As- 
d oommonicated with a lake called also Ascanius L. cf Jsnik ; 
of Ascanius is presumed by the learned to be only an alteration 
Afthkenai; the grandson of Japhet, after whom the Biaek Sm ap- 
ave been called the Sea of Ashkenaz, which appellation became 
iltoBed to Pontos Axenus, and Pontus Euzinus. At the Eastern 
if lake Ascanius was Nicaea hnikf for a long time the residence 
Iqmian kings, until it was finally determined that Nicomedia 
oonsiderad as the capital of the province : it is remarkable for the 
siasriral council held here under Constantine the Great, a.d. S24« 
iksene creed vras drawn up. 

the N. of Nicsa, on the shore of Astacenus Sinus O. of Itmid, 
tcus, subsequently called Olbia. After its destruction by Lysi- 
fieomedes, the lung of Bithynfa, built a new city, which he 
nomedia hmid after himself: it was the metropolis of Bithynia, 
le very famous under the Romans, whose emperors frequently 
r their residence, particularly Diocletian, and Constantine during 
ig of Constantinople. To the W. of Nicomedia was Libvssa 

where Hannibal was buried; and beyond it, at the Soutbem 
f the Bosporus, stood Chalcedon Kady heui, called by the oracle 
r of the Blind,'' in derision of the Megareans, its founders, who 
oked the more advantageous situation of Byzantium. Nearer the 
I opposite to it, was Chrvsopolis Seutarif at first only the port of 
, but afterwards fortified by the Athenians during the P^opon- 
r. On the shores of the Euxine were, Prusa ad Hypium, so 
I its situation on the R. Hypius Kara ; and Heraclea Er^i, sur- 
Ponto, from its being situated in that part of Bithynia which was 
sed to the kingdom of Pontus : the latter was the most important 
s coast after Sinope. Between this city and the R. Acheron or 
lusseh was the peninsula Acherusia, where was shown the cavern 
hich Hercules dragged Cerberus out of hell. Farther Eastward 
ty Tium Filbas, near the mouth of Billeus fl. Filbas ; and consi- 
ove it stood Bithynium, called also Claudiopolis, the oldest of all 
lian cities. 

i^APHLAGONiA was bounded on the E. and S. by 
lys, on the W, by the Parthenius, and on the If. 
Euxine Sea ; to the E. it bordered on Pontus, to 
m Galatia, and to the W. on Bithynia. It was 
at the Heneti^^ dwelled, who, having lost their 
in the Trojan war, crossed over into Italy under 
nmand of Antenor, and expelling the original 

His adjungit, Hylan nauUe quo fonte relictum 
Clam&ssent : ut litus, Hyla, Hyla,omne sonaret. 

Ftr^. EcZ. VI. 43. 
Ha^XayovcJv d* jjyctro TLvXaifttviOQ Xdviov Krjp, 
*E5 'EviTUfV, '6Biv -^fiiovijv ykvog dyporepdwVf 
OV pa KvTOjpov £XOi/, Kai ^rjtraiiov duifuvefiovTO, 
'A/i0i Tt Hap^kviov TTorafidv KKvrd ouifiar' Ivaiov, — 

I 2 

172 Asia Mvnor-^Pontm* 

inhabitants, settled in Venice. The Paphlagones are 
described by Homer as a brave people ; out according 
to Lucian they were silly and superstitious. 

18. Paphlagonia is traversed by a veiy lofty range of hills called Olgas- 
sys, a name which is still preserved in that of Vl^t Dag : on its Westm 
side are the springs of the Parthenius Bartin or 07u, the only river of any 
consequence in the province^. A few miles to the £. of the Paithenius, 
on the Black Sea, stood Sesamos, subsequently named Amastris Amasterak. 
To the £. of it was Cytorus Kidros, at the foot of Cytonis M. Alfar Dag 
famous for the box-wood which grew there ^ : beyond it was Aboni TekboB, 
the birth-place of the impostor Alexander, who persuaded Marcus Anrelhit 
to change the name of the city to lonopolis Ineboli, under the pretence that 
^sculapius and his father Apollo would come and reside there. Still farther 
Eastward lay Acra Lepte, the Northernmost point of Asia Minor ; -tiid 
Armenc Ak-Liman, where the 10,000 Greeks were disembarked by tira 
people of Sinope, who had fetched them from Cotyora, but did not choose 
to land them on their own shores. Sinope SintUt was situated on a naxiov 
peninsula, which jutted out into the Euxme, and was reported to be of sufk 
antiquity, as to owe its origin to the Argonauts. It was coloniied, as isrere 
all the cities on the Paphlagonian coast, by the Milesians, and became io 
process of time more important and famous than any other city on the shwes 
of the Euxine ; it was taken by Pharnaces, king of Pontus, after which 
it became the capital of that kingdom, until retaken by Lucullus during the 
Mithridatic war : it was the birth-place of Diogenes the Cyme. The B. 
Amnias Kara Soo was a tributary of the Halys ; on its banks the Ronuos 
and Bithynians were defeated by Mithridates, who was himself afterwanU 
beaten by Pompey, in memory of which the latter founded the ci^ of Pgm- 
peiopolis Task Kiupriy on the banks of the river« In the South Eastern part 
of the province was Gangra or Germanicopolis Changeri, the residence <^ tlie 
old Paphlagonian kings. 

19. PoNTus was bounded on the W. by the R. Halys^ 
on the S. by the mountains Paryadres and Scydisses, od 
the E. by the R. Acampsis, and on the N. by the Euxine 
Sea. To the W. it bordered on Paphlagonia and Gralatia, 
to the S. on Cappadocia, to the EL on Armenia and Col- 
chis. Pontus was reckoned &mous for its poisons and 
poisonous herbs -^^ 

20. The name of Pontus was first applied by the Greeks to the wliok 
tract of country along the Southern shores of the Euxine, and thus include 
territories to which the subsequent kingdom of Pontus did not extend, as 
Sinope, Tium, Heraclea, &c.., which are all described as " in Ponto :" the 
.appellation was, however, afterwards limited to the country £. of the 

^ Partbeniusque rapax, et volvens saxa Cynapes 

Labitur ; Ovid, ex PonL TV. x. 49. 

^* Et juvat undantem buxo spectare Cytorum, 

Naryciaeque picis lucos : ^m^» Georg, II. 437. 

^ Has herbas, atque haec Ponto mibi lecta venena 
jpse dedit Moeris ; nascuntur plurima Ponto. Id. 'Eel. VIII. 93. 

ia Minor — Pantug. 1 78 

R. Halys, wod winch, after having been dismembered from Cappadocia, was 
erected into a satrapy under the Persian kings, and finally into a separate 
kbgdom, about 300 years before the Christian era. The most remarkable 
of its kings was Mithridates the Great, whose ambitious designs upon the 
kingdom of Cappadocia, of which he had been stripped by the Romans, 
ploaged him into hostilities with the latter people, and brought on a war 
which was one of the longest and most difficult in which the Romans had 
enir been engaged with a foreign power. The chief river of Pontus is the 
Iris Jekil Irmak, which rises in Paryadres M. and enters the Black Sea near 
Amisas. I'o the £. of it is the R. Thermodon Thermeh^ which niiis through 
the district Themiscjrra, the residence of warlike females, who from having 
their right breast burnt off received the name of Amazones^ (from a non, 
•od naJ^b£ mamma) ; they are said to have here founded a great empire, but 
to have been subdued by Hercules, from whose power they escaped, and 
afier nuLny wanderings, established a new kingdom in Sarmatia, on the 
shores of the Pains MaeoUs. 

81. The Westernmost ci^ on the coast of Pontus was Amisus Samsoun, 
wUch gave name to the Amisenus Sinus G. rf Samsnun : the kings of Pon- 
tBS made it their occasional residence, until after a long siege by Lucullus 
it fell into the hands of the Romans. Beyond this were, Themiscyra, which 
was also besieged by Lucullus ; and Polemonium, called Side, until Pole- 
Bon was appointed king by Antony : the last-mentioned city was situated 
at the mouth of Sideaus fl. Balama, Farther Eastward were, Cotyora Bou' 
timk KeUi, where the 10,000 Greeks took shipping on their return ; Cerasus 
Keremmn, called afterwards Pharnacia, whence Lucullus first introduced 
iato Europe the fruit called Cerasus or Cherry ; and Trapezus Trebisondef 
80 named from the mathematical figure in which it was built, and remark- 
able as the first friendly spot reached by the Ten Thousand during their 
masterly retreat from Cunaxa : Trapezus was a magnificent city, and be- 
came very famous under the emperors of the Eastern empire, who made it 
their capital. Beyond Trapezus were, Ophis fi. Ouf; Rhizaeum Ri^ek; and 
Aboams Mahria, where the coast of the Black Sea assumes a Northern 
(hrection : the last mentioned town was said to have been founded by the 
Colchians, who went in pursuit of Medea. 

22. In the Eastern part of Pontus were several barbarous tribes ; amongst 
them may be mentioned the Heniochi ^, the Drilse, the Mossynoeci and the 
Tibareni or Tibaleni, supposed to have been so called from Tubal, the son of 
Japhet. The Macrones or Macrocephali, a branch of the Tzani, dwelled 
on the borders of Armenia ; to the W. of them were the Chalybes or 
Chaldaei, who either gave their name to, or took it from, their iron and 
steel 'manufactures ^ : they are reported to have been the first discoverers 
of iron. Neai' the springs of the Lycus, which was a tributary of the 
Irisy stood Colonia Coyla HUsa ; and some miles above it was Neo Cs- 
sarea Nicsar, the most considerable citv in this part of the province. 
Towards the source of the Iris stood Comana Pontica Tokat^ so called 
to distinguish it from another Comana in Cappadocia: it was rcmaik- 

^ Quales Threicis cum flumina Thermodontis 

Pulsant, €t pictis bellantur Amazones armis. Virg, ^n. XI. 660. 

^ Heniochae nautis plus nocuere rates. Ovid, ex Pont. IV. x. 26. 

* Jupiter, ut Chalyb6n omne genus pereat, 
£t qui principio sub terra qurerere venas 
Institit, ac fern fmogere duritiem l CatuU.\I?»N\. ^% 

I 3 

174 Asia Minor— Lydia vel Mceonia. 

•hte for S m^oiiicent »nd weallhy lemple, varioubly weribed to Betlom, 
Id Venufi, snrl to DisnOi Taurica. the service of which was petfaimed by 
C,OI>0 ministers of both sexes, gorerned by a chief priest. Lower down lh« 
Iris was Aoiasea Amatea, (he TDetrapolis orihe whole province, and remark 
(ble m being Ihe binh-place of iUilhridates the Gre^t, aad of Slrabo tbe 
Reographer ; near it the lea receives Ihe waiecs of Scylai B. Gtda: Tliii 
W rifer ran pait Zeis Zsia, which was the tceiie of two ^eat defeali, Ihet 
of Triariushy Mitbiidales the (jreat, and of Phamaces by Cssar, when llie 
btter vainly described hia easy and rapid victory to the Seaate, by tbs 
words, " Vwii, Vidi, Vid." 

23. Lydia^s vELMffiOMA. RctuminCT to the ^gfEan 
Sea, the first of tlie central provinces of Asia Minor i» 
Lydia or MsBonia. It was bounded on the S. by the R. 
Mseander ; on the W. by the jEgffian Sea ; on the N. by 
a range of hills dividing the watei-s of the Hennus from 
the CaicuB ; and on the B. by an irregiilar line from the 
tmurce of the latter river to Hierapolis on the Mseander. 
To the N. it bordered on Mysia, to the E. on Phrypa, 
and to the S. on Caria. Ioma^" was the maritime part 
of Lydia, and extended to the S. of the Mieander into 
Caria. The twelve cities which formed the Ionian league 
were Phoctea, ClazomeneB, Erythr^e, Teos, Lebedus, 
Colophon, Ephesua, Priene, Myus, Miletus, Saraos, and 
Chios; the two last were on the islands respectivdy 
BO called. Smyrna was subsequently added to tue 

S4. The kiagdotD of Lydia included under Croesus by far the larger tialf 
of Asia Sliaor, but on the death of that monarch it returned (o it's former 
limits. I'he people were anciently brave and warlike, being accounted Ilia 
bnt horaemen in the known world ; they are said to have been the first who 
cnned gold and silver, and who eihiluled pnblic sports. The lonions, who 
fini Betlled here, were (he descendants of Javan, (he son of Japhet, bul the 
•OKifaae au(hDrs 9la(e lha[ (hey were driven fram the Peloponnesus by the 
invaiion of the Heraclide, npon which (hey wandered la Attica, and ttieDce 
to A^a Minor, where they formed a league to defend each other against 
t&e Leleges, Cariaas, and Lydians. in whose country they had settled. 
Each city was a separate republic of itself, subject to its own laws and 
imtitutions : the affairs of the whole confederacy being debated at a place 
Mar Priene, called Irom Ibis circumstance Panioniuni. 

V«f«t.l,vi. SI. 

Am 'Mtnor-^Lydia vd Mcsoma. I T4 

nMtf over the Peniuis, 479 b. c on the aame day that MardomuB was 
^fiated at PlatciB. The continuation of Mycale to the Eastward, waa 
iaown by the names Pactyaa, and Meaogis Kettan^, and was fanoua 
for the production of a generous wine ; from it the ridge of Tmolus '^ Btu 
Dag, s^uck out to the Westward, terminating in the Erythrean peninsula ; 
it was highly commended hy the ancients for it*8 vines, saffron, and odo- 
liferous flowers, as well as for its salubrious air. The Hermus is the prin- 
cipal river of Lydia : between it and the Meander flows the Caystrus Lit- 
cif MiMderi, an inconsiderable river, which rises in a branch of M^ Tmo« 
his, and runs through the Asian marsh into the i£g»an Sea, near Ephesus ; 
it's banks are said by the poets to have been much fi-equented by swans ''. 

26. The Northernmost city on the coast of Lydia was Phocea Fokies, the 
inhalHtants of which being grievously oppressed by Cyrus, quitted their city, 
ifter having sworn never to return to it till a heavy weight which they cast 
mto the sea, should rise to the surface ; they wandered to Gaul, where they 
ftonded the city Massilia^. To the S. of this, at the head of Smymsus 
Siios G. rfStnyma, was Smyrna Smyrna or Itmir, one of the cities which 
liil claim to the honour of being the birth-place of Homer, and as it ap> 
nuBwith considerable justice : it stood, on the little river Meles, whence 
Homer was called Melesigenes, and was so rich and powerful that it is not 
vnfieqHently called the metropolis of Asia. Smyrna was one of the 
Cknichet mentioned in the Revelation of St. John. In an island on the 
fifl tdi era shore of the Gulf of Smyma stood Clazomens, founded by the 
iMuaos and Dorians, who first settled on the main-land at Chytrium Vourla, 
^doA they quitted from fear of the Persians. To the W. of this was the 
pomsnla of £r3rthr0 ; in it was the hieh mountain Mimas Karahwnm, fiiU 
^ wild beasts, and covered with wood, from which the Bacchanals, who 
edehiated their orgies here, were called Mimallonides : the city of Erythrs 
SkrA stood on the Western coast of the peninsula. Lower down were 
Coiycas Sykia, the haunt of pirates and robbers, Teos Bvdrun, the birth- 
^aoe of Anacreon the poet, (hence called the Teian bard ^^), and Lebeduf 
ingi, where stage-players met from all parts of Ionia to celebrate an an- 
nau festival in honour of Bacchus. Hard by was Colophon Giaoor Kioy, 
one of the cities that laid claim to the honour of having been the birth-place 
of Homer; the proverb " Colophonem addere" to put a finith to any thing 
u laid to have arisen from the excellence of the Colophonian Cavalry, who 
uoally brought victory to the side on which they fought. (Hence the term 


•* - ■ Nenne vides, croceos ut Tmolus odores, 

India mittit ebur, moll^ sua thura Sabaei 1 Virg, Georg. I. 56« 

*• Jam varias pelagi volucres, et qu» Asia circum 

Dulcibus in stagnis rimantur prata Caystri,— Id, 389U 

^ Nulla sit hac potior sententia : (Phocaeorum 
Velut profugit execrata civitas, 
Agros atque Lares proprios, habitandaque fana 
Apris reliquit et rapacibus lupis) 

Sed juremus in hsec ; simul imis saxa ren^rint 

Vadis levata, ne redire sit faefas :— Hor, Bpod, XVI. 17. 

^ ViUbis aestus, et fide Teia 
Dices laborantes in uno 
Fenelopea, ritreamque Circen. Id. Camul* x<\v.\^. 

I 4 

998 Asia Minor — Lydia vel Mteonia. 

CelaphaH Dflra oied in priming, to denole (he aucount which iht prinMc 

E'Vesof the edidoa attbe end oFthe book.) A little fulher Sou thwaid >■« 
Una Ziileh. famons for a Lemple ana an oracle of Apollo ", hence lu- 
named Clarius. 

1 2T. A little [0 the S. of the Csystur stooJ the illustriooa city of Eptiesni" 
Ityamluk, said 10 have been founded by Ephesus, the sod of the Cayiler, or 
» olhers have i1 by the Amazons ; ii attained its higtieii grandeur unier 
flke Roman*, »ho made it the first of the three capital dti-:s of Asia, file 
' Mier two being Smyrna and Pergamus. Its greatest oinament vu Ibe 
ftmouE temple a!, Diaua (reckoned one of the seven wonders of the »or]d)j 
which was burnt to t)je ground on the night that Alexander was bora, W 
Smslratus, in order as it was said lo gain himself an infamnus celcbrily. It 
ms, however, rebuilt with greater splendour and magnificence by a geoml 
Mtitiibution of all the Greek citiei of Asia. Kpbesus U rendered vei^ ia~ 
(nesting from the life and writings of St. Paul, and as Ixing <t>e first mtbt 
churches mentioned in the Revelation of St. John. It suflered mucb faM 
4ie Inroads of the Goth« in the third century, and still mo<e fiam the 'ttn- 
teotions of the Saractm and Crusaders: it was, however, eiistiDg in pi^ 
time of Tamerlane, who fixed hii quatters hore ud is supposed to have m- 
nquenlly dEStroyed it. Thn modern name Aiiaiaiae a a corruption of jtji^ 
Tiealagos, Bn epithet vluch the mod. ra Graks apply to St. John the fbnMm 
aF the Kphesian Church. 1'he Ephesians were supposed to be given te ibo 
ant of spells and incantations; hence the words " lileta EphesiK'' arc 
^iplied to letters containing such magical powers as were fancied to eiable 
persons eatily to obtain their nishes. Piiene Sanim was the Souttient- 
■lost city on the coast of Lydia, and was situated near the mouth cf the 
MioaDder, the alluvial deposit of which has now caused it to stani^ con- 
nderably inland ;, Bias, one of the seven wise men df Gieece, was a oalive 

28. Near the mouth of the Mffaader stood Waeoesia ad MsaodTum 
Jjie/rftfltnr. one of the three cities given lo Themistodes by Arlaxcnei, In 
■appott his table with bread, and (he place where he is staled is haw 
died : a little to the £.,Df it stood Tralles GuwUtissar. The other Magik^ 
fium which the preceding was distinguished, was situated about 44 milts 
&eni the mouth of the Hermus; it was called Magnesia ad Sipylum ATcmiM 
from lying at the foot of M'. Sipylus, the reputed abode of Niobe" ; iltns, 
the residence of Tantalus, king of Msonia, and the capital of his domioioni, 
but it is better known from the defeat which Antiochus here received Irdla 
the Romans, n.c. 187. Near Magnesia the Hermus is joined by the 
HylluE, which (rasses by Thyadra Ak Husar. one of the Seven Chuiches of 
Asia. A few mile^ ^ve Magoe^a ad Sipylum the Hermus receiver the 
waters of the brook Pactolus. the sands of which were said to have ' — '-' 

Quem fugias ; ideoque fu^'ib. Mibi Delphica tellas, 
Et Claios, el Tenedos, Fatarxaque regia i,etviL 

Ovid. Mtl. 1. 510.. 
" Laudalmnl alii olaram Rhodon, ant Mitylenen, 

Aul £phesum, Har. Cam. I. vii. I. 


■ AHa MtMT — Pkrygia. 177 

_ iftto gold** \fj Midas waihin|^ there to rid himself of his useless gift. 
-the junctiaD of the two stood Saides Sari, once the capital of I^ydia 
■frthe icndence of its kings ; it fell into the hands of Cyras, b. c. 548^ on 
■lieh occasion Craesus was made his prisoner ; it was burnt by the Athe- 
■Mt. B. c. 604, which afforded Darius nis pretext for invading Attica, and 
ig all the Greek temples that fell into his power. SarUes was one of 
I Seven Churches mentioned in the Revelation of St. John. To the E. of 
jdea the Hexmus is joined by the little river Co|amus, near the source of 
Etch stood Philadelphia AUak Shehr also one of the Seven Churches of 
\ : it was ronaikable for the numerous earthquakes which frequently 
ilated the city, and by one of which it was completely destroyed in the 
of Tiberius', a. d. 17, at the same time that eleven other cities of Asia 
a nmilar fate. Owing to the frequency of these natural calamities 
_ Eastern half of Lydia and a great portion of i'hrvgia received the name 
Chlakecaumene, from the burnt up appearance which the whole face of the 
equitry presented. 

89, Phrygi A was the second in size amongst the pro- 
Tiiices of Asia Minor : its limits were altogether undefined 

a nature, and so very irregular that they touched upon 
the other provinces of the peninsula with the excep- 
tion of Paphlagonia and Pontus. To the E. it bordered 
oa Galatia and Cappadocia ;. to the S. on Cilicia, Pisidia, 
and Lycia ; to the W . on Caria, Lydia, and Mysia ; and 
to the N. on Bithynia and Galatia, These limits include 
the district of Lycaonia. 

so. Phrygia is supposed by some critics to have obtainefl its name from 
the Greek word ^pvyta torreo, owing to the volcanic or bunit-np appearance 
presentcad by its surface : prior to the irruptions of tlie Gauls it included the 
province of Galatia. During the confusion which ensued after the death of 
Alexander, the Bithjmi seized upon that part of Phrygia which was con- 
1%nous to their own territory, but it was subsequently regained from them 
In its original possessors and hence obtained the epithet of- Epictctus. The 
$6«ithem part of the province boidering upon MK Taurus was called from 
this circumstance Paroreios; but' the Romans during the fourth century 
took it from Phrygia, and added it to their new provmce of Pisidia ; about 
the same time too they divided Phrygia into Salutaris and Pacatiana, tho 
former lying between Galatia and Pisidia,. the latter between Bithynia and 
Caria. The Phrygians are said by the profane writers to have wandered 
from the Southern part of Macedonia into the districts on the Southern 
shores of the Propontis, many years before the Tiojan war ; it is likewise 
stated that they were called Briges in their original settlements. They are 
said to have invented the pipe of reeds and all sorts of needle-work, and to 
have brought music and dancing to such perfection that they were copied 
even by the Greeks. 

SI. In the Northern part of Phrygia, and on the borders of Mysia and 
Bithynia, stood Ancyra Phrygia.. To the E. of it flows Thymbris fl. Pursak, 

** Te quoque magnanims viderunt, Ismare, gentes 
Vulnera dirigere, et calamos armare veneno, 
Mseoni^ generose dome : ubi jnngvia culta 
Exercentque vih, Pactolusque imgat auro. Vivg. it-a. ^, VVl. 

I 5 



178 Asia MiTior — Pkrygla. 

which enien the Sangarius on Ihe borders of Biltiyaia and Gnlatia ; a IlKle 
ftbove their junction stood Daiylxum EM Skelir, Ibrmerl; a Galalian atj ; 
and considerably above (his was Cotysiuni Kulaya, Nnt (ar rmm Ise 
HiurCE of tha river was Ipus, famous for the decisive battle fouglit them, 
B. c. 301, between the suiviving goneials of Alexander, Seteucos. I'toienj, 
LysioiHchus, and Cassaiuier on one side, and Antigonus ami his son on Oe 
othet ; AnCi|oiius was delbated and died of Ihe maDv wounds whicb he had 
receired. The Masander is joiaed near its source by ihe little brook Mar- 
■yas, which was said to have sprung from the teara wept by Ihe Sanm utd 
Faum at the death of Marsyas, who was here Bayed aJive by Apollo ; hii 
akin was hung up in the Deighbouring city Celiens, and shown to travelkn 
in the form of a bladder or football ". Celens Dii^la was once the Cisi- 
tal of Phrygia and was remarkable for containiag a favourite palace of Ihe 
vonnger Cyrus, who exercised himself and bis attendants in hunting wiM 
beasts ia an adjoining park. The inhabitants of Celmnni were carrwd by 
Antiochus Soter to people Apamea, which he fonnd^'d on the ruins of Cibo- 
tusi caliing his new city Apamea Cibotus, to distinguish it from otheis of a 
like name; it stood near the source of the Mieander, only a mile or two fnnn 
Celca^ and became one of the greatest marts of trade in Ihe whole of 
Asia Minor. Descending the MiBander lo the confloes of Ljdia we mtel 
with Hierapalis Tabiik KalUt, the birth-place of Cpictetus, the Stoic ^ttlqc 
opher. There was a Christian Church at Hierapolis, which is alliuQ^ lo 
t^ St. Paul in his Epistle to the Colossians. 

33. Lower down, the MEoander is joined by the Lycos Dioebimtt; tni 
near thdr confluence stood the city Laodicea E^dhiaor on the bordsra of 
the three provinces Phry|ia, Lydia, and Caria. Its memory is conaeetated 
in Scripture, being one of the Seven Churches mentioned in tlie KeveUtimi 
of St. John. To the E. of it was CoIosseb Khamu, which derives itt ckief 
inlercBl bom one of the first Christian Churches haviog been establiakd 
thcK, to the converts of which St. Paul ha^ addressed one of his EpitdM. 
Themisoniuin, near the springs of the Lycus, appears lo be [eplaeed bj the 
nodem Taeai. To the S. of it on the borders of Catia nnd Lycia tw^ 
Clbyra" Major j it gave name to the district Cibyiales, and waa aitoalB] 
ou tha R. Indus, which eoteis the Mtdilerraneun opposite Rhodes. The 
whole of the mnunlain-countiy oa the borders of Fh^gta, Fisidia, Lycia, 
and Caria received the name of Milyas, afler the Solymi" had been driven 
from their original possessions in Lydia ; the people were called Jlilya ud 
Kometimes Solymi. ^'he Eastern part of it was wrested from tliem by the 
Pbids, who called it Cabalia. In the centre of Phrygia was Synnada, said 
to have derived its name from the Phrygians and Greek colonists dwelliii); 
U^lhei here ; it was much famed fur its beautiful marble. 

U. The Greeks derived the name of Lycaonia from Lycaoa, an Arca- 
'dian, who is said lo have set out hither with ik band of colonists, and 
founded a city to which he communicated his name. In its iSorthcm pail 

■ Quique colunt Pitanen, et qute tua munera. Pallas, 

Lugeut damnatce Phtnbo victors Celsns : — Lucan. III. SOO. 

" Cava ne poftus occupet alter ; 

Kc Cibjiatica, ae Bithyna negoSa perdaa ; — 

Hpt. E/iiit. r. vi. «. 

" itvTipov av, SaXiiioiai uaxnaaro Ki'loXinmiriv 
KitpriaTtiv Jjj rijv yf fiaxTi*" <f«ro liiiitvat aySpiiv. 

Ada mnar-^OalatiOf 179 

WW XatU Paloi Kadwn Tusla, a long lake» the waters of which are so im- 
pMnated with salt, that anjr thing flung into it is shortly afterwards covered 
«i£.chiyatiJs. The chief cities in Lycaoma were Laodicea Combusta lor- 
gn LmdUc^ and Jconium Konia. The former is said to have received its 
ipithet from tht soil sparkling with flame, and from its tremulous motion 
(Hisad hy earthquakes : Icomum was the capital of Lycaonia, and was 
fancied by the Greeks to have derived its name from tUuv imago, owing to 
a httle gtatust which was here set up by Prometheus or Perseus : it is ren- 
dered veiy interesting from the labours of SL Paul, as are also two cities to 
the S. of It, called Derbe and Lystra JUUera. The Southern part of Lyca- 
doia was called Antiochiana j its chief town was Laranda, still known as 
Ltranda or Karanuau 

54. Galatia*2 was bounded on the N, by Bithynia 
and Paphlagonia, on the E. by Pontus, on the S. by 
Cappadocia and Phrygia, and on the W. by the latter 
provinca It owed both its name and origin to the Gauls, 
who wandered from Europe b. c. 278, under their leader 
Brennus shortly after their defeat in Greece. It was also 
named Gallo-Graecia from its being surrounded by Greek 
colonies ; and Gallia Parva to distinguish it from Gallia 
Propria, which the Greeks also called Galatia. 

55. The GalatsB are said by Josephus to have been originally called Go- 
merites from Gomer, the son oif Japhet. They seem to have preserved them- 

selves <&tinct from the Greeks and other nations by whom they were sur- 
rounded, for their language appeared to St. Jerome, 600 years after their 
migration, to be the same as that spoken in his time at Augusta Treverorum 
in Gaul. The various tribes divided themselves into three principal divi- 
n<ms, the Trocmi, Tectosages, and Tolistoboii ; of these the Trocmi dwelled 
lo the £. of the Halys, the Tectosages were cantoned about Ancyra, and 
the Tolistoboii round Pessinus. The Trocmi are conjectured to have ob- 
tained their name from Togarmah, the son of Gomer, and grandson of 
Japhet ; and both they, and the Galatians generally, seem jto be alluded 
to by the Prophet Ezduel as the house of Togarmah and the bands of 

56. In the North Eastern comer of Galatia was Tavium Tchounmif the 

chief city of the Trocmi, only a short distance from the right bank of the 
Halys. Ancyra. ilngora, the chief town of the Tectosa^^es and the metro- 
polis of all Galatia was in the Northern part of the ^rovmce and to the W. 
of the R. Halys, It was the most Northern point m the interior of Asia 
Minor which was visited by Alexander. Augustus greatly beautified and 
enlarged it, and he is hence not unfrequently called its founder ; the inhabitants 
erected a temple to him, and in honour of him called their city Sebaste. 
Ancyra was especially famed for its beautiful manufactures of goat's hair, 
an advantage which it retains to the present day. St. Paul is said to have 
here preached to the Galatians. To the W. of Ancyra, and on the left 
bank of the Sangarius, was Pessinus, the capital of the Tolistoboii, and 
famous for a very ancient temple dedicated to Cybele, in which was a 

** Aut si Romano compleri sanguine mavis, 
Istis parce, precor; vivant Galataeque, Syriqae,— Lueati.'VW, ^^^. 

I 6 

^ft Asia Minor — Cappadocia. 

ifjiodai image of the goddess, said to have ilropped from beafen, and wbiA 
1§H carded lo Rome during (he second Puaic wai. Pessmus waacitualid 
^. the foot or Dindymiu M., whence Cybele is laid to hava obtained ibe 
djitfaet Dindymene '^. Lon-er down the Sangarins Blood Gotdium Sanlar, 
nmous for the knot of the Phrygian king, Gordius, whidi Alexander cut Ut 
[luces with his swonl. Between Anevra and thu Halya was the ciudet 
UKbeus, besieged and taken by IheGalattan prince Deiotarus, who ihece 
to death bis son-iii'law and his own daugbteF, aad who. upon being ac- 
OKed by his godson of attempts npoa Cffisar's life, was abtj defeoded by 
C^icera in lb« Roman Senate- 

37. Cappadocia was boimded on the N. by the 
^, Cappadox, and by the range of mountains called 
Paryalres and Scydisaea ; on the E. by the Euphrates ; 
ind on the S. by M'. Taurus. It touched to the N. cm 
Oalatia and Poiitus ; to theE, on Annenia; to the S. on 
Cilicia ; and to the W. on Phrygia : it was tlie lai^est 
province in the whole peninsula. 

s A@. The name of Cappadocia is said to have been derived from the little 
^.Cappadoi Koaak, which is a tiibntary of the llalys. It was first appliad 
to billDiy to the whole cnuntiy between tlie Euiine and M'. Taurus, &on 
tba Euphrates to the Italys ; and the limits above giveo refer only to tbc 
Ungdon of Cappadocia, sutnamed Magna or Propria, in opposition to the 
CappBdocia Pontica which had been dismembered fmm it aod was afier- 

'litds ktiown as the kingdom of Pontus. The Eastern part of Cappadodi 
ling inhabited by Armenians was tailed Auui^nu Minor, and nu ga- 
ined by its own princes till the ^me of Mithridates the Great, who seiiud 
if&on it as well as upon tnanj other provinces of A«ia Minor. The district 
^CiTAONiA included the Southern part of Cappadocia, from the bordera of 

tmenia Minor lo Lyianoia; its inhabitinti were at first independent of 
ppadocia, but afterwards Joined that power. The Cappadocians are cha- 
^teriied as a hardy and, ferdcipus people, exceedingly mean and ^thlen, 
1^ addicted lo every vice : they formed one of the three bad Kappas, the 
Setans and Cilicians being the other two. Many of the Roman slaves 
.... .. .. .,.....,. .. y^ 

fbwai also in 

89. In the Korth Eastern pail of Cappadgcia was the cit; of Cabira, con- 
)t4ning 3, famous lempie dedicated to the Moon; il was fortified and conii- 
ilerably increased by Mithridatei, who made it his residence till be was 
defeated near il in a great battle by Lucullus. When it fell into the hnitdl 
ti Pompey he called it Diopolis, a name which was again changed bj Py. 
ttpdoriif, the que^n dowager of Polemon, king of Poolus. for thai of Sebaste 
Sinv in honour of her protector, Au|uslus. iVlazaca, the nietropolia of 
Jl^tppadocia, was situated at the foot of Argsus M. and neoi: the sourte of 

" Agile, ile ad alia, Gallx, Cybeles nemora simul. 

Simul ite, Dindymens domina: vaga. pecoia. Calull. LXI1I. IS, 
'* Hence Horace Bayt, 

Mtacipiii locuples eget teris Cappadoci 

Jkih-lliRnor—eatid. 181 

Ae It; Melas Karaaou. It was also known by the title of Ensebia, bat was 
cifled Cffisairea ad Arganim by Tiberias, in nononr of Augustus, a nauM 
which it has preserved to the present day in that of Kasaria, To the W. of 
M*. Argaeus stood the little town Cybistra Karahissar, Hard by was the 
strong castle Nora or Neroassus Noury whither Eumenes, one of Alexan- 
der's best oflBcers, fled when defeated by his rival Antigonus, who, having 
bere besieged him for upwards of a year, at length gained possession of the 
place by treachery and put Eumenes to death. The city Garsaura, called 
afterwards Archeiais Ak Serais stood on the borders of Phrygia, in a dis- 
trict which from it was called Garsauritis. A little above it was Nanaor 
9iSy the birth-place of Gregory, one of the early fathers of the Church, who 
died A. i>. 389 : still higher up was Castabala Nigdehf famous for the 
temple of Diana Perasia, so called because brought over the sea. To the* 
S. of these, and at the foot of the Anti-Taurus, lay Tyana^^ Kiliss Uissar, 
SQj^posed to be the same with Dana, through which Cyrus passed on his 
way to Syria : it gave name to the district Tyanitis, and was also called 
Eusebia ad Taurum. To the S. of Tyana, and close to the source of the 
Cydnns, lay the Pyls Cilicie or Pass in M'. Taurus, through which the 
armies of the younger Cyrus and of Alexander entered Cihcia. At the 
source of the R. Sams Syhixm, stood Comana Bostan, sumamed Cappado* 
CIS to distinguish it froin the Comana of Pontus ; it was famed, like the 
latter, for its celebrated temple of Bellona or Diana Taurica, the service 
of which was performed by 6,000 ministers, governed by a chief priest. 
9oth th^ temples are said to have been built by Orestes, when he and Iphi- 
gtoia fled. into Asia Minor with the statue of Diana. 

40. The principal city of Armenia Minor was Melitene or Melita Mala^ 
tin, situated in a fertile district of the same name, so called, probably, from, 
the R. Melas Koremoi or Kartuou, which runs through it : this river rises 
on the Northern side of Mt. Argseus, and flows Eastward into the Euphrates. 
The city of Melitene derived its chief importance from the Romans, who 
here stationed the Legio XII Fulminatrix. To the Eastward of Melitene,. 
00 the Euphrates, was the Roman colony Ciaca ; higher up the river stood 
Sinerva SnarvieTf where Mithridates kept his treasures, and the place in 
which he took shelter when beaten by the Romans. Satala Arzim^an or 
Skaj^ranf was a fortress of considerable importance in the North Eastern 
extremity of the province, commanding the passage into Pontus ; not far off 
stood Nicopolis, built by Pompey on the spot where he first conquered 
Mithridates, near a city called Tephnce Devriki, 

41.. Carta. Returning to the South Western comer 
of the peninsula, we find the province of Caria. It was 
bounded on the N. by the R.. Maeander, on the W. by 
the JE^BJi Sea, and on the S. by the Mediterranean ; 
it touched to the N. on Lydia, to the E. on Phrygia and 
Lycia. It was the SQCond smallest province in Asia 
Minor. The Dorians, shortly after the siege of Troy, are 
said to have sent out a colony from Greece into the 
South Western part of Caria and its. neighbouring islands, 

■ I J I ■ ■ ■ I ■ ■ m • ■ • 

*^ Ostendit adhuc Tyaneius illic 

JiK»ia </e ge/nino vicinos corpore Iruncos. Odd. Met. "^^^-"v^-^* 

Wt Asia Minor — Caria. 

vriiere they cKtablished a defensive league. Their terri- 
fety here was called Doris *", and sometimes Hexapolis 
&om its nx principal citieSf HalicaruaseuB, Cnidus, Cos, 
liinduB, laWaus, and Cainirus, the three last being in the 
Mand of tlhodea, Caria was a fruitful conntry, and 
^jounded especially in figs which were hence called 
Caricce. The inhabitants were despised by the Greeks 
Jbr therr barbarous manners*'; they let themselves as 
auxiliaries to any nation that would pay them, and had 
«therwise so low a character, that the name of Corian 
Sgts synonymous with that of slave. 

^42. There were two great cities belonging to the loniaa league Id tbe 
jjprlb of Caria, viz. Myus and Alilelus. Myua Soruhim»T, situated al tbe 
^BieuUi of the MsBjider, aufieced such ioroads from tbe Hrec, ihal the sacicd 
^^Bels and relics of Lha cit^ were remaved to Alilelas, aad in vou in ibe 
^^inioaic assembly was tnmsrerred to the latter aly : Myoa was given to 
-Tfaeniistaclea by Artajceixes to supply bib table with meal. Miletua Paiatiti 
i^H to the 3. W. ttl Mjus. also oa ihe sea-shore, but the face of ibe cotu>- 
laa has been here so much changed by the alluvial deposit of the Masaadv, 
.yiat they aie noir both found considerably iolaod ; the Sinus Latznicus, w 
^tilled froni M'. Latinos whicb towered above it, haa disappeared and IflR 
tjDO trace of its eiiilence but a small inland lake. Mitetos was the metHh- 

tdis oC iDnio, and one of the most considerable cities in Asia Mioor; its 
habitants applied themselves earl^ to navigation, and are said to hit* 
jjbuncled no fewer tlian 3H0 colonies in differeat parts of the norld. Mileos 
was famed for its excellent wool. It was the birth-place of Tbales, aoe of 
Ogx seven contemporary wise men of Greece, and of his scholar Anaiiman- 
■)ta; ofPiltacus, anotW of the sages; of A naximenes, the malliematiciaB ; 
^ecatffius, the historian : and Timotheus (he musician. To the £■ of Mi- 
Metns rises M'. Lalmus, celebrated as the dwelling-place of Endyraioo, of 
''-wbora Diana (or the Moon) was so enamoured that she cams down bma 
cfceaven every night to enjoy his company ; a fable which pmbably amse 
,^111 his knowledge of astronomy, and his passing the night on Laanos la 
^olwerve the motions of the heavenly bodies ''. 

- 43, To the S. of Miletus, at lenmda, was a highly venerated temple of 
^Amllo Didymens. built by Branchus of Miletus, upon whom ApoIIa WM 

tM\d to have bestowed tbe gift of prophecy, and whose successors, Uie Bran- 
chidB, were iu hereditaiy piiesti; it possessed a famous oracle inferior only 
Id Delphi. The temple was plunden^d and burned by Xerxes, who cairied 
' away uie Braochids captive to Sogdiana, but the Milesians relmill it with 
increased grandeur. Lower down Ihecoaat of Caria stood lasius AMyn Kalt, 

" Tecum sub alii) (sic Jovi gralum) domo, 
Beate Miecenas, bibam, 
Sonante mittum tibiii carmen lyri, 

Hfic Dorium, illls Baibarumi Ilor. Epod, IX. 0. 

" Vaarijt ai ItapiDv ityijaaTa ^apjlapopiivi^v,— 

Hon. St. B. 86T. 
" LalmJui Eudyrriion non est Ubi, Luna, rubori ; — 

- Otii-i. AT.^m. Ill, 89. 

a wealthy city, which ^ve nftme to the Sinus XaMius G. ttf Ax^n KaXt\ «od 
llyodus GwUdMiu^ besieged in vain by Alexander. Halicamassus &M2- 
f0ani„ opposite the I. of Cos, was the largest and most beautiful city in 
Caria, and the metropolis of Doris until disunited from the league in coose- 
fDenoe of a dispute which todc place at one of their solemn festivals. It 
was the residence of the Carian kings, to one of whom, Mausolus, his oucen 
Artemisia raised such a magnificent sepulchre, that it was considerea one 
ef the Seven wonders of the world, and from it all splendid tombs were 
afterwards called Mausolea. Halicamassus was the birth-place of Hero- 
dotus, the father of history : of Dionysius Halicamassensis ; and of the phi- 
losopher Heraclitus. It stood on the JNorthem shore of Ceramicus Smus 
Cr. tf Cm, so called from Ceramus Keramo. On the Southern point of the 
gol^ nanoed Triopiom Pr. C. Krio, was the city Cnidus, celebrated for the 
worship of the Cnidian Venus'*^, whose temple was rendered famous by a 
marble statue of the goddess, which was considered the masterpiece of Praxi- 
teles. The gulf between Cnidus and the promontory Cynossema C. VoIm 
was called Ih>ridis Sinus G. of Symi. The coasts between it and the bor- 
den of Lycia belonged to the Rhodians, and obtained the name of Perca 
from tha word lekpav, owing to their lying beyond their island : its two chief 
cities were Physcus MarmaTa, and Caunus near Karagatch, To the N. of 
Caanaa in the interior of the country were, Stratonicea Edcihissar, and My* 
lasa M$Uuo, reckoned the most beautiful and important city in the interior 
of Caiia. In the Northern part of the province was Alabanda Arahhistar, 
situated on the banks of the rivulet Marsyas Tshina a tributary of the Ms- 
ander, and remarkable for the wealth and voluptuousness of its inhabitants. 
Farther Eastward on the borders of Phrygia stood Aphrodisias Gheira, sacred 
to VennSy which, in the later ages, was considered the metropolis of 

44. Lycia*® touched to the E. upon Pamphylia and 
Pisidia, to the N. upon Phrygia, and to the W. upon 
Caria; it was washed on the S. by the sea. It was the 
smallest amongst the provinces of Asia Minor ; and is 
first mentioned under the name of Milyas : its inhabitants 
the Solymi** were accounted aboriginal. The Lycians 
were admirable archers, and are much commended for 
their sobriety and love of justice ; their country was very 
mountainous but tolerably fertile, and famous for its 
cedars, which almost equalled those of Lebanon. 

45. In the Western part of the province was the sea-port town of Telmissus 
Maery, the inhabitants of which were famed for their skill in augury ; it 

*•' Nunc, O caeruleo creata ponto. 

Quae sanctum Idalium, Uriosque apertos, 

Quaeque Ancona, Cnidumque arundinosam, 

Colis, Catvil. XXXYI. ly 

^ Qualis, ubi hybemam Lyciam Xanthique fluenta 

Deserit, ac Delum matemam invisit Apollo, 

*' Atvrepov ai ZoXv/iOKri fiaxtlf^aro KviaXifioiffiv 

KaprtoTffv ^i) rrfv yt fidxtiy faro ^Vfccvac ^v^pwv. 


M4 Asia Minor — Pamphylia et Pisidia. 

Kfatmu to the Sinus Telmiuicus G. aj' Maery, called alio GtaUcui fn»n 
rivulet GIbucus which ruos into it. Pnrtlier Southwiud wax the woolf 
nvuntain Cia^s, one of the extremitiea of Taurus, liKcred (o Dianft, and 

Elite to il was Anti-Cragus. Belwten these two mountain? wM ibc 
Chimera'', which derived its name from the monster said u> hate 
■nbitued there tiy Bellerophon. Lower down wai the little lirer 
KindiDt*' Etckai-chay, on the banks of which stood Xantbns Senet, at DM 
filoe the capital of Ljcia. The inhabitants of this town, alter having bravely 
nrisled the attack made on them by the Romans under Brutus, set fiis'W 
their houses, and rushed into the flames with suoh abstinac;, that Drului; 
ttough he wished to save them, aad offered rewards to his troops for all IbM 
bey broug;ht alive to him, was only able to take 150 of them priwoeis. 
A little to the E. of the month of the XanthuB stood Palarii Fatara, the me- 
npilis of (he whole province, famous for a temple and oracle of Apollo, 
hence sumomed Palareus ; the goi was said to reside and give responKi 
NiE during the six winter months, the other aii being spent by him a< 
Delphi". Farther Eastward lay Mvra JIfifm, the port whence St. PanI 
nited in his first voyage to Rome, and Limyra Pbiiului. Abnve Sacrum Pt; 
C.KMidiaiia were (he toiras of Olympus Deliktash, and Pfaaselis Tdtrvtt, 
both destroyed by Servilius laauricuE for their piracy : the inhabitants of tlW' 
latter were oensurEd ftir their impiety in vootemptuously oliering only theil' 
Imallest fishes in sacrifice to the gods, whence arose the proverb " Pltai»li- 
tUDO) Sacrificium." Above Phaselia rises the lofty Solyma M. now TalMtt. 

46. Pamphylia and Pisidia were two districts separ 
rated by the range of M^. Taurus, the former lying alon^ 
the sea-shore, the latter in and beyond this great chain 
of mountains. They fonned but one province, tlie linuts 
pf which were exceedingly irregular ; it touched to the 
E. on Cilicia and Phrygia^to the N. and W. on the latter 
province and Lycia, and to the S. on tlie Mediterranean 
Sea. The Eastern part of the province was called 
^SAUHiA from the Isauri, a branch of the Pisidse ; they 
were a fierce and lawless set of robbers, who in con- 
junction with their neighbours the CiUcians, carried on 
a bold system of piracy till they were checked by the 
Tlomana under Servilius Isauricus^', and finally by 

^^ ITpwrov fiEV pa Xlftatpav djiaifiaKtr^v iiciXivffi ^^^^M 

Ili0viu(v' 4 i" ap' £ifv Siiov yEvoc, o6S' avSpii'irm', ^^^| 

UpdaSe Xiuiv, i'triStv It Spdtuiv, ptua^ ii x'fOipa, ^^^H 

&itv6v airoirviiauaa irvplis utfoc ai^nivaio. ^^H 

H.m. n. Z. l7fl.TT 

" PhcebcquiXanlholaviBamnecrines,— Hit, ' 

" qui Lyci« tenet 

Dumeta, natalemcjue silvam, 
Delias el Patareus Apollo. 
' ^trica riclorem de >e voent : alter Isauiai 
Anl Crelum domilas lest'ibeittui opei. 

iLAi'Minar^CiUeia^ IM 

4lh In te "Wwlenunmt part of Pamphylia properiy so calM wft» €U- 
mtx M. litUk Dt^9 a spar of l^P. Taunis on tbe borders of L^eia, to 
steep and to dose to the <ea that the army of Alexander, when enteriajf 
Pui}diylia by this roed» marched for nearly a whole day up to their middles 
m water. To the £• of it were Olbia, aiul Attaiia Adalia or SattUia ; the- 
litter, which was a much frequented port, was situated at the mouth of Ca« 
tuxhactes fl. DmUn, the only river of any consequence in the provinoe r 
this city has given name to the G. of Adalia the ancient Mare Pamphytium.. 
Farther Eastward was the little river Cestrus Aksoo, near the mouth •£ 
which stood Perga, famous for a magnificent temple of Diana hence tur* 
named Pergsaa. Attaiia and Perga were both visited by St. Paul during his 
hboars in Asia- Minor. Beyond this: was £ur3rmeclon fl. Kapriwo, near 
which tbe Persians were defeated both by sea and land in one day by the 
Athenians under Cimon, b. c. 470. Side £5^1 Adalia, to the Eastward of- 
the preceding, was especially sacred to Minerva, and was founded by an 
^lian colony from Cum a. Advancing inland to Pisidia, we come to Ter- 
BiessBS Scheriet, on the- borders of Lycia and Milyas ; and Selga, the greatest 
dty of Pisidia founded by the Lacedaemonians, and remarkable for the in- 
trepidity of its inhabitants, as well as for their sobriety and honesty. Above 
these, in the Northern part of the province, were Sagalassus Agla$(m, the 
inhabitants of which are said to have been tiie bravest of all the Pisidia ;. 
aod Cremna Kebrinaz a very strong place situated on an eminence. Bans, 
£uther North, is now Itbarta ;. and, above it, close on the borders of Phry* 
gia (to which it formerly belonged) was the important city Antiochia Pisi« 
WB, colonized by the Romans under Augustus, who made it the metropolis 
of their province Pisidia, and called it Csesarea. The district of Isauria xe- 
cdred this name from its chief town Isaura Bei Shehr, which was destroyed 
by tbe Romans under Publius Servilius hence surnamed Isauricus : in the 
age of Augustus, however, Amyntas,. king of Galatia, built the inhabitants 
a new city hence called Isaura Nova Sidi Shekr, where he himself took up 
hi^ residence. 

48, C I LI CI A was the South Easteramost province of 
A^ia Minor. It was bounded on the N. by the range of 
W, Taurus, on the E. by M*. Amanua, and on the S. by 
the Mediterranean Sea : to the E. it bordered on Syria, 
to the N. upon Cappadocia and Phrygia, and to the W. 
upon Pamphyha. It corresponds in a general way with 
the modem Turkish province Itshili, The Western part 
of CiUcia was called Cilicia Trachea, from the rugged 
nature of the country, and Isauria from the Isauri who 
broke into it : Cihcia Campestris or Propria was the 
Eastern portion of the province, and was much more level 
and fertile. The inhabitants of Cihcia Trachea were 
attacked for their piracies by the Romans under Pompey ; 
he soon reduced them to submission, and having declared 
the Eastern Cilicia a province of the Roman empire made 
Cicero proconsul of it. The Cilicians were bold and en- 
terprizing; their country was famous for \ta ^afixow^'^a 
well as wr its manufacture of hair-clolbi. 

JQ6 Asia Minor — C'ilicia. 

,. 41). la tbe W. part ol Cilicin Tracbea was ibe sea-port Iowa Coraceiium 
j4Jni|u, the great hoU oftlie Citiciaa piiaies, wbo were fuue totaily defeaLed 
Dj Paia[iej', lu c C7. Tatlhei EoBlwatd, alto on the coitst, waa Seliuu 
Siti'iiS E'>'"'S li^iac to tl>e district SeleDtis ; il was here tLat Trajan di«d> 
J, u. tl7, after whidi the city wat lot a time called TriJanDpulia. Lonec 
jjown tbe coast Blood the towa AoemuTiuni, on a protaonlorj of the ojna 
name, which is tlie most Southern point of Asia Minor ; h^ond il vnu Ce- 
lendens now ChefiniJr^A. In the Eastern part of Cilicia Trachea was the 
Mle riiec Calycailaua Ghivk, towards the mouth of which atood Seleud* 
Trachea Salefkth, which, when the Isauii gained possession of this district 
Cie; made their metropolis and called Isauria. A little below the mouth a( 
flit Cfllycadnns was Zephyrium Pr, C. iiiian e( Kahpah, between which 
and the opposite promontoty Ammodes Kariulath in Cilicia Propria was the 
SCare Cilicium. Towards the source of the Calycadnus was Homonadi 
Srmaiek, the haunt of a sol of robbers, who liied in caves and pillaged the 
■urrounding country ; below it itocxi Olba, 

' fiD. The most Western town of Cilicia Propria was Corycua Korglut, 
much celebrated for its salfron^ : a little above it wereseveml large cavemi, 
000 of which was called the Corycium Antrum ; and another, much farther 
Wbud, was fabled to hare been the resort of the monstrtius Titan, Typhoo. 
f arlhei E. lay the city Eleusa or Sebaite Ai/a^, and beyond it was Lana 
JtoiiU), on a river of the same name, in the district l^unotis or Laiiuat, 
SolMorSoli JfortJu, one of the principal towns of Cilicia Propria was i»- 
ported to have taken its name from Solon : it is said that the Greeks who 
■ettled here completely lost the purity oF their native language, owing to 
which the term Solcectsmus was afterwards applied to an incorrect or in- 
elegant expression. This circumstance is, however, applied by some to Soli 
ID Cyprus. It was here that Potopey established such of the pirates as had 
been admitted to a capitulation, after which the city was called Pompeiopo- 
>Sa. Farther Eastward was Anchiale Kamdimvar, said to have been butll 
< 'iy Sardanapalus in one day with Tarsus: here was his cenotaph, wilh aa 
. wsciiption adapted to the dissipation which distinguished the whole coune 
OThis life. B^ood this the little river Cydnus" Ttnoot runs iato the sea) 
ill waters were remarkably clear arid com, and nearly proved fatal to Alei- 
ander. who imprudently bathed in them when in a state of perspiration. 
Sut the Cydous is better known from Cleopatra's visit to Antony at TatBUS, 
^hen summoned tbilliEr by him to answer for the support which she had 
, given to the cause of Brulus ; she ascended the river in her elegant huge, 
with all the pomp and magnificence ofcaatern splenilour; a slratagom of 
her offended and ambitious beauty, which succeeded too well wilh IhB 
courteous Antony. The city of 'larsus Tsrswj, the metropolis of lh« pn>- 
vince, was not many miles up the riverj it is called I'arshish in the Bibk 
And is presnmed to have derived its name from Tarshish, the son ot Jsvan. 
l^us was famed at an early period for the expertuess of its seamen, who 
^Ipear to have built ships for some of their distant voyages of a larger aod 
■tronger make than the vcEsels ordinarily used in navigation ; hence thlpc 
ef large burden appear to be denoted in the Scriptures by the appellation 
" Ships of Tarshish." The whole of the Mediteiraneaa Sea seems to have 

*• Ulque solet patilar tods se efRmdere signis 

Coiycii presiuta croci, sic omnia membra 

Gmisere aimul rulilum pro sanguine virus. 

" JVec pudor est oculos lenui signaie favilla, 

Vel prope te nalo, luc'ide Cj4qe, etuco. 

Syria. IST 

B0tt tl one time ctnnprdieDded under the name of die Sea oflUliuh, 
frottg^ it is Tery nrobabie that this appellation was at first applied to the 
tea m the hnmediate Ticinity of Tarsus, or to that part of it which the pit>- 
fime writers distxnguith as the Mare Ciliciam. Tarsus was made a free 
celonj by the Grt&s, an honour which was granted to it by the Romans 
also ; and hence St. Paul, who was a native of the city, styles himself a 
free~boni Roman. 

5l« Adana Adana was to the Eastward of Tarsus, and stood on the right 
Bank of the Sams. The Pyramus Jyhoon is to the East of the Sams, and 
flows past Anazarbus Anzarba into the Mediterranean Sea at M alios : on its 
banks was Mopsuestia Messis, said to have been so called from being the re- 
fidenoe of Mopsus the diviner. The Pyramus is joined in the upper part 
of its course by the little river Carmalus, on which stood Cocusus Coesan, 
whither the great St. John Chrysostom, bishop of Constantinople, was 
banished for opposing the raising of a statue to the empress Eudoxia, wife 
of Arcmdius. issus Oseler was situated at the foot of M^ Amanus, and on 
the frontiers of Syria. It has been rendered famous by the second battle 
be t wee n Alexander the Great and the Persians under Darius, fought here, 
B. c. 938, in which the latter were defeated with terrible slaughter : in con- 
ie({iience of this victory Alexander built the neighbouring town Nicopolis. 
h was also the scene of another battle, in which the emp>eror Severas de- 
bated his rival Niger, a. d. 194. Issus gave name to Ussicus Sinus B. of 
Jthenderoen, which extends between Ammodes Pr. in Cilicia and Rhossicus 
Seopalni in Syria. 



1. SYRIA ^ Syria, or Sham as it is called by the 
natives, was bounded on the W. by the Mediterranean ; 
on the N. by M^. Amanus, and by M^ Taurus ; on the 
E- by the R. Euphrates and the Desert of Palmyra ; 
and on the S. by the R. Amon, the Dead Sea, and the 
Torrent of Egypt. To the N. it touched upon Asia Minor, 

' Syria was much commended for a particular kind of pear : hence Virgil 

— . ■ nee surculus idem 

Crustumiis, Syriisque pyris, gravibusque volemis. Georg, II. 88. 

It was, likewise, famed for its perfumes and spices ; but these were 
brought hither from Arabia and India, and were not mdigenous productions. 
Hence Horace : 

Cum quo morantem sspe diem mero 
Fregi, coronatus nitentes 
Ma7o2>atliro SjTio capillos. CaTm,'W,N\v%% 

. tS9 S^ria. 

tp.tlie £■ on Mesopotamia, and to the S. on Arabia and 
Egypt : it contained 55,300 sr^uare miles, and was divided 

nto the three great divisions of Syria Superior or Svrift 
tooperly 90 called, Phoenice, and Paiastina or JuQEeai 
Syria is also called Assyria, as forming part of thtt 

treat empire; and the two names, though sufficiently ( 
flefined in geography, are often used indiscriminately iu i 
history. n 

r. 2. The name of Syria, which is supposed lo have been derivfld from Sort i 
at Tyre, does not appeal lo have beea applied to the country natil this latj i 
bad risen to the preemiaence it enjoyed. Tiie old Gieeks called the ialuh' 
tutants of S^ria, Artneaia. and Mesopotamia, Arimiei oi Atimi ; a oune i 
wbich ihey douiillessly derived from Aram, oae of tha aona of Shem, U ) 
whose lot these couDtriea firet fell (with Ibe eiceplion of PhiEnice and Pa- , 
fesdne). From the hands of the Assyrians and IMeiles the whole of Syria ^ 
jell undet the Peisian joke, to which it remained lubject until wiested noia i 
^ by Alexander the Gteal, after whose death Seleucus Nicanor, one oC hs | 

Snerals, received this province as a pott of his lot in the division ol lll/f 
acedonian dominions ; he raised it b. r. 312 tji an empire, which is li^wra 
b hlatoiy as the Kingdom of Syria or Babylon. The Seleucids, or nC' i 
MSBoni of this prince, governed the country for more than 300 yesn,.ilai» | 
Ing which they contesled pajts of it with the Egyptians, the PaiSiians, and 
the Jews; the last of their race was Aotiochua Asialieus, who was de- 
IbroDcd by Pompey, a. c. 65, and from that time Syria became a RomaB 

3. The Western half of Syria is intersected with several 
wnges of hills, running for the most part parallel with 
the coast, and forming as it were a connecting chain be- 
tween M'. Taurus in Asia Minor, and M^ Sinai on the 
borders of the Red Sea. Amanus M.^^ Lokkam or Alma 
iDaghy ia a spur of the Taurus, which tenninates on the 
Coast of the Mediterranean a little ahove the mouth of 
tile Orontes. It forms two great passes leading into Asia 
Minor, viz. the Syrise Pylas Saggal Dowtan, and the 
Amanid^ Pylee near Bylan. On the Southern side of 
the Orontes, not far from its mouth, rises M'. Casius 
Ocral, which was said to be so lofty that from it the sun 
might be seen rising when the surrounding country was 
enveloped in darkness : on its summit stood the temple 
of Jupiter Casius. The ranges of Libanus and Anti- 
Libanus, mentioned in Scripture under the common ap- 
pellation of Lebanon, and so famous for the lat^e and 

' C.ijJptdoces, duri populus nunc eultor Am 

Stfria. fO« 

beautiftil cedars which the}r produced, still maintain theit 
names. M^. libanus terminates on the sea-coast a litde 
to the S. of Sidon, whilst the Anti-Libanus diverges from 
it between the sources of the Orontes and Leontes, and 
at the source of the Jordan divides into two ridges, one 
of which enters Arabia, the other joins the mountains of 
Gralilee and Judeea. M^. Carmel or Carmelus Carmely is 
a spur of the Anti-Libanus on the borders of Judaea and 
Phoenice, which terminates on the Mediterranean Sea in 
Caimelum Pr, C, Carmel; it is celebrated for the miracle 
wrought there by Elijah, and was a favourite residence 
of Pythagoras the philosopher. 

4. The three great rivers of Syria are, the Orontes in 

the North, the Leontes in the centre, and the Jordanes 

or Jordan in the South. Of these the Orontes^ is much 

the longest ; it rises in the angle formed by the Libanus 

and Anti-Libanus, and enters the Mediterranean opposite 

the Isleuid of Cyprus. It is a rapid and troubled river, 

and is said to have been formerly called Typhon : it was 

also, named Axius by the Macedonians after the great 

river of their own country, an appellation which it still 

preserves in that of Aaszy. The Leontes Liettani rises 

in M*. Libanus not far from the preceding, and flows 

South Westward into the Mediterranean between Tyre 

and Sidon. The Jordanes Orden or Sherya rises in a 

little lake, which, owing to its round figure, was called 

Phiala from the Greek word ^taXi? pkiala, and lies on 

that part of Anti-Libanus which is named M^^ Hermon : 

hence it flows through Samachonites L, Hoolya, which 

is thought to be the same with the waters of Merom 

mentioned in the Bible, and subsequently enters the 

Lake of Gennesareth or Cinereth, which was also called 

the Sea of Tiberias or of Galilee L. of Tabaria, The 

Jordan after leaving this lake flows through a spacious 

valley called Anion or Magnus Campus £1 Ghor, until 

it is lost in the Lacus Asphaltites, which was also known 

by the names of Mare Mortuum and Salsum Sahr Louty 

Al'Motana^ or Dead Sea. The fertile Vale of Siddim, 

' Jam pridem Synis in Tibeiim defluxit Orontes 

HSO Syria — Syria Superior. 

■emarkable in Holy Writ for the battle of tiie four kings 
^th five, is said by the Sacred Historian to be the same 
^th the Salt Sea ; and from its being stated in the 
Same place that the Vale was well watered, previous to 
Ae Divine Vengeaoce overtaking the wicked cities which 
stood in it, it has been surmised that the Jordan flowed 
brther Southward, and emptied itself into that arm of 
the Red Sea which is called the jElanitic Gulf. The vale 
(rf Siddim centred five principal cities, viz. Sodom, 
Gomorrhah, Admah, Zeboim, and Bela, of which the first 
four were overwhelmed by the judgment of God, Bela 
being spared at the entreaty of Lot who fled hitba 
from Sodom. 

5. Syria properly so called was divided into Syria 
Superior and Ccele-byria, the latter of which desi^ated 
a small tract of country about M'. Lebanon and the 
Traclionitis, on the borders of Phcenice, Judaea, and 

6. The firat town on Ae coast of Syria, below Issui in Asia Minor, «ai 
BuiE Bayfla, a lUtte S. ol wbich waa Aleiaodria id luuni iiJundfrDnn, boilt 
in honoar of Alexander the Great. Lower down, near the mouth of iIh 
OrOQles, stood Seleucia ad Mere Smuadia, Eurnamed also Pieria from it! 
ritnation at tbe Iboi of Pieria M. ; it i^as one of tbe cities founded by Selra- 
em Nicaaor, and mi. an exceedingly strong place. Farther Sou tbwaid wu 
laodicea Ad Mare Ludkeyah, one of ihe four principal cities of the connUji 
Dotttbella, the governor of Syria, was here besieged by his rival Casihu, 
■nd finding no hopes of safely laid ciolent hands on himself. About 90 
Vika up the Oconlea stood Antiochia or Antioch, now called AntiMa ; it 
TCt founded by Selencus Nicanor, who naoied it aSler bis falber. It «W 
BMonly tbe capital ofSyria but of all Asia, and was once the third tntyin. 
Ab vorld for beauty, site, and populatioii : it was the royal teat of tliel^' 
liln lungs, and alter tbe Roman conquest il became the ordinary residniM 
of tbe prefect or governor of the Eastern provinces. It was here ihll the 
&ciple5 of Christ first received the name of Christians, ». n. 39, having 
been before commonly called Naiarene: and Galilieans : it was t)te birtb- 
placa of HL LuWe the Kvan^lisl, and was called in the middle ages Tben- 
polis. It was sumamed ad Orontem from the river on which it stood; and 
td DaphoEu from the uElgbbouring grove Daphne' Doue'r. This grove 
•U said tn the mythology of tbe GTeeics, to be the scene of Daphne's meta- 
norpbosig when pureuea by Apollo : it ntaa a delightftil place, but becaiM 
kt last devoted to voluptuousness and the must in^mous dissipation, benca 
^ proverb " Daphnici mores." 

7. Higher up the Orontes stood Seleucia ad Belum Shagr; and above it, 
an (he left bonlc of Ihe river, was Apamia Kalaat d Mrdi/k, Tbe lattei 

Of Daphne Itv Orontes,— MUwh, Par. Loit.^w^lV 


Syria-^Syrin Superior, 101 

«M irandsd by Antigoniu, who cdled it Pella after the famous city of that 
atme in Macedonia; but Seleucus afterwards improved it, and named it 
Apamia in honour of his consort ; it was a place of such plenty that Seleu- 
ettt made it the great dep6t of his army, and kept in it 500 elephants. To 
the S. of Apamia, likewise on the Orontes, stood £piphania, the Hamath of 
die Scriptures, which is still called Hamah ; and some distance above it was 
fittesa Horns, famous for a splendid temple of the Sun, whose priest Helio- 
giybalns, though only 14 years of age, was invested with the imperial purple 
Of the Roman soldieiy, a. d. 218, and after an infamous reign of nearly four 
nars, was put to death. Emesa was famed for the fatal defeat which 
unobia, queen of Palmyra, suffered near it from the emperor Aureliao 
dnrtly before she was taken prisoner by him. To the W. of it, at the foot 
of M*. Libanus, lay the district Laodicene, the chief town of which was 
Liodioea Jaiuehiali, sumamed ad Libanum and Scabiosa. To the N. £. of 
Antioch, in the interior of the country, was Cyrrhus Corus, the capital of the 
dteict Cyrrfaestica : so called by the Macedonians after a people in their 
•wn country, although it is fabled by some to have been named after Cyrus, 
who foundcKl it and settled certain Jews there after their return from cap- 
Inity. About midway between Antioch and the Euphrates lay Chalybon 
Hifaft or AUppOf the name of which was changed to Beroea when it fieli 
into the hands of the Macedonians : it stood in the district Chalybonitis, 
md on the banks of the R. Chalos Caich, the fish of which were considered 
gods by the Syrians, who would not suffer them to be injured. This river 
Inninates a little to the S. of Aleppo in a small sea, on the banks of which 
Mood Chalcis Kinefrin, the capital of the district Chalcidice. 

8. Advancing into the N. of Syria we meet with the district of Comma- 
gene, extending between M^. Amanus and the Euphrates, which has left its 
lune in the modem Kamask. Its capital and the residence of its kings was 
Sunosata Samisat, a strong city on the right bank of the Euphrates, cele« 
kated as the birth-place of Lucian. To the Westward of Samosata, and 
dose on the territory of the Eleuthero- Cilices, lay Pindenissus, which was 
fden by Cicero, after a si^ of 25 days, when he was proconsul of Cilicia. 
flirther Southward on the Euphrates was Zeugma ^ where as the name im- 
ports, was a bridge over the river : this bridge was composed of boats fas- 
tened together by iron chains, and was constructed by Seleucus Nicanor, 
who fortified it strongly at both ends ; the castle on the Eastern side in 
KcBopotamia was c^ied Apamia or Birtha Bir. Zeugma was for some 
time the boundary of the Roman empire in this direction. To the S. of 
Zeugma, and at a little distance from the Euphrates, was Bambyce, or Ma- 
kog as it was called by the Syrians, and now known as Bun^xmch or Mam' 
W^ : it was sacred to the Syrian goddess Atargatis (Venus), and from this 
dreumstance the town was called Hierapolis when it fell into the hands of 
die Macedonians. Batnse Adenahf not far from Hierapolis, was such an 
agreeable and elegant place, as to vie with the allurements of Daphne : 
lowOT down on the Euphrates were. Sura Surieh, and Zenobia Zelebi, a 
edony of the famous Queen of Palmyra. To the Westward of these, in an 
extensive plain named Barbaricus Campus Siffin, stood Resafa Resafa, the 
Bezeph of the Scriptures, taken by Sennacherib king of Assyria. To the 
3. of Zenobia, in the Eastern part of Syria, was Thapsacus Der^ called 
Tiphsah in the Bible, from which to Gaza on the Mediterranean and to 
^ ■■ » ■ . .... ... - II 1^ 

* Tot meritis obstricta meis, nunc Parthia ruptis 
Excedat claustris vetitam per secula ripam, 
Zeugmaque PellsBum, lAican»N\XV%^'W % 

1 M Syria — Coele-Syria. 

£lath oa the Red Sea, the whole country was under the doniBum of 60I0- 
mon : when it fell into the hands of Seleucus Nicanor he changed its name 
to Amphipolis. There was a great ford of the Euphrates here, which is 
celebrated in history by the crossing of three great armies : first, by Cy- 
rus, in his expedition against Artaxerxes b. c. 401 ; subsequently by Darius, 
when defeated at Issus b. c. 333 ; and three years afterwards by Alexander* 
in pursuit of him, previous to the decisive battle of ArbeU. Below tbn 
lay Auzara Osara, and Oruros Gorurf which last was settled by Pompey 
as the frontier town of the Roman empire in this direction. 

9. Palmyra Tadmar was in the South Eastern part of Syria, on the bor- 
ders of Arabia and midway between Damascus and the Euphrates ; it gave 
name to the district Palmyrene, and to the Palmyrena Sohtudo, which was 
a part of that immense desert commencing in Syria and extending over the 
greater part of Arabia. Palmyra is the samo^ith Tadmor in the Wilde^ 
ness, mentioned in Holy Writ as having been founded by king Solomon : 
both names are derived from the jmlni'trea, with which the city was sur- 
rounded. It arrived at but little importance till after the conquest of Syria 
by the Romans, subsequent to which it rose to great wealth and power : but 
the ambition and warlike spirit of its queen, Zenobia, at last provided the 
jealousy of Aurclian, who defeated her in two hardly fought battles, and having 
laid siege to Palmyra summoned her to submission. His summons was an- 
swered by a letter of defiance from her mimsier and secretary, Longiaus, 
the well-known author of the treatise on the sublime, which so inckised 
Aurclian, that after ho had made himself master of the city, he ordered 
Longinus to be put to death. Zenobia herself was carried away captive to 
Italy, A. D. 273, and the city was subsequently totally destroyed. 

10. Advancing intoCaiLE-SyniA, we find Heliopolis Eaai^ec near the source 
of the R. Leontes ; it was celebrated for its worship of the Sun, and for its 
splendid temple said to have been built by Antoninus Pius. To the b. of it 
lay the Tetrarchy of Abilene, tlie chief town of which was Abila Lysanis iV^«frt 
Abel so called from its ruler Lysanias. Upon the death of Herod the Great, 
kis kingdom was divided into four governments, hence called Tetrarchies 
•from the Greek words rerpa quatuor and dpxv imperium. These were Uie 
tetrarchy of Galilee, belonging to Herod Antipas ; the tetrarchy of Ituras 
and Trachonitis, belonging to his brother Philip ; the tetrarchy of Abikne, 
belonging to Lysanias ; and the tetrarchy of Judaea, Samaria, and Idumsa, 
which Archelaus, Herod's eldest son, governed with the title of king till be 
was displaced, and his dominions made a province of the Roman En^iie 
governed by Pontius Pilate at the time of our Saviour's crucifixion. T» 
the S. of Abilene, in the district of Damascene, stood the impoitant dtj 
Damascus^ Damascus or 5/iam, the metropolis of Coele-Syria. It was once 
the capital of Syria and the residence of its kings, but it was subsequentlv 
raised into a separate kingdom. It is situated on the R, Btarrada, which 
from its fertilizing waters was called by the Greeks Chrysorrhoas, but by 
the Syrians, Bardines and Phaipar ; it runs into the lake now known as 
Bohr el Margi or L. of the Meadows, as does also the Abana or Berde, To 
the S. of Damascus were the Trachones JVK KhiarOf giving name to the 
district Trachonitis, which upon the death of Herod the Great was united 
with Ituraea'' into one tetrarchy. The district Auranitis, which still {ffe- 

• Accedunt Syriae populi, desertus Orontes, 
Et felix, sic fama, Nines : ventosa Damascos, — Lucan, III. 21^- 
^ The inhabitants of Iturasa were admirable archers : hence Virgil : 

■ Ituraeos taxi torquentur in arcus : — Georg. IL 448. 

.Sjfria — Pkcenice. 193 

its namt in that of Hmtmran, was to the S. of Itonea ; its chief cities 
weie Dium DAmniM, and Bozrah or Bostra Battra, the latter of which was 
Buch celebrated for its vineyards, and was afterwards included in the limits 
4if Arabia, the boundary between the two countries being formed by Alsa- 
Amus M. KM Haouran. Still farther to the Southward, and immediately 
E. of Pensa, was Ammonitis, so named from its chief city Ammon or Phi- 
Uelplua which is still called Awtman, 

11. Phcenice, or Phcenicia as it is sometimes called, 
was a small tract of comitry between M^ Libanus and 
the Sea, corresponding with the modern Pachalic of 
Acre and the Southern part of the Pachalic of Tripoli ; 
it extended from the R. (Jherseus on the South, to beyond 
Aradus on the North, though its limits in the latter di- 
rection were subsequently formed by the R. Eleutherus. 
To the N. and E. it touched upon Syria, to the S. upon 
Palestine ; it was nearly the same in size as the Island 
of Cyprus, and contained 2,900 square miles. The 
Phoemcians were descendants of Canaan, and from their 
not having been driven out by the Children of Israel, 
their country preserved the name of Canaan much longer 
than the other portions of it, which were better inhabited 
by the Israelites: the more inland part of Phoenicia 
touching upon Syria was termed Syro-Phoenicia. They 
were the early merchants of the world «, having sent out 
colonies to all parts of the Mediterranean, and ventured 
beyond the straits of Gibraltar to the Cassiterides and 
to the Western coasts of Africa. They were the first 
who invented arithmetic and steered their ships by the 
stars^; and according to the Greeks, Cadmus, a Phoeni- 
cian, was the inventor of letters : so great indeed was 
their fame that the temple of Solomon, the most magni- 
ficent building mentioned in the Holy Scriptures, was 
raised under me direction of Tyrian artists. 

13. The most Northern city in Phoenice, and one of its three principal 
placea, was Aradus Rvad, situated on an island only seven stadia m circuit 
and twenty distant from the coast. It is said to have been originally founded 
hy fugitives from Sidon, and is supposed to be the same with Arvad, the 
eoontiy of the Arvadites, mentioned in the Old Testament. Eleutherus fl. 
Nafcr el Kebir, a few miles to the S. of Aradus, was considered in the latter 

TptoKrait fivpi' dyovreQ d^vpfiara vrit fiiXaivy, Horn, Od, O. 414. 
* Queritis et coelo Phcenicum inveota sereno, 
Quae sit stella homini commoda, qusque mala. 

PT<ypeTl,W» TLv,^, 


194 Syria — Phcsnice. 

ages as the boandaiy of Ph<»iuce in this dileetion : belo# it Wtf Sabbatnili 
fl. Abmht 80 called on account of its waters punning th^ eo«ne for wtK 
days but failing on the seventh ; it was the boandaiy of Agrippa's domiidofi 
in this quarter. A little farther Southward stood Area Cesaria Area, the 
birth-place of Alexander Severus, and Tripolis Trtpoti, so called in oodm- 
quence of its having been built by the people of the thr§9 dHn Tjn, SidoB, 
and Aradus, for the convenience of there assembling the several federal 
bodies of Phoenice, for the discussion of such matters as lehUed to tbi 
whole country. Farther Southward were Calamos CaUamont; the pramon- 
tory Theouprosopon C. Madonna, famed as the lurking-plaoe of a set ^ 
robbers, who were routed out by Pompey ; Botiys Bu^wm, so old thatit 
was said to have been built by Saturn ; and Byblos jy^baU, saoed to 
Adonis. The last mentioned place was not fax from the month of Adonia fl. 
Ibrahim : on the anniversary of the death of Adonis, who was killed by a 
wild boar on the neighbouring Mt. libanus, the waters of this liver Witoe 
said to be tinged with red, owmg as it was fancied to his wounds bleeduig 
afresh '^ but actually to the oclurous earth which during the rainy seoMii 
rolled down from the mountains. Farther Southward were the K« Lycos 
Nahr el Kelt; and Berytus Beirout, which the Romans nnd«r Agnppa 
raised to the rank of a colony with the title of Felix Julia. 

13. In the Southern part of Phcenice was Sidon, or Zidon as it is called 
in the Bible, Sayda, the most ancient place in the country and the greatest 
maritime ci^ in the ancient world : it is thought to have taken its Qami 
from Sidon, the first-born of Canaan. It rose to a high ]^tch of power aid 
splendour through the ingenuity and industiy of its inhabitants*^, whofeik 
dered themselves very famous by their manufactures of glass and fine linen", 
and working of metals, as well as by their purple dye. It was not fbztifiBd^ 
as Tyre was, and therefore always fell a prey to every invado* : the iB^ 
rounding district was named Sidonis, whence Queen Dido, who was a m^ 
tive of it, is not unfrequently called Sidonia. A little lower down on the 
coast stood Sarepta Sai^end, famous as being the place whence the n^ytlM* 
legists represent Jupiter to have carried away Europa to Crete. Saiqpca ■ 
the same with Zarephath of the Scriptures ^ it was the place to which Eigth 
was sent to dwell after quitting the banks of the brodL Cherith, and was the 
scene of some of his miracles. 

14. Crossing the R. Leontes we come to Tyrus*^ or Sarra^S called by 

** ■ Thammuz came next behind. 

Whose annual wound in Lebanon allured 
The Sjrrian damsels to lament his fate 
In amorous ditties all a summer's day ; 
While smooth Adonis from his native rock 
Ran purple to the sea, supposed with blood 
Of Thammuz yearly wounded. Milton, Par.Xott, Book L 440* 

** Non qui Sidonio contendere callidus ostro 

Nescit Aquinatem pottania vellera fucum, — Hor, Epitt, L !• 96. 

^' *Ev^* icav oi irBirXoi irauiroiKiXoi, epya yvvaiK&y 
^iSovitov, rdg avrbg 'AXsKavdpOQ Btoeidirjic 
"Hyaye Si^ovtq^ev, Horn. IL Z. 289. 

13 Fluctibus ambitae fuerant Antissa, Phaiosque, 
Kt Phoenissa Tyrus : quarum nunc insula nulla est. 

Ovid, Met. XV. 288. 
^* Ut gemmk bibat, et Sarrano indormiat ostro. Virg. Gtorg, il. 506. 

Cypnu L 195 

tke-Uftbraiwi Sor and uom Sotr ; it ww a colony of SidoD, whenca it is styled 
iaiScriptare her danghtar. It became in process of time a very large, rich, 
iid popnlmia dir, powerfel at sea, and the rival of Sidon ; its inhabitants 
jiare ffuned fiar uieir wiealtb and extensive commerce^, as well as for their 
muraiactates of fine linen and their beautiful purple dye*'. It was governed 
l^.its own kinga until it was attacked by Nebuchadneszar, when after a dif- 
icalt ntgjb of II yean it was taken by assault and razed to the ground, as 
tud beat. predicted by the prophets Isaiah and £zekiel. The blockade of 
yWmchadneiMr being incomplete owing to his want of a navy, the ioha- 
hitants of TvFQ, ianaaoDg what must happen, removed their valuable effects 
iMo a amall bland only three stadia from the shore. The ruins of the old 
•^ obtained Che name of Pale Tyrus, and stood on the known as 
4ai«f -^Iw* The new dty, which they built on this island, increased in 
fi§fn\j and importance until it was attacked by Alexander, who took it and 
jpwrri it, B.C 132, after a hard siege of seven months, having connected 
ikt ialand with the mainland by a causeway. Both this second capture of 
i|.lgr AleTander, and the extraordinary mode in which it was accomplished, 
9nn likewise foretold in Holy Writ. Tyre recovered from this second de- 
MlatioB, and retained its strength and nee government both under the Sy- 
imns and Romans, being raised by. the latter in the time of the emperor 
gevems to the rank of a colony. 

• Vim Farther Southward was Ecdippa, the same with the Achzib of the 
8eript«iea» still called Zikm Below it was Aco or Accho Acre, called by the 
Qmi» Ace, and subsequently named Ftolemais from one of the Egyptian 
Hl^ who had for some time possession of Southern Syria. It stood at the 
Bonth of the little R. Bales Naanumy, which furnished the best sand for 
the mannfibcture of glass, and is said to have been the place where it was 
int invented. FarUier Southward is the R. Kison or Kishon Mukatta, 
shieh rises in M^ Tabor ; it was the scene of a great battle, fought between 
Ae laraelites under Deborah and Barak, and the Canaanites under Sisera, 
Md the place where the priests of Baal were put to death by command of 
.B^ah. Lower down, on the declivity of M'. Carmel, stood Ecbatana, 
vhtre Canabyses, king of Persia died, having as it is said been foretold that 
Sebatana should be fatal to him, which he had understood of the great city 
in Media, and avoided it accordingly. 

16. Cyprus. The island ofCyprus, which still retains 
its name^ lay to the W. of Phcenice and to the S. of Ci- 
lida in Asia Minor ; the channel by which it is separated 
from the latter was known as the Anion Cihcius. Cyprus 
contains 3^000 square miles, and is the second island in 
size in the Mediterranean Sea, Sicily being the first. It 
is celebrated in mythology for the birth of Venus, hence 
called Cypris, to whom the whole island was especially 
consecrated ^7. 

*• Ne Cypriaa Tyriaeque merces 

Addant avaro divitias mari. Hor, Carm, III. xxix. 60. 

^^ Ille caput flavum lauro Pamaside vinctus 

Verrit humum, Tjrrio saturate murice pall&. Ooid. Met, XI. 166. 

" Ilia PapboD genuit : de quo tenet ins\i\a nomen. Id^'^^'iSn « 


196 Cypvm L 

17. On the Northern coast of Cyprus* near the pramoatoi^ Acamaft 
stood Arsinoe Foil Ckrisofcm, and near it was iBpea» an Athenian colony, 
which was visited hy Solon when in banishment here ; he persuaded the 
kin^ of it to remove to a more commodious situation lower down the river, 
which he accordingly did, calling his new city Soloe SogUa after Solon, 
"the inhabitants of this place so far forgot the purity and elegance of their 
language as to express themselves very incorrectly, whence an incorrect 
expression is called a Solcecismus. Farther Eastward were Lapethus La* 
jntho, Cerynia Ctrina, and Carpasia Carpass, On the Eastern coast of 
Cyprus was its capital city Salamis, said ,to have been built by Teucer, 
B. c. 1270, when expelled from Salamis, and to have been so called after 
his native island ^^. During the reign of Constantius an earthquake com- 
pletely destroyed the city and killed most of its inhabitants ; it was, how- 
ever, restored by the empercKr, who called it Constantia Cottansa, Salamis 
was especially sacred to Venus, hence surnamed Salaminia. A little farther 
Southward was Arsinoe, which afterwards changed its name to Ammochos- 
tos or Famagosta, now one of the chief cities of the island. Below these, on 
the Southern coast of Cyprus, was Citium Chiti on the shores of Citius Sims 
G. of Salines ; it was the birth-place ot the philosopher Zeno, and in it 
Cimon died during his campaign against the islanders. 

18. Farther Westward stood Amathus Old Limesol, a very ancient plaee, 
especially sacred to Venus, hence surnamed Amathusia''. The city of 
Pals Paphos or Old Paphos CouncUa was near the South Western point oi 
the islana, and was celebrated for its beautiful temple of Venus *^ bnilt on 
the spot where she landed when she rose from the sea: there were IM 
altars in her temple, which smoked daily with a profusion of frankinceBii^ 
and though exposed to the open air they were never wetted by the rain, A 
few miles to the Northward of this lay New Paphos Baffa, or Paphos pro- 
perly so called ; it was formerly named Eiythre, and possessed several 
beautiful temples of Venus. It suffered much from earthquakes, and was 
nearly destroyed by one during the reign of Augustus, who rebuilt the dty 
and commanded it to be called Augusta. In the interior of the coniktiy 
was Tamasea or Tamassus PitcopiOf famous for its extensive mines m 
copper'* : it was on the banks of the R. Pedsus Fedia, near Leucosia 

" r: Teucer Salamina patremque 

Cum fiigeret, tamen uda Lyseo 
Tcmpora popule^ fertur vinxisse coron^. 

Sic tristes affatus amicos : 
Quo nos cumque ieret melior fortuna parente, 

Ibimus, socii comitesque. 
Nil desperandum Teucro duce, et auspice Teucro; 

Certus enim promisit Apollo, 
Ambiguam tiallure nov& Salamina futuram. Hor. Conn. I. vii. 29. 

'* "^st Amathus, est celsa mihi paphos, atque Cythera, 
Idaliaeque domus : Virg. JEn, X. 51. 

^ Ipsa Paphum sublimis adit, sedesque revisit 
I..8Bta suas : ubi templum illi, centumque SabvBO 
Thure calent ar^e, sertisque recentibus halant. Id, I. 415. 

'* Est ager, indigene Tamasenum nomine dicunt ; 
I'elluris Cyprife pars optima : quern mihi prisci 
iracravere senes : temptisque accedere dotem 
JJanc jussere meis :-*— » (hid. Met. X. 644 

Pakestijui vel JtidcM. 107 

Kteotjtf. Haid ly were, IdaKum Dalin, with a grove sacred to Venui who 
is hence sumamed Idalie ; and Cythrs or Cythera Citria, which was also 
a favourite residence of the goddess, hut must not be confounded with the 
island of that name off the Southern extremity of the Peloponnesus. 



!• PALJESTINA was washed on the W. by the Me- 
diterraneaDy or Great Sea as it is called in the Bible : to 
the N« it touched upon Phoenice and Syria, to the E, and 
S. upon the latter country and Arabia Petreea. It was 
separated from Egypt by a little river called the Torrent 
ot Egypt, It was aoout half as large again as the prin- 
cipality of WaleSy and contained 7>900 square miles, or 
300 more than Sicily. 

2. Upon the dispersion of mankind the country lying 
at the South Eastern extremity of the Mediterranean, 
from Sidon to Oaza, fell to the lot of Canaan, and is 
therefore in Scripture called The Land of Canaan ; it is 
also called The Land of Promise and The Land of Israel, 
from Almighty God having given it as an inheritance to 
the Children of Israel. The name of Palsestina was de- 
rived from the Philistines, who dwelled in a part of it 
bordering upon Egypt ; and who, though they were sub- 
jected by David, and some of his successors, became 
afterwards so powerfril as to furnish the Greek and Latin 
writers^, as well as the neighbouring people, with a 

?eneral appellation for the whole country. The name of 
udah or Judsea was first applied to the Southern part 
of Palestine when ten of the twelve tribes revolted nrom 
the house of David, and erected themselves into a distinct 
kingdom under the title of the Kingdom of Israel ; the 

et dubia est, de te, Babylonia, narret. 

Derceti, quam vers^ squamis velantibus artus 
Stagna Palaestini credunt celebrasse figure. Ovid, Met, IV. 46. 

K 3 

198 Pal/Bstina vel Judeea. 

two remaining tribes, viz. Judah and Benjamin, being 
then comprehended under the title of the Kin^om <h 
Judah : after the return of the Jews from the Babylcmish 
captivity the name of Judsea was extended to the whole 
country, or at least to all parts of it inhabited by the 
Jews. The name of the Holy Land is applied to it by us 
Christians in nearly all the languages of Europe^ chiefly 
and eminently from its Jiaving been the residence of our 
Blessed Saviour, and the scene of His sufferings. 

S. The nation of Canaan was diTided into several families ; viz. the Sklo- 
nians, Hittites, Jebusites, Amorites, Gifgasites, Hivites, ArkiteSy Siniteiy Ar- 
vadites, Zemarites, and Hamathites. These Abraham found in the land wbtn 
hn left his own country, b. c. 1927, to come and sojourn here ; and hera his 
descendants remained for more than 200 years, till Jacob went down with his 
sons into Epypt. The Israelites left Egypt b. c. 1497, and after wanderiMfinr 
forty years m the wiUemess, two tribes and a half of them were settled £. of 
the Jordan by Moses, who died shortly afterwards:, the ramauuBg aine 
tribes and a half crossed over the river under the conduct of Joshua* and, 
after six years of successful fighting against the Canaanites, divided llMir 
land amongst them. The two tribes and a half who settled £• .oi Jmdsuk 
between the R. Amon and Mt. Hermon, were Reuben, Gad, and tktlMlf- 
tribe of Manasseh. Reuben touched to the E. on Arabia Petrea, ta thelS. 
on the Moabites, and to the N. on Gad : the latter tribe bordered to the £. 
on the Ammonites, and to the N. upon the half- tribe of Manasseh, whkh 
again extended to Mt. Hermon and the source of the Jordan. Tbft Sooih 
em part of the country between the Dead Sea and the Mediterranean, fran 
the Torrent of Egypt to Jabneel, was at first allotted to the tribe of Ja- 
dah : but as it was subsequently found that this was too much for theii^ the 
Western part of it was given to the tribes of Simeon and Dan : Judah then- 
fore bordered to the S. upon Edom, to the W. upon Simeon and Dan, and 
to the N. upon Benjamin. The last mentioned tribe, which contned 
-within its limits the city of Jerusalem, touched to the £. on a small Mit 
of the Jordan, and to the W. upon Dan. To the N. of these, extenobg 
ftwa the Jordan to the Sea, was the inheritance of the tribe of Ephnin; 
and beyond it, between the same limits, was the half-tribe of MiinMMiih 
Issachar lay to the N. of the lattef, between the Jordan and the Kison : smI 
above it, touching upon the sea of Gennesareth, lay the inheritance of Ze- 
bulun. The tribe of Asher inhabited part of Phoenice from Zidon to Mt. 
Carmel, and touched to the E. upon Naphtali ; the latter tribe extended as 
for as the springs of the Jordan on the E^ and to the limits of Zebulnn on 
the South. 

4. Upon the death of Joshua, the Israelites were governed by Elden and 
Judges, the last of whom was Samuel, when the people becoming ckuBor- 
ous for a king, Samuel anointed Saul king over them, b. c. 1102. Upon 
the death of Solomon b. c. 982, the kingdom was divided ; Rehoboam hb 
son being chosen by the tribes Judah and Benjamin, and Jeroboam bj the 
remaining ten tribes : the former was henceforward called The Kinedom of 
Judah, the latter The Kingdom of Israel. The two kingdoms mamtuned 
their freedom for many years, but at last the king of Assyria invaded Israel, 

JPaloiiina vel Jydma. 1 00 

and baTuig besieged Samaria for three yean, reduced it to ashes ; such of 
the inhalHtants as sanived the dreadful carnage which ensued, were carried 
awajT captive into Assyria b.c. 729, and the lungdom of Israel was now at 
aa end. After this Judah also was attacked by Nebuchadnezzar, who hav- 
ii^ tyrannized over the people for some years, at last levelled Jerusalem 
with the ground, carried away the inhabitants to Babylon, and thus put an 
end to the kingdom of Judah, 606 years b. c. When Cyrus became king of 
Persia he permitted all the Jews to return to their own land, but from the 
lengdk of their captivity only a few, comparatively speaking, did so : these 
Ivere principally from the tribes of Judah and Levi, and having settled in 
the country round Jerusalem, the Southern part of Palestine was from them 
lienceforth called Judsa. To the N. of them sate a mixed race of people, 
the descendants of those who had been casually left behind in the great cap- 
lmty» and had been joined by the idolatrous natives of the surrounding dis- 
tricts as well as by colonies from the Assyrian monarchy : thus forming a 
aatiDn half Jewish and half heathen. They were called Samaritans from 
their dwelling round the old capital of the Kingdom of Israel ; and were 
looked upon by the Jews as so impure that they had no dealings with each 

f • After this Palestine fell into the hands of Alexander the Great, and 
nbsequently into that of his ambitious successors, the kings of Syria, who 
MBroised such tyranny over the Jews, that they revolted, and under their 
Meral Judas Maccabaeus gained their freedom. The Jews now raised 
ttODMslvesup a king, b. c. 107, but his successors, having quarrelled amongst 
themaeivesy referred the matter to Pompey who was then in Asia. The 
Bomaa general being irritated by the disrespect which was shown him, re- 
aolvwd en the conquest of Judsa: he accordingly reduced Jerusalem 
a. e* 61, an event which was so(m followed by the subjugation of the whole 
ooontiy. In the time of Marc Antony, Herod was made king of Judsa, 
and it was during his reign that our Saviour was born. Judsa remained 
saUect to the Romans till a. d. 06, when a contest arose between the Jews 
aaa Syrians respecting the possession of Cssarea; the case being referred 
to Nero, he decided in favour of the latter, upon which the Jews took up 
«BS aiul drove all the Romans and Syrians nom Judsa. Vespasian was 
sint against them with a powerful army, and would soon have brought 
them to obedience, but on his march to Jerusalem he received the intelligence 
of his having been chosen emperor ; he accordingly left the command of the 
am^ to his son Titus, who, a. d. 70, reduced the city to ashes, and put an 
cad to the Jewish nation, as had been prophesied for ages beforehand. 

6. In the time of the events recorded in the history of 
the New Testament, Palsestina was divided into five 
principal parts. These were GaUlaea, Samaria, Judaea 
properly so called, Batansea, and Peraea : the three first 
of which were on this side Jordan, and the two last 
beyond it. 

t. The superficial extent of these provinces, as well as of the territoiy pre- 
Mined to have been occupied by eacn of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, may 
I9 seen in the following table : 

K 4 

Palastina— Galilaa. 

Tribes. Square Mill 

I'hicnlce Meridionalis 


„ / Samarii 

fMaaisseli on lliU' 
< side Jordim - 

I Judah 
|D.a - 


itoTj of thai 
Trite. -/ ■ 




1,000 I,< 
93U1 , 



8. Galilsa or Galilee, the Northernmost province of 
Palestine, touched to the W. on Phosnice, to the N. on 
Coele-Syria, to the E. on Bataneea, and to the S. oa 
Samaria. It was Bubdivided into Inferior and Superior. 
BO named with respect to the R. Jordan, the latter being 
also called Galilasa Gentium or Galilee of the Gentiles 
from its being inhabited not only by Jews, but by Syrians, 
Greeks, Phcenicians, and Egyptians. This province was 
above all the others most honoured with our Saviour's 
presence. It was here that he was conceived, and it was 
nither that Joseph and Mary returned with him when a 
child out of Egypt: it was here that he lived with his 
reputed parents, till he began to be about 30 years of 
age and was baptized of John. He returned hither after 
luB temptation by the devil ; and though during his pub- 
fic ministry he frequently visited the other provinces, yet 
it was here that he took up his dwelling. And lastly, it 
was here that our Lord first appeared to the eleven 
Apostles after his Resurrection. To all which may '' 
added that the most considerable part, if not all, of] 

JPahesHna — Samaria. 201 

Apostles were of this country, wherefore they were styled 
by the angels " Men of Galilee." 

9. Galilaea Superior belonged fonnerly to the tribe of Naphtali. In its 
Northern part close to the source of the Jordan, stood Dan, (rormerly called 
Lais) the Northernmost town in the Holy Land, in the same way that Beer- 
sheba was the Southernmost ; hence the frequent definition of the Land of 
Israel, " from Dan to Beersheba." At the entrance of the Jordan into the 
lake of Gennesareth lav Bethsaida or Julias Taltanihie, the country of the 
three Apostles, Peter, Andrew, and Philip ; it was the scene of some of our 
Lord's mighty works, for its disregard of which woe was denounced against 
it by him. A few miles below it, on the shore of the lake to which it gave 
name, was Chinnereth or Gennesar; and still lower down the lake lay 
Capernaum Tel Hoom, chosen by our Saviour as his dwelling-place. Far- 
ther South was Chorazin, against the wretched incredulity of which Christ 
denounced woe ; and Magdala Migdal, the country of Mary thence sur- 
named Magdalene. To the W. of the latter, on the borders of Galilaea In- 
ferior, was Bethulia, where Judith delivered the Jews from the power of 
Holofemes, the general of the Assyrian army ; and farther Northward was 
lotapata, a very strong place, defended by the historian Josephus against 
Vespasian, who took it with great difficulty and razed it to the ground. 

10. The Northern part of Galilsea Inferior belonged to the tribe of Zebu- 
fain, anu its Southern part to that of Issachar. Tiberias Tabariay the metro- 
polis of the province, stood on the shore of the Sea of Tiberias ; to the • . 
of it, in the interior of the province, was Cana Kefer Kenna, the birth-place 
of the Apostle Nathaniel, otherwise called Bartholomew, where our Lord 
performed his first miracle when he honoured the marriage-feast with his 
piesence. To the W. of it lay Sepphoris Sepphoury, called also Dio Cae- 
nrea : and Nazareth Naszera, the place of tlie Annunciation or Conception of 
(Mir Saviour, and of his residence till he entered on his public ministry. At 
a tittle distance from the latter towards the £. rose M^ Tabor or Itabyrius, 
mow called Tar ; it is supposed to have been the mountain on which- our 
Savioar's traiisfiguration took place. The brook Kishon or Kison rises in 
M'. Tabor, and is now called Mukatta; upon it stood Naim, where our 
Lord raised to life the widow's son. A little lower down the river was 
Sbanem, remarkable for the Shunamite woman who was so kind to Elisha. 
The city of Jezrael or Esdraelon was situated on the borders of Samaria, 
and was a favourite residence of the kings of Israel, particularly Ahab ; it 
stood in the midst of a great plain named after the city. 

11. Samaria touched to the W. on the Mediter- 
ranean, to the N. on Phcenice and GaUlaea, to the E. on 
Peraea, and to the S. on Judaea. It occupied the whole 
country between the Jordan and the Sea, and therefore 
such as travelled from Judaea into Galilee must needs go 
through Samaria. It derived its name from its metro- 
polis Samaria, which was so called after one Shemer, of 
whom Omri, king of Israel, bought the ground for the 
building of the city ; the name of Samaria is frequently 
used by the Sacred Writers of the Old Testament to 
denote the whole of the kingdom oi l«>Ta^\, 

K 5 

202 Palastina — Samaria. 

12. The Northern part ol' Samaria was formerlj iha iol of the half-tribe 
of Manasseh. and its Southatn part that of Ephrtiiiu, Mouiil GilUia, cele 
brated for the death of Saul and Jonallian, and for the defeat of the Israel- 
lies by the Fhiliatinea, was iti the Notthem division of the province, and 
funned part of ihit range of hiils, which traverses it from North to South. 
Upon the division of the Jews into the two kingdoms nf Judah and Israel. 
Jeroboam, king of the tattei' huiU Sichem or Shechera in Mount Ephrmm 
■.bout the cealrs of Samarii, aod made it the capital of bis dominioDi ; Ht 
was here that Jacob, on hii flight from Uaraa, bought a parcel of ground, 
which he subsequently gave to his son Joseph, and here he digged the well, 
which, many a^ afterwards was rendered so meiaorable by the cuoltnetict 
held therebelweenour hleuedSaviour and the woman of Samaria, ^tnn 
was situated between two hills, Ebal to the North and Ccriiim tu llie Soutll, 
both famous for the solemn recital of the law of Moses ; the curses b^[%; 
pronounced from the former and the blessings from the latter. It appears 
to have been also called Sychar, and to have fallen into decay duiine the 
time of the Romans, who erected a cilj close to it, which thej named Nea- 
polis Nobloiu. 

13. Samaria, the subsequent metropolis of the Kingdom of Israel till [he 
time of the Assyrian captivity, when it was nearly destroyed, was only ■ 
few miles to the N. of Sichem. It became a very important and floimriimg 
place under the Maccabees, hut, being once nwce destroyed, il was again 
tebnilt and beautified by Ueroi!, who named it Sebaste id hooour oP Angiw- 
tns; it is still called iSe6ajl« or Kalaul SaiiMr. The principal city of Sami- 
na in the time of the Bomans was CoisareB PaliesIiniB K^ian/ah, the «eat of 
the Roman Proconsul ; it was an insi^ihcant place called Turns StrMonit, 
until Hert)d built on the spot a ma^Kcent city naming it CiEsarca in ho- 
nour of Augns ins Cssar, It was here that Si. Peler converted Corneline and 
hia kinsmen ; it was here that St. Paul defended himself against the Jews 
and their orator TertuUiu ; and here in the amphitheatre Herod Antipm, the 
son of Herod the Great, was smitten by the ange! of God. Cssarea nts 
built at the Western termination of the plain of Megiddo, so called fnnii the 
city Megiddo Schii, at the foot of Mt. C^imel, remarkable in sacred histMy 
for the death of Ahaiiah and Josias, the two kings of Judub, aikd for tie 
battle with ^sero. To the N. of Ccsatea was £n-dor, whore Saul consulted 
the witch previous to the fatal battle of G ilbaa. 

14. Nearer the borders of Judiea stood Antipatris Easlakeii, called for- 
merly Caphaisabe ; it was situated in a part of the valley of Sharon, n 
much celebrated for its beautiful roses. Farther Southward lay the dbbict 
of Thamuittca, so called from Thamna or Timnath Seiah, which was the lo- 
heritance of Joshua, and the place where he was buried : a little K. of il 
stood Gofna, a considerable cilj, which gave name to the district Gofailict. 
Between these and the R. Jordan was Shiloh or Silo, celebrated aa &k 
place, where the nhole congregation of the Children of Israel asaembltd ; 
to this place the tabernacle was lemoved from Gileal by Joshua, and bete 
the ark remained during the remaindbr of his life til! the time of the prophet 
Samuel. Shitoh was situated near the source of the biDok Cherith, wkeie 
£lijah was miraxjulously fed by ravens; near its juncnon with the JonliB 
was Archelais. To the N. of this last lay the mountainous district Acra- 
bateoe, so called from j^ctabbim the principal place in iu Tlie city of 
Bathshau or Bethsean Bgan was in the North Eastern comer of Samaria 

t.^Jiufi ID the B. Jordan: lo this place the Fhilisimes brought the body of 
WkaJ t/ter the battle in Gilboa, aiid fasleiied il to a wall. It was afterwards 

calM Scythopolis from the Scythians^ and became the metropolis of the 
DecapoUi> or those ten. cities which were chiefly inhabited by Syrians, and 
unitea thraaselves into a league to resist the oppressions of the Maccabees. 
The other nine cities, which constituted the Decapolis, were all on the East- 
em side of the Jordan : they were Capitolias^ Canatha, Abila, Hippos, 
Gadara, Pella, Dium, Gerasa, and Philadelphia. To the S. of Scythopolis 
upon the Jonfain stood £non, near to Salim, where John baptized after he 
had qqitted Bethabara. 

15. JuDJBA^ properly so called was bounded on the 
N. by Samaria, on the E. by the Dead Sea, on the S. by 
Arabia Petreeay and on the W. by the Mediterranean 
Sea. It constituted the inheritance of four out of the 
twelTe tribes, viz. of Benjamin, Dan, Judah, and Simeon, 
the two last being in the Sou^em part of the province. 

16. The frontier between Judsea and Arabia is formed by a ran^ of 
mountains connected with Mt. Seir, and known by the names of Halak and 
Maaleh Acrabbim ; this latter gives the adjacent district the name of Acra- 
battene. These mountains separated the possessions of the Children of 
Israel from the land of Edom, or Idumflsa as the Greeks called it, which, 
however, in later times extended as far Northward as Hebron, and was 
noted, as was the whole of Judsa, for its fine palm-trees ^. To the North- 
ward of this towards Samaria stretched a range of hills, which caused the 
district they traversed to be called Orine, or The hill-country of Judssa ; it 
wu here that the Virgin Mary came to visit her cousin Elizabeth. 

,17. The city of Jerusalem, the metropolis of all Pales- 
tine, was in the Northern part of Judsea about mid-way 
between the Mediterranean and Dead Seas. It first 
occurs in Scripture under the name of Salem, of which 
Melchisedec is recorded to have been the King ; in the 
time of Joshua it was possessed by the Jebusites, and 
fiom being their chief city it was called Jebus: from 
these two names, Jebus and Salem, some have imagined 
that it came to be called Jerusalem. By the inspired 
writers it is frequently dignified with the title of^ The 
Hcdy City ; in allusion to which the Greeks no doubt 
fashioned the name Hierosolyma, an appellation which 
is also used by the Evangelists. It is mentioned by 
Herodotus under the name Cadytis, a word which denotes 
its holiness, as does also the appellation Khoddes by 

* Cappadoces mea signa timent, et dedita sacris 
Incerti Judsa Dei, mollisque Sophene. hucan, II. 593. 

' Primus Idumeas referam tibi, Mantua, palmas : — 

Virg, Georg, III. 12. 
Cuf alter fratrum cessare, et ludere, et ungi, 
Frsferat Herodis palmetis pinguibuft *, — Hot, "Ey\«1» \V% \:u"\A\.% 

K 6 

204 Paleestina — Judtea. ^H 

which it is known in the present day. Jemsalem ^^^| 
besieged by Titus, and after an obstinate defence was 
taken and completely destroyed by him, according to 
the prophecy or our Saviour, A. d, 70: thia occurred, 
according to Josephua, 2,177 years after its foundation. 
It is said that during the siege 1,100,000 persons pe- 
risbed, and that 97,000 more were made prisoners, most 
of whom were afterwards either sold for slaves, or exposed 
to the fiiry of wild beasts. The zeal of the Jews, how- 
ever, induced them to rebuild the city, though without 
any of its former splendour: but owing to an uproar 
amongst them during the reign of Hadrian, they were 
all banished from it upon pain of death, and their temple 
was wantonly profaned by the erection of an altar to 
Jupiter CapitolinuB. The city was made a Roman 
OHoay, and called JElm Capitulina until the Christian 
emperors ascended the throne. 

IS. The Jeba^tcs were not d/lveD out of Jerusalem by the Ctiildrea of 
Judnh, bnl lived together with them. Tbev lept poasession also of Ihe 
strong hold oTZioa tintil the reign of David, who look it from ihem, aud, call- 
ing it the City of David, direlled in it. Hereujioii, Hiram, king of Tyre, seel 
■);2rulatchilectfi,vrhobuiltDavid'srayal palace and many other large eilificea 
•p as to cover nearly the whole of M'. Zion. Sion or Zioa wa> the Southern 
part of Jerusalem, and was called ^e Upper City fiom ita bein^ conaidei- 
sbly elevated above the aocieat Salem, vnicb lay to the N. of it and was 
aepnrated From it by a wall. 1'hii Lower City of ijalem naa afterwards 
known by the name of Acta, and waA built on the Western part of Ml Mo- 
riah or Motitts. It is presumed la have been on the Eastern part of thii 
mountain that it pleased God to make trial of Abraham's obedience, by 
commanding him to sacrifice hii only son Isaac : and it was here that mtin 
ages afterwards Solomon hnilt his glorious temple. To the N. of the leiiipu 
lay Bezetha, the smallest of the four hills upon which Jertualeni was baill ; 
it was also called C^nopalis, from the Creek wonls caifu; nouus and irnAtc having been built tu contain the iDcreusing population of Jeruialem. 

le pool of Bethesda, allotted for wasl 
ihle for til 

and memorahfe for the cure which out Saviour there wrought upon the im- 
potent man. The citadel Antoaia was built on the common Habits of Beie- 
tha, Acra, and Mt. Moriah properly so called ; it was vety extensive, com- 
manded a full view of the temple, and could accommodate a whole Komaa 

19. Beyond the walls of JemsateBi, on its Northern aide, was a part of 
Mt. Moiiah called Calvary, or in Hebrew Golgotha, a name which has been 
supposed to be derived from its resemblance to a human skull; in this eie- 
cranle and polluted place, appropriated to the eiecution of malefBctDni, oar 
Saviour underwent tl>e last part of His most meritorious Passion. On Ihe 
Southern side of Jerusalem stretched the VHllcy of Hionom, remarkable (or the 
laiamaa and ftarbarous worship there paid fo Moloch, to whom parents 
ttcriSced their children by burning them in ihetiie. 'V\* ^\m* where theie 

PaUtstina — Judma. 206 

abomixifttionfi were peifonned was named Tophet or Gehenna : near it lay 
the Potter's Field, which was afterwards called Aceldama or the Field of 
Blood, from its being purchased with the pieces of silver which were the 
price of the Blood of Christ To the Eastward of the city lay the memor- 
able Mount of Olives, in which was the Garden of Gethsemane, the scene 
of our Lord's agony a few hours previous to his Crucifixion. Between this 
mountain and the city was the Valley of Jehosophat, called also the Valley 
of Kedron, from the brook Kedron which ran through it and emptied itself 
into the Dead Sea. Not fiaur from Gethsemane were Bethphage, whence our 
Saviour commenced his triumphal eutry into Jerusalem ; and Bethany, 
where he raised Lazarus from the dead, and near which his ascension took 
place. To the N. of these was Emmaus, whither our lA)rd accompanied two 
of his disciples after his Resurrection ; it was subsequently called Nicopolis. 
Near it were, Ajalon, in the vale of which Joshua commanded the sun and 
moon to stand still until the Israelites had avenged themselves upon their 
enonies; and Gibeon, the inhabitants of which were defended by him 
against five other cities. To the N. of these were the cities of Ephrairo and 
Luz; the latter was also called Bethel from its lying close to the place 
where Jacob had his remarkable dream *. 

20. In the North Eastern part of Judaea was Jericho or Hieiichus Rah* 
the first city taken by Joshua from the Canaanites ; it was delivered into the 
hands of the Children of Israel in a miraculous manner, the wall falling 
down flat, so that they went straight up into the city. Between it and the 
Jordan was Gilgal or Galgala, where the Israelites first encamped on this 
tide after they had passed over the river on dry ground. A few miles to the 
& of Jericho stood Engcdi or Engaddi, remarkable for the quantity of cam- 
piure and balsam produced in its neighbourhood. About five miles to the 
S. of Jerusalem was Bethlehem or Ephrata Bethlehem, the birth-place of our 
Blessed Saviour as well as of King David ; it was here and in the neigh- 
bouring towns that Herod caused all the children from two years old and 
under, to be put to death : Kama was one of these towns, and is alluded 
to by Jeremiah in his prophecy concerning this massacre. 

21. To the S. of Jerusalem was Tecoa Tecoa, remarkable for a signal 
overthrow there given to the Ammonites, Moabites, and Edomites, during the 
reign of Jehosophat, as well as for being the birth-place of the prophet Amos : 
Bear it stood Ziph, which gave name to a mountain and wilderness, where 
David lay hid from Saul ; this wilderness was part of the Great Desert of 
Judah, stretching along the whole Western coast of the Dead Sea. Below 
these was Kiriath-Arba JCa&r-76ra/tim whither Abraham removed when sepa- 
rated from Lot, and where he bought a burying. place for his family : when the 
Israelites took it they named it Hebron, and in after ages it became famous 
as being the place where David kept his court during the first seven years 
of his reign till he took Jerusalem. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, as well as 
Sarah,' Rebecca, and Leah, were all buried here. It was situated in the 
plain of Mamre, remarkable in sacred history from Abraham's entertaining 
jQ it three angels under an oak. In the Southern parts of Judaea, on the 

♦ The stairs were such as whereon Jacob saw 
Angels ascending and descending, bands 
Of guardians bright, when he from Esau fled 
To Padan-Aram, in the field of Luz, 
Dreaming by night under the (^en sky, 
And waking cried, * This is the gate of Heaven.* 

Milton, PaT,Lo4t»^Q^V^\.^\^* 

206 PaltBstina — Judaia. 

borders oC Ktlom, was Beer-Shebs or Bersabe, i. e. the Well «f tht Oafh ; 
beCwtiea it in the South and Dun in the North the giealest length of Ibe 
Land of Israel is frequently leckoncd. Joppa or Japho, now called i'lifa, 
vu said to have beea huilt b; Japhet, who gave it his name ; it was the 
IniEilierHiily between Judea and Soniaria, and the haven of Jerusateia. I( 
was hither that Jonah fled and look ship for Tarshish ; here too the ApMtle 
Peter raised Dorcas to life, and lell into his remarkable trance. Jappa is 
inentioDed by tha profane authors, as the spot where Andromeda is said to 
bave been chained to a rock to be devouied by a sea-moiiEter, from which 
■he was rescued by Perseus. Ttt the S. E. of Joppa lay Aiitoathea Rnmlo. 
of which place was Joseph, who came to Pilate beggiog the body of JesiiB 
Kitd buried it in his own tomb. Aritoathea n-ss formerly called Kamah, and 
was the hiclh-plaee of the prophet Samuel : near it stood Lyddi Lyd, n 
Diospolis as it was called by the Greeks, remarkable in Saci^ Writ lot the 
cure of JEaens by St. Peter. 

22. Phihstjei or Philistines. The maritime part 
of Judasa Propria was inhabited by the Philistsei or Phi- 
listines, aometimes called Allophyli ; their ancestors woe 
the Philistim or children of the Caphtorim and Casluhitn, 
who were descendants of Mizraim and came originally 
from Egypt. After havine dwelled for some time in the 
Eastern part of Egypt called Caaiotis, they passed into 
Canaan, whence they drove out the ancient inhabitants, 
and were possessed of a considerable tract of country at 
the time when Abraham came to sojourn in Canaan! 
they extended their conquests as far Northward as Ekron, 
and nearly to Joppa, and divided their territory into five 
lordships called after their principal cities ; viz. Ekron, 
Ashdod, Gath, Ascalon, and Gaza. 

2S. The Northernmost town of the Philistines was lamnia or labneel 
Yebna, taken frmn them by Uziiah. Below this ran the brook Sorek Rinibai, 
on the banks of which dwelled Sampson's Dalilah ; not far from its mouth 
WIS Ekron orAccamn celebrated for its idolatrous worship of Beelzebub; It 
held out for a long time agaioEt the Israelites, and was the place to whick 
the ark of God was brought before it was sent back to Ihem at Betbsbemesh. 
A little farther S. was Ashdod or Aiolns Shd-iod, famous for its temple of 
Dagon, into which the Phihslines broueht the aric they had taken froiii ihc 
Israelites in a battle hard by, but which, from (he vengeance it drew iipea 
Ihem, they afterwards sent to Ekron. Gath lay to the Eastward of Ashdod, 
and is memorable for the birth of the giant Goliah, ilain by David. About 
midway on the coast of Judsa was the brook Eschol, whence the spies sent 
by Moses to the Land of Canaan brought a sample of its produce : at its 
mouth stood Ascalon Ascalaan, a city of great note amongst the Gentiles for 
B temple of Dercelo or Astarte, the same nilh the Ashtaroth of the Scrip- 
tsres. Below Ascalon was Gaza Gam, called in the Old Testament AnaV, 
Ihe gales of which Sampson took away, and whither he was afterwards taken 
, Hben he pulled down the house of Dagon upon the heads of the Pbilistiiie 
jBids. FartberS.r " " .-..--.... 

PalastinO'^Batanaa — Peraa. 207 

by Ptolemy the IVth. of Egyot To the E. of Gaza, and close upon the 
borders of the Israelites, stooa Gerar, which gave name to the district Ge- 

24. Batan jEA was bounded on the W. by Oalilee, on 
the N, and E. by Syria, and on the S. by Peraea, and 
oonresponded nearly with the inheritance oi the half-tribe 
of Manasseh beyond Jordan. It derived its name from 
the Basan or Bashan of the Bible, which was the king- 
dom of Og, and was noted for its fine cattle and go^ 
pasturage ; its lofty hills were Ukewise much celebrated 
for their beautiful oaks. 

35. In the Northern |>art of the province was Mt. Herroon Heuh, on the 
Weslem portion of which, known by the name of Paneum, lay the little 
round lake Phiala the reputed source of the R. Jordan. Not far from the 
entFance of this river into the lake Samachonites stood Paneas Banias ; it 
WIS enlarged by Philip, son of Herod, and hence called Cssarea, in honour 
of Augustus, with the surname Philippi. Canatha, now Kanneytra, one of 
the cities of Decapolis, was on the Eastern side of M*. Hermon ; on the 
Western side of the mountain was Argob, the capital of a region of the same 
name. Farther Southward, on the Eastern shore of the Galilean Lake, 
stood Hippos £Z Houn, and near it was Gaulan or Golan. BatansBa was 
watered uy the river Hieromax Sheriat el Mandhour : one of its tributaries 
ran through the Talley of Mizpeh, the residence of Jephtha, on the borders 
of which Jacob and Laban concluded their covenant of friendship by erect- 
ile a heap of stones, and hence its name Mizpeh or watch-tower. In the 
Smith Western comer of the province was Gadara Om Keis, the country 
nmnd which is called in the New Testament the country of the Gadarenes 
or Ge^gesenes. In the South Eastern comer of the province stood Astaroth 
£i Meeareibt and Edrei DraUf the two chief cities of Og's kingdom of Ba- 
shan ; it was near Edrei that Og was conquered in a decisive battle by the 
Israelites under the command of Moses. 

26. Perjea was bounded on the N. by Batanaea, on 
the W. by Samaria, on the S. by Arabia, and on the £. 
by Syria. It derived its name from the Greek word 
ripay ultra, owing to the circumstance of its lying beyond 
the Jordan ; the appellation was first applied to the whole 
oountiy on the Eastern side of the river, but its hmits, 
after tne return of the Jews from the Babylonian cap- 
tivity, did not extend much farther North than Pella. 
The Southern part of Peraea, between the two rivers 
Amon and Jabok, formed the kingdom of the Amorites, 
whose king Sihon was defeated by the Israelites ; subse- 
quent to this the whole province was divided between the 
two tribes Reuben and Gad, the portion of the latter 
being towards the North. 

tOB Colchis. 

27. The R. Jabok or Zerhah^ the common boundair between the Amtf- 
rites and Bashan, rises in the district Ammonitis on the borders of Arabia 
Deserta, and flows Westward through the midst of PersBa into the Jordan' 
The Arnon Ledjoum, the Southern boundaiy of Peraea, formed the original 
limit between the Amorites and the Moabites* it rises not far from the 
preceding river, and flows with a tortuous course into the Dead S^. In the 
centre of Penea rose the lofb^ M^ Gilead or Galaad Djilaoud, near which 
Jacob and Laban raised a heap of stones in token of mutual fiiendship, 
wherefore the place was named Gilead, i. e. The heap ofvAtneu: from it the 
name of Gileaa or Galaaditis was applied to the surrounding district. Con- 
nected with M^ Gilead was M^ Abarim ; one of its tops was called Nebo or 
Pisgah Attarous, which God commanded Moses to ascend, and, having 
taken a view of the Land of Canaan, to die there. Gamala Stammaek was 
a very strong place in the North Western comer of the province ; below it, 
and likewise on the river, was Bethabara, where John was for some time 
baptizing, and the place whither our Lord retired when the Jews sought to 
take him at the feast of the Dedication. To the Eastward of these hv 
Pella, in which the Christians, before the siege of Jerusalem by Titus, took 
refuge. Below Pella were Gerasa Djerash, and Jabesh Gilead ; the latter 
was besieged by the Ammonites but relieved by Saul. Ramoth-Gilead was 
situated on the K. Jabok, near the junction of which with the Jordan stood 
Amathus Amata, 

28. Heshbon or Hesebon Esban, the metropolis of the Amorites, was 
situated in the Southern part of the province : near it stood Medaba Ma- 
deha. Between Heshbon and the Dead Sea were, Betharan or Livia and the 
citadel MachaBrus, where John the Baptist is said to have been beheaded. 
A little above Heshbon was the valley of Shittim, so famous for the wood 
called in Scripture Shittim-wood ; and to the Eastward of it was Bamoth- 
Baal, whither Balaam was brought by Balak, the king of Moab, to curse 
the Children of Israel Campestria Moab, or the Plains of Moab, where 
the Israelites encamped- prior to their passage of the Jordan, lay Eastward of 
this river on the brook Arnon. The district Ammonitis, at the source of the 
K. Jabok, was in Syria, and received its name from A.mmon, a son of Lot 
Its capital was Kabboth-Ammon Amman, afterwards called Philadelphia, 
memorable in Sacred History for being besieged and taken in the reign of 
David, as also for the death of Uriah. 




1. Colchis was bounded on the N. by the R. Corax 

and MK Caucasus, on the E. by the Moschici M^., on the 

S. by the R. Acampsis, and oxv l\v^ "W . Vj iVva Euxine 

Colchis. fOO 

Sea ; to the N. it touched upon Sarmatia^ to the E. upon 
Ibena, and to the S. upon Armenia and Pontus : it con- 
tained 8,400 square miles. It was celebrated in fable for 
the golden fleece, and for the expedition undertaken 
to obtain it by all the young princes of Greece headed 
by Jason ^ 

2. Colchis was inhabited by several tribes, the most important of which 
were the Lazi, who dwelled in the Southern part of the country, and 
fiom whom Colchis was named Lazica. Near them, on the common bor- 
da» of Armenia and Iberia, were the Moschi, who have given name to the 
Moschici M*., a range of hills connecting the Caucasus with the Scydisses 
of Asia Minor. The Moschi are thought to have obtained both their appel- 
lation and their origin from Meshech, the son of Japhet The Manrali, who 
riar to have left their name in the modern district MingreUof dwelled in 
Northern part of the province: close to them, on the W., were tha 
eniel and piratical Heniochi, said to be descended from the 'Hvioxoc, or 
AmrioUen of Castor and Pollux ; the latter were subsequently displaced by 
the Abasci, whose name still exists in that of Abkhat, The Colchi were a 
nmple, unaffected people, and exceedingly clever in the manufacture of 
linen : their country produced excellent nax, and abounded in poisonous 

3. Mount Caucasus^ CaucastiSy forming the Southern 
frontier of Sarmatia Asiatica, extends from the Bosporus 
Cimmerius St. of Enikale to the mouths of the Cyrus or 
Kvr. One of its highest peaks was named Strobilus, 
and on it was said to be the rock to which Prometheus 
was chained by Jupiter, till he was delivered by Hercules. 
M^. Caucasus has been conjectured to have been so 
called from Gog, or Magog, Japhet's son, who settled 

4. In its Western part, called Corax, was the source of Corax fl. Sou- 
hnim : near the mouth of this little river was Pityus Soukoum, destroyed by 
the Heniochi, upon whose frontier it stood ; it was afterwards rebuilt twice 
by the Romans, who made it their border-town in this quarter, but it was as 
(rften razed to the ground. Below it, likewise on the sea-coast, stood Dios- 
curias Jskuria, afterwards called Sebastopolis, fabled to have been founded 


Hei mihi cur unquam juvenilibus acta lacertis 

Phryxeam petiit Pelias arbor ovem ? 
Cur unquam Colchi Magnetida vidimus Argo, 

Turbaque Phasiacam Graia bibistis aquam ? 

Ovid. Heroid. XII. 7. 

Ille venena Colcha, 

£t quicquid usquam concipitur nefas, 

Tractavit, ■ Hor, Carm, II, xiii. 8. 

' -^— — duns genuit te cautibus horrens 
Caucasus. Virg. iEu. \S . ^^1 

^0 Iberia — Albania. 

bv Cistor and Pollux. The ptiucipal river of Colchis wa; [he Phasis' 
fhai, which rises in the M>. Mo&chii:! and flows Westward into t)ie Black 
Sw; it was rcmajkable for the beautiful birds which frequented its banks, 
•JMne of which are laid to have been brought by the Ai^nauti to Greece, 

f' called ^aaiavoi pAoiions aves, Anglice pheasants, aner llie river. The 
on RhiBH is a tribuUuy of the Fhaais, and its name is not unfrequently 
tied to the whole stream. At the mouth af the river stood the cogQomi- 
inwn Phasis Poti: above it was Ma. the old eapilal of ,Eele>, where 
~Ae galdea fleece was preserved when Jason reached the country. C;Ul or 
br Cutasium A'lilaii lay some distance to the Eastward of JLa, on the 
JX,- Rbion; it was the birth-place of the fair ' enchantress Medea, who ii 
TienCB called Cytsis. In the Southern part of Colchis were, Bathys fl, Ri- 
|«un, and Acaropsis fl. Tchorak which formed tlie boundary between thU 
iporioce and Fontus. 


■ 6. Iberia was bounded on the W. by Colchis, on the 
■It. by Sarmatia Asiatica, on the E. by Albania, and on 
the S. by Armenia; it contained 12,200 square miles, 
and corresponded in a general way with the modem 
province of Georgia. 

B. Iberia was a mouotainous and fertile country, but had othernise no- 
l^ung io common with the tuiopean Iberia except the name. Joi«|riiui 
iilates that Tubal, the son of Japbet, was the father of the Asiatic Iberuuu, 
iad lliat these people, whom (ho Greeks called Iberi, were originally named 
^nobtlii The appellation of the neighbouring province Albaoia is likeaiM 
Atugbt by some critics to carry villi it the remains of Tubal. The tn^i- 
4ton preserved by the Iberians or Spaniunli that they are descended frani 
Tubal, can only be maintained by their having been a colony of Ihc Asia^ 
^Iberi : they were generally termed Celttberi, by way of distmgnishing then 
lioni the Asiatic Iberi here mentioned. Tlie River Cyrus A'ur rises in Ibe 
taoachici M'., and, after flowing Eastward through the midst of Iberia, aad 
"tUong the Southern frontier of Albania, ii joined by the Araxes and enlen 
-tte Caspian Sea. Od (he left bank of the Cyrus was Sues Suranu; ud 
rhtwer down Mood Zaiissa Ti^u, the chief city of Iberia. Thu Cambyse* i. 
Jdri, rises in M'. Caucasus, and flows through the Eastern part of Ibeiia 
rwhich from it received (he appellation Cambysene) into (he Alaion, a tri- 
butary of (he Cyms. There was but nne pass fmm Sarmatia over the Caa- 
ewus into Iberia; it was called Sarmalics or Caucaaii Pjlffi, and was [m- 
filed by the castle Cuoiania now Imown as KaiAair, 

7. Albania was bounded on the N. by the R. Soana, 
.on the E. by the Caspian Sea, and on the S. by the R. 
Cyrus; to the N. it touched upon Sarmatia Asiatica, to 
the W. upon Iberia, and to the S. upon Armenia : it oc- 
cupied the modern provinces oi Daughtstan and Shirvan, 
and contained 23,200 square miles. 

Armenia. 311 

8. The inhabitaDts were said by the profane authors to be descended from 
the Scythian Alanii who pushed their conquests from the borders of India to 
the Caacasus; ftom this circumstance the name Albani was thought to 
have been only a o^rruption of Alani. But the Albani were said in mytho- 
logy to have Jerived their name from M^ Albanus in Italy, whence they had 
eome with Hercules after his conquest of Geryoa, and to have further laid 
claim to the appellation from the whitenest of their hair. The R. Alazoa 
Aiamm or Alakt was in the Western part of the province, running from 
M*. Caucaaut into the Cyrus : on its right bank, near the borders of Iberia, 
stood Sanaa Signag, Soana fl., the Northern boundary of Albania, is now 
known as the ouio/e; below it was Diauna or Derbent. At this last is a 
nanow pass, anciently called the Pyls Caspiae, which must not be con- 
founded with the celebrated defile of the same name in Persia ; it is 
formed by the jutting out of a spur of the Caucasus into the sea, named 
Ceraunii M". The Gels were a tribe of some consequence hereabouts, who 
still preserve the name of Lesghis. Still farther Southward stood Albana 
Nisubad, to the Westward of which, in the interior of the country, was Ca- 
balaea the capital of the whole province. Gntara or Gangara, in the 
Sonthem part of Albania, is now Baku, so remarkable for the springs of 
Naphtha which light up the country in its environs ; Camechia, nearer the 
Cyrus, has changed its name but little in that of Schamachia. 


0. Armenia* was bounded on the N. by the Moschici 
M*. and the R. Cyrus ; on the E. by a small portion of 
the Caspian Sea ; on the S. by parts of the rivers Araxes 
and Tigris, and by M*. Masius ; and on the W. by the 
Euphrates. To the N. it touched upon Colchis, loeria, 
ana Albania, to the S. upon Media, Assyria, and Meso- 
potamia, and to the W. upon Armenia Minor : it con- 
tained 66,300 square miles, or about as many as the 
whole of Ghreat Britain, Armenia appears to have de- 
rived its name from Aram, the son of Shem, to whose lot 
it fell, as well as Syria and Mesopotamia : its Northern 
part is still called Armenia, 

10. The Armenians were fabled by the Greeks to have obtained their 
name from Armenus, a Thessalian and one of the Argonauts ; or as othei's 
say from his native town Armenium, on the Eastern shores of the L. Boe- 
bas in Thessaly. They seem in the earliest times to have been successively 
conquered by the Assyrians, the Medes, and the Persians, and afterwards 
to have submitted to Alexander without the least resistance; upon the death 
of this monarch, their country fell into the hands of the Seleucids, who 
tuuntained possession of it till the defeat of Antiochus the Great by the Ho- 

nee Armeniis in oris. 

Amice Valgi, stat glacies iners 

Menses per omnes ; Hor, Carm* II. iz. 4. 

Upon this, wLlh ihe a 
lor who commanded in , ^ . 

■uccessai Tigranes subsequentlv seaxi upon Cappadocia and nearly ihe 
ohdle of Syria. Tigranes the 3d was depnved or his Idagdom in tlia beein- 
Ding of Ihe Grel centuty, and Eharll; afMrwards lost his life bj the hand of 
Tiberius: Armenia becsme heDcefDivard a contiQual subject of coalentiaii 
betwDen the two great empires of Rome and Parthia from its l^ing oa their 
cemman limits. The whole country wai exceedingly fertile, and ptuJuced 
excellent corn, wine, and oil, as well as beautiful cattle and horsis. 

11. The range of Scydisses or Paryadres entered Ar- 
menia on the borders of Ponlua and Cappadocia, where 
one of its peaks, called Capotes, stiil preserves the name 
of Cap Dag. To the Southward of it is the Anti-Taurus, 
which crosses over the Euphrates from Asia Minor, and 
teruiinateB on the confines of Media in M^. Abus Agri 
Dag. This last mountain, which immediately overhangs 
the Araxes, is supposed to be the same with the Mounr- 
tains of Ararat, on which the ark rested after the flood ; 
and the land of Ararat is likewise thought to be the same 
with the country called Armenia by the Greeks and the 
other Western nations. Farther Southward is the chain 
of NiphatesT BaTeiaa or Sepan, which strikes out from 
M', Taurus on the borders of Mesopotamia, and trends 
Eastward till it joins M'. Ararat. The Gordiaci or Car- 
duchii M'*. Jeudi M'. quit the chain of the Niphates about 
the source of the Ti^s, and run parallel with this river 
till they enter Assyria and join the range of Zagros. 

12. The R. Euphrates^, still called Frat or Euphrate*, 
formed tor several centuries the boundary between the 
Roman and Persian dominions. It has two distinct 
sources, the Northern one of which is in the Anti-Taurus 
not far from the borders of Cappadocia, Puntus, and 
Colchis, and the Southern one in M'. Ararat: both these 

' Horace is thought by some to mean Artaiiaa, in the passage 

— ■ Claudi virtu le Neronis 

Armenius cecidit ; Epirt. I. > 

Canlemus Aufjusti tropro 

Lssam, et rigidum Niphatcn. l!or. Carm. II 

Osar dum magnui ad allum 

Euphtalen bello, Vivg. Gearg. IV. seiA 

Armenia. 213 

branches unite oppoeite Sinerva in Asia Minor. It forms 
the line of separation between Asia Minor and Armenia, 
as also between Syria and Mesopotamia, after which it 
enters Babylonia, and joining the Tigris flows into the 
Persian Gulf. After its junction with the Tigris the 
united stream was indifferently called Euphrates or Ti- 
gris 9, and occasionally Pasitigris from a little river of 
this name which nms into it. This part of it is now 
known by the name otShut ul Arab : but the Euphrates 
itself is said to have once entered the Persian Gulf by a 
separate arm a little to the Westward, which has long 
since disappeared. The Tigris ^° Tigris or Teer rises in 
M^ Niphates, and after forming the boundary between 
Mesopotamia and Assyria, as well as between Susiana 
and Babylonia, is joined by the Euphrates, and enters 
the Persian Gulf; its course is nearly parallel with that 
of the Euphrates, but it is a much smaller river than the 
latter. From the upper part of it having been known 
by the appellation DigUto, as well as from other concm- 
rent circumstances, it is supposed to be the same with 
the Hiddekel mentioned in Holy Writ as one of the 
rivers of Paradise. The Araxes Aras rises in the Anti- 
Taurus, only a few miles from the Northern source of the 
Euphrates, and having joined the Cyrus, flows with an 
Easterly course into the Caspian Sea^^: towards its 
source was the district Phasiane, still called Pasiani^ 
from which the 10,000 Greeks, who in their retreat 
forded the river hereabouts, were led to call it the Phasis. 
There were two considerable lakes in Armenia, one in the 
Northern part of it called Lychnitis Z. ofJSrivan, which 
is joined to the Araxes by a little river ; the other and 
larger one in the South Eastern part of the province 

' Quaque caput rapido tollit cum Tigride magnus 
Euphrates, quos non diversis fontibus edit 
Persia, et incertum, tellus si misceat amues, 
Quod potius sit nomen aquis. Lucan, III. 259. 

*** Te, fontium qui eel at origines, 

Nilusque, et Ister, te rapidus Tigris, — ifor. Carm, IV. xiv. 46. 

^^ Tu tamen injecta tectus, vesane, lacema 

Potabis galea fessus Araxis aquam. Profert^ III« x« 8« 

SI 4 Mjisopotamia. 

'(taa called Axsissa Palus L. Van, and lies at tlie foot of 

M^ Niphate9. 

13. The metropolis of AcmeniawaB Ariaxala" i4rdaihiT( ; il was titualed 
Hi the Eastern pan of the ptovince, a lew miles to the S. oF the modeni 
Sriuan, and only a mile or two fioin the Araxes. It was said to have been 
PBilI by Hannibal (oi Aitaiias, the liiag of the country, aFter whom i[ n- 
^ved Its name. To the S. of this, on the hanks of the Araies and on Ibe 
confines of Media, atuod Aixata, tiie old capital of tbekjugdom; close M it 
was Naiuana AWijuman. To the \V. of Arlaiata the Araxes is joined in 
the little rivet Harpasui Arpa Sou, through which the Ten Thousand waded 
wbeo retreating to Trtbisoadt; one of Its hranches runs through the i&itrici 
phoraene Knrj, bo called from it> chief town Charaa Kan. Farther Wal>- 
Wd, on the boiders of Pontus atid Colcliis, were cantoned the Sanni at 
Tiani, who lived chiefly upon plunder. They dwelled on the banks of the 
dlaucua Teborah and Boas Tourak, which are both tribalaiies of the fiui- 
mi Acampsis; the Boas runs past the town Hiapiralis Ji;iira. Betw«ep 
tte Hiurces of the Araies and Euphrates was Hues Anrmta. and not fu 
Aom it stood Theodosiopolis Haiiaii Caleh, at one time the most impMUnt 
Oity In this part of the prorince ; beyond it on the Euphrates was Elegit 

14. The district of AciliKne EUlii was at the confluence of the two 
branches of the Euphiates ; the more Southern of these branches now koowo 
in the name of Miirad, runs past Mauro-Castrum Mahzghetd. Between 
msrirer and Araissa Pains lay the district Moioene Mmiih : upon the Khoe 
ft the lake itself there were several towns, the principal of which wet^ 
Anes Aijiih, and Ariemita Van. Tigranocerla Sert, in the South Easten 

rt of the province, waa built by Tigranes, king of Armenia, who TortiSed 
.(rongly and peopled it chiefly with Greeks, whom he had forcibly carried 
lather from Asia Minor : it was situated on the left bank of the Nicepho- 
lins or Centriles fl. KhabBur, which is a liibulary of the Tigris and wax 
trossed by the lOiOUD in their retreat tiom Cunaxa. Farther IVesnmd, 
Itelr the Eastern source of the Tigris, lay the ditlrict Thospilis orAiuiMa^ 
Oe chief town of which was Thospia or Arraniurum Oppidum ErctR. Tht 
^strict Sopbene '^ Zoph lay beyond this on the boidei-s of Cappadocia aod 
Mesopotamia; its chief city was Amida Diarbekir oi KaraAtaiJ, situated Oa 
the Western branch of the Tigris close id its sonree. Iti the South Wutara 
comer of the province was the little river Arsanias ArKn, |a triliutaiy of Ibe 
Euphrates; not br from their confluence stood Arsamusata fiimsat, arhiofa 
WW strongly fortified by the Romans. 


' 15, Mesopotamia was bounded on the N. by M'. Ma- 
sius, on the E. by the R. Tigris, on the W. by the 
Euphrates, and on the S. by a little stream which nearly 
connects these two gfeat rivers. To the N. it bordered 
on Armenia, to the L. upon Assyria, to the S. on Baby- 

Mesopotamia. 215 

kmia and Arabia, and to the W. upon Syria : it ccmtained 
40,500 square nules, or rather more than England. 

m. Mesopttamhi deriyed its name firom the Greek words nktroQ mediut 
and iraranhg flwtius, owing to its situation between two great riven ; from 
fba circumstanoe it is sometimes called Syria inter fluvios. The Hebrews 
distinguished it by the appellation Aram-Naharaim or Aram between tht 
nrers^U being part of that country which fell to the lot of Aram : it is still 
called Al Gestra or The Island, Mesopotamia was divided by the R. Cha- 
boras into two parts, ike Northern and Southern. I'he former of these was 
ewieedingly fieitile, and is therefore distinguished in Scripture by the pe- 
eiilimr title of Padan-Aram and Sedan-Aram, both signifying the fertUe 
Anmu Mesopotamia formed part of the great Assyrian monarchy, and fell 
with it into the hands of the Medes and subsequently of the Persians ; 
it is hence fi«quently included in the general names of Assjrria and Baby- 

17« M^. Masius Karadja Dag, the Northern boundary 
of Mesopotamia, was a spur of the Taurus, which crossed 
the Euphrates on the confines of Syria and Armenia, and 
trended Eastward till it joined the Gordiaci M^. in As- 
syria. Between the sources of the Chaboras and Myg- 
dcxiiuB it threw out a spur called Singaras SinjaVj from 
the dty Singara, above which it towered. The Chaboras 
Khahour rises in the lower part of M^ Masius, and flows 
with a circuitous course into the Euphi-ates at Circesium; 
it is supposed to be the same with the Habor of the 
Scriptures, called also the River of Gozan from its rim- 
ning through the district of Gozan, and on its banks the 
king of Assyria settled some of the ten tribes of the 
Israelites, whom he had carried into captivity. The 
Mysdonius Huali rises also in M^. Masius, and joins the 
Chaboras at the town Halah ; it gave name to the dis- 
trict Mygdonia, which extended alon^ its banks, and is 
thought to have been so called by the Macedonians after 
the Mygdonia of their own country. The district Anthe- 
musia is also supposed to have received its name from 
them ; it extendea from the Chaboras to the Euphrates, 
and was the most fertile pai*t of the whole province. 
To*the S, W. of it was Osroene Diar Modzar, so called 
from the Arabian chief Osroes, who contrived to wrest it 
firom the Seleucidse. 

18. Edessa Off a or UohCf the chief city of Osroene, received this name 
firom the Macedonians, but was ako called Callirhoe ; it was situated near 
the source of the mountain-torrent Scirtus Datian. A fdw mlUs> tA t^<^ 

S16 Mesopotamia. 

S. £. of Edessa stoad Charrs or Haran Harran, thought to have been so 
named after Hamn, the father of Lot, and remarkable as the place whence 
Abraham departed for the land of Canaan. It was here that Crassus the 
Triumvir took refuge after his defeat by the Parthians b. o. 69 ; but flying 
by night towards Armenia^ he was overtaken at a neighbouring place, called 
Sinnaca, and was there put to death by his enemies, who in derision of bis 
avarice poured melted gold down his throat '^ The inhabitants were 
ereatly addicted to Sabaism or the worship of the host of heaven ; their chief 
aeity was the Moon, which was adored under the masculine denominatkNi 
of Lunus. To the W. of Edessa stood the town of Antherousia SkarmUUk 
The little river Bellas or Billicha Beles flows into the Euphrates at Nk^ 
phorium; upon it stood Ichns, where Crassus gained a victory over dMi 
Parthians. Nicephorium Racea was first colonized by Alexander, but.JbeiBf 
subsequently enlarged by one of the Syrian kings, it was called Callinicum. 
Descending the Euphrates to the mouth of the R. Chaboras, we meet with 
Circesium Karkina, supposed to be the same with the Carchemish of the 
Scriptures ; it was the last frontier town of the Roman empire in this dtreo* 
tion. Lower down the Euphrates at Zoio Sultan was the tomb of the 
younger Gordian, which was raised to him by his soldiers. Als At Nah- 
raim, at the confluence of the Mygdonius and Chaboras, is the same with 
the Halah of the Bible where the king of Assyiia settled some of the. Chil- 
dren of Israel whom he had carried away captive. Resaina Bag al Aim, not 
many miles from the source of the Chaboras, was famous for the defeit 
which the Persians there suffered from the emperor Gordian : and hard by 
stood Tela or Antoniopolis EnseU, To the W. of these and of the R. Myf> 
donius was Dara Dora, which when the Romans had lost Nisibis was fintti- 
fied by them under Anastasius, and hence called Anastasiopolis. 

19. Nisibis Nisibin stood on the left bank of the R. Mygdonius in Myff- 
donia, and was the capital of the whole district ; when it fell into the hanu 
of the Romans it was strongly fortified, and became exceedingly important 
as the frontier-city between them and the Persians. Some distance to the 
Southward of it was Singara Sinjar, which gave name to Singaras Moos : 
it is betwixt this place and the junction of the Euphrates with the Tigris 
that the land of Shinar, conquered by Nimrod, is supposed to have ex* 
tended. To the E. of Singara near the Tigris, was the citadel Ur Kasr SHebt- 
ridge, in which the Roman army took refuge after the defeat of JnKan : it 
is, in all probability, the same place with Ur of the Chaldees, mentioned in 
Holy Writ as the residence of Abraham before he went to Haran. To the 
S. of Singara, in the desert was Hatra Hadhrt which was sacred to the Snn. 
To the Eastward of Nisibis, on an island in the R. Tigris, stood Betabde 
Jezirah, and farther Southward, on the river were, Csnee Senn, and Birtlm 
or Virta Tekrit, said to have been built by Alexander, and supposed to be 
the same with Rehoboth mentioned by Moses as one of the cities built by 
Nimrod. Below it, in the South Eastern corner of the province, was Apt^ 
mea Mesenes, so called from the island Mesene, at the Northern extrenuty 
of which it stood : this island was formed by the R. Tigiis and a branch of 
it called Archous or the little Tigris, 

** ■ sic, ubi saeva 

Arma ducum dirimens, miserando funere Crassus 

Assyrias Latio maculavit sanguine Carras, 

l^arthica. iiomanos solverunt damna furores. Lucan, 1. 104. 




90. Assyria ^^ comprehended the tract of country bc- 
tireen the range of M^ Zagros and the R. Tigris. It 
touched to the Pf. upon Armenia, to the E. upon Media, 
to the S. upon Susiana and Babylonia, and to the W. 
upon Mesopotamia : it corresponded generally with the 
modem province of Kourdisian, and contained 35,200 
square miles. This was Assyria taken in its confined 
Benae, and must not be confounded with the kingdom of 
Assyria which included also Mesopotamia and Baby- 
Ionia : this kingdom was one of the most ancient in the 
world, and derived its name from Ashur, the son of 

SI. The Assyrian empire was founded b. c. 2050 by Ninus or Belus, who 
extended his conquests over a great part of Eastern Asia ; and bis queen 
Seminunis afterwards pushed the boundaries of her dominions as far as 
i£diiiHitm and Libya: it was hence from the neatness of his power and 
deminioii, that the king of Assyria generally styled himself King of Kings. 
Thii great empire flourished nearly 1240 years, at the end of which time 
Saidanapolnt, the last of its kings, having been besieged in his capital by 
the Meoes and Babylonians, and finding his afflnrs desperate, burned him- 
lelf in his palace. Upon this Assyria, Media, and Babylonia, were erected 
into separate kingdoms : the first of these included Mesopotamia, and it was 
Shahnaneser, one of its monarchs, who put an end to the Kingdom of Israel 
and carried the people away captive. Assyria afterwards fell under the do- 
niiuon of the Medes ; subsequent to which period, the latter people as well 
as the Babylonians were reduced by Cyrus, who erected the whole three 
pnninces of Assyria, Mesopotamia, and Babylonia, into one enormous 
Satnpy, which was thenceforward called Assyria from its inhabitants, or 
Btbyloma from its important metropolis. 

22. The only mountains in Assyria of any consequence 
are the Gordiaci or Carduchii Mk Jevdi Ms. which strike 
out from Niphates M ons in Armenia, and running through 
the Northern part of Assyria, join M*, Zagros. This 
latter mountain, now called Aiagha Da^f, is another spur 
of the Niphates, which strikes out from it nearer to Ararat 
and runs Southward into Persia. The great pass which 
led over it from Assyria into Media, was named ZagraB 

w ^ et ros4 

Canos odorati capillos, 
Dum licet, Assyri&que nardo 
Potamus uncti. Her. Carm. II. xi. 16. 

The terms Syria and Assyria, though very d\at\ikct tiotn «mc}ci i^'Ccv^^ '^\^ 
tometimet tueaiadiscrimiDately in the ancient authoTt. 

218 Assyria, 

or Mediee Pylae, and is now known as the Pass of Allah 
Akbar ; it was said to have been the work of Semiramis. 
The Zabus or Zabatus fl. Great Zab^ called also Lydtis, 
enters the Tigris a few miles to the S. of Nineveh : below 
it is the Zaous Minor or Caprus Altun Sou. In the 
Southern part of the province is Delas or Sillafl. Dealla^ 
which enters the Tigris a little above Ctesiphon : below 
it is the Gyndes Synneej which stopped the course of the 
army of Cyrus when marching against Babylon ; in it too 
he lost one of his favourite horses, and out of revenge 
ordered the river to be divided by his soldiers into 360 
channels that it might for ever afterwards be forded 
knee-deep ^^ 

23. The Carduchi or Cordueni, now called Kourdi, dwelled in the NordN 
em part of Assyria, and extended into the adjacent proyincet of Armenia 
and Media ; they were a daring and independent set of robbers, who hane 
preserved their character as well as their name to the present day. To the 
S. of them, on the Eastern bank of the Tigris, lay the district of Atnria, 
bounded on the S. by the Lycus. In it was Nineveh or Ninus *'', generally 
supposed to have been built by Nimrod, and called after his son, Ninus: it 
was the metropolis of the Assyrian Empire, and is stated in Holy Writ, to 
have been-«Ln exceeding great city of three days journey (t. e. in circuit}, 
and the profane authors estimated its circumference at 480 stadia m sixty 
Roman miles. It escaped the destnictiou threatened it for the wickedoen 
of its inhabitants, by repenting at the preachins of Jonah ; but the people 
having afterwards returned to their former abommations, it was at last over- 
thrown (as was foretold by the prophets Nahum and Zephaniah) by the 
united armies of the Medes and Babylonians, brought about by the instru- 
mentality of the river, and the drunkenness and carelessness of its inhabitmnls. 
There is still a village on its site called Ntmia opposite to Mmul, which 
stands on the Western side of the river. Nineveh was surrounded by walk 
100 feet high, which were so broad that three chariots could run on the top 
of them abreast: along these walls there were 1,600 towers, each of which 
was 200 feet high. It was considered impregnable, a notion which was 
much strengthened by an old prediction that the city should never be taken 
until the river became its enemy : it was owing, as it is said, to this predic- 
tion that Sardanapalus made it the seat of war against bis enemies, Arbaces 
the Mede and Belesis the Babylonian, who having besieged him here for 
three years without success, at last gained possession of the city by the 
river's ovei'flowing its banks and carrying away 20 stadia of the wall ; upon 
this Sardanapalus burned himself in the midst of his treasures, and Nineveh 
was reduced, b. c. 817. To the S. of Nineveh were the two desolated towns 
Mespyla and Larissa, passed by the 10,§00 in their masterly retreat: the 

^^ Nee qua vel Nilus, vel regia lympha Choaspes 
Profluit, aut rapidus, Cyri dementia, Gyndes 
Hadit Arectsos hand ana per ostia campos. TibulL TV. L 141. 

'^ Accedunt Syris popu\i, deseilu^ Oionles, 
Et felix, sic fama, Ninos; liUMiuWI^^K, . 

Babylonia vel Chaldaa. 210 

bttar, snppoted to Iwra bcea the lune with Heseo one of the cities built bj 
Nimrod. n still called Nimrud* 

S4« To the Eaitwaid of Nineveh is the little river Bumadus Hazir, upon 
the banks of which was Gaugamela KamalU, so called from its territory 
having been assigned by Darius Hystaspis for the maintenance of the camel 
■pon whirh he returned from his Scythian expedition. Gaugamela was 
tendered veiy important by the decisive victory gained on its plains by Alex- 
ander over Danus the tnird, a. c. S31, which put an end to the Persian 
empire 228 years after it had been founded by Cyrus: in consequence 
of the insigmncance of this place, and of the baggage of Darius having been 
ported at Arbela, this battle was styled the battle of Arbela* The latter 
pUcet s^Il called Arbel, stood on the opposite side of the Zab and in the dis- 
trict Adiabene. Between Arbela and the Tigris is the mountain Karadjag 
named Nicatorius by Alexander, in consequence of his victory over Darius, 
Siamras Hhahratottr was in the interior of the country, and on the holders of 
the district Arrapachitis, so called from Arphaxad, a son of Shem, who settled 
hereabouts* Below this, on the banks of the river, were Charcha Kark or 
Old Bagdad ; Sumere Samara, near which the emperor Julian lost his life 
A. D. S<»S, in an engagement with the Persians ; and Opis or Antiochia AL- 
HvtMoht situated at the junction of the Tigris and the little river Physcus, 
wfaoae modem name of Odorneh seems to preserve that of Tornadotus fl. 
with which it was also connected. Still lower down were Baradun Dak- 
Aarv, and Baraphtha Bagdad, the present metropolis of the whole country. 
Ascending the R. Delas we find Dastagherda Diucara, Apollonia ShaJtra" 
han, which gave name to the district Apolloniatis, and Albania Ilolwan, 
To the S. of this last, and near the springs of the 11. Gyndes, was Chala or 
C^ne Gkilanee, giving name to the district Chalonitis : it has been sup- 
posed by some to be the same with Calne, mentioned in the Scriptures as 
beloogioff to the kingdom of Nimrod. Artemita Beladraud, a few miles to 
the SouUiward of Apollonia, was also called Chalasar. Ctesiphon, the 
floothemmost city in the province of Assyria, was founded by the Parthians 
on the Eastern bank of the Tigris, to rival Seleucia, which lay opposite to it : 
it soon became a ver^ important place, the kings of Parthia passing the 
wmter here, as they did the summer at Ecbatana. It had at first no walls, 
hat was notwithstanding this so populous, that when the emperor Severus 
aHqf^i^ it he carried off 100,000 captives : it was afterwards very strongly 
fortified, and became the residence of the Persian kings until they fell 
ander the power of the Arab Califs in the seventh century. It is now, toge- 
ther with tne Babylonian Seleucia, a heap of ruins, which is only separated 
by the Tigris and known by the common name of Al Modain or the Tvh) 


25. Babylonia touched to the S. and W. on Arabia 
Deeerta, to the N. on Mesopotamia, and to the E. upon 
Assyria and Susiana, being separated from the two last 
by tiie R. Tigris, and washed on a part of its Southern 
coast by the Persian Gulf. It corresponded generally 
with the modem province of Irak Arabia but contained, 
in addition, that part of Arahia which touches vrawvo.- 
diatelj upon the Euphrates : it comipi^eiU'^^di ^Ifty^^^ 

L 2 

420 Babylonia vel Chaldeea. 

Square miles. It was also called Chaldea, although this 
name properly belonged only to that portion of the 
country which lay to the Westwai-d of tne Euphrates : 
but on the other hand the Southern and Eastern parts of 
Mesopotamia, as far as the boi-dei-s of Armenia, were 
once known as Chaldeea Or The Land of the Chaldees, 
from their having been in the possession of this people. 
The Chaldjeans were very famous for their early know- 
ledge of astronomy and the deep skill which they showed 
in its cultivation ; they were also especially addicted to 
judicial astrology i*. 

so. The CbaldicaDa aie called in Hebrew Chaidim ; and henae thev are 
ttipposed lo hue denied their name from Chesed, a son of Nahor, Abra- 
&ud'8 brother, who dwelled here : the name is also thought to have some 
■eference to Ihe science which they pursued, itiasmach at wlienever tbey are 
nemioned in connection with it Uiey are called Chaldiians rather than 
Babjlonians. The latter appellation was no doubt derived from Babel oi 
Babylon, which became Iheir chief city and thus Furnished a diistinguishlog 
>Mnie for the whole country. Babylonia formed part of the great Assyrian 
nonarohy until the fall of Nineveh, when it shook ofi* the yoke and wai 
igovemed by its oun kings. One of these was Nebuchadnenar, who wt an 
^nd to lliB kingdom of Judah, and carried away the people captive to Babj- 
lon. Tlie last monarch of (Lis country was Belshaziar, whom Cyma &- 
ifeateda.n. 53S. 

' 27. The River Euphrates completely intersects Babylonia from North Wet) 
■to South East ; upon its right bant, not far from the borders of Arabia and 
SleaDpDtamia, stood li or liannesopolis Hit, on a rivulet of the some nane 
Vwhich avoided the bitumen for building the walla of Babylon. Fvtbei 
-Southward l^y the fatal plain of Cunaia, where Cyrus the younger was de- 
^featedand slain by hit htother Artaierxes, a, c.4Dl. The Greeks, who had 
^Itnned in Ihe eipeditioa of Cyrus, are stated to have fought uith such gnat 
^neroiGm aa to have remained lictorious in the field, but. being surtoundwt by 
' anemies lea times more numerous thaa thenuielves, they were compelled to 
'-force a retreat, which for its holdness and success is so celebrated id hisloiy 
'^ the Relreql of the Ten Thousand : this retreat has been described by the 
pen of Xeaophon, who was one of its leaders and a persooal friend of Cynu> 
A little to the S, of Cunaia the Euphrates and Tigris apptuach each other 
within a distance of 18 mites: the country between them wai inlersecled 
with a great number ofcanals. AmoRgst these may be mentioned the Nar- 
raga ha Canal, and the Regium 11. called in Ihe Syrian tongue Noarmalcba. 
'%Dd still known as Nalrr Malka : the latter was the largest and most im. 
Vporlant of all the canal«, and is said by Pliny to have been dug by one 
'Shares, from wliich, as well as from other cnncurrenl circumstances, some 
''Critics have supposed it to he the R. ('hebar. mentioned by the prophet 
'Skekiel as the place where he had a vision, and where some of the Jaws wen 

" Tu ne nussieris, scire oefes, quem mihi, quen 
tiaein Dii dederint, I^uconoe : nee Babylonii 
I'eotfliii numeros ; ol ineUu*. wnctYiid, witi pati 

JBahfhnia vel Chaldaa. m 

kept in capdvily. In the iptce betwixt theie two cmnals was an immense 
wall built acrau the isthmus between tlie two riven; it was erected by the 
Dabylonians to keep oat the Medes, and hence called Mums Medis, though 
horn its haTing been said to be the work of Semiramis it was also known as 
the Murns Semimnidis. Farther Southward stood Perisabora Jedida, a very 
important city, and Vologesia Metgid Hossain, so called after Vologeses, a 
king of the Parthians. To the Westward of this last was the R. Maarsares 
Ckmvanuik, which quits the Euphrates on the borders of Mesopotamia, and 
niDt nearly parallel with it till it enters the great lake to the South of Baby- 
lon. This lake, now called Roamyah, was said to have been formed by ex- 
cavation for the purpose of preserving Babylon from the inundations of the 
Euphrates, with which river it was connected bv a cut, called Pallacopa ; 
upoQ its banks Alexander built the city Alexandria Mesjid Aii, which was 
afterwards called Hira. 

88. The city of Seleuda stood on the right bank of the Tigris ; it was 
^uilt by Seleucus Nicanor, and was the most famous of the thirteen cities 
which reodved their name from him. He constituted it the capital of his 
kiogdom, in conseauence of which Babylon soon became deserted : it rose 
to such a pitch or opulence and splendour, as to be the largest and most 
wealthy city of the then known world: its population was reckoned at 
600,000 souls. It was taken and plundered by Trajan, and afterwards 
completely destroyed by the emperor Verus, the colleague of Marcus Aure- 
fios : it is now together with Ctesiphon in Assyria a heap of rubbish, the two 
nuns being only separated from each other by the Tigris, and known by the 
cmnmoQ uaine of M Modmn or the Two Cities. A few miles to the N. of 
Sdeucia was Sitace, which gave name to the district Sittacene. The famous 
city of Babel or Babylon '*, the most ancient in the world, was situated on 
the Euphrates near a place now called Hillah. It was built by Nimrod 
nmnd tne spot where tne Tower of Babel had been left unfinished upon the 
eoofasion of tongues : it was afterwards much beautified and enlarged by his 
son and successor, Ninus, as well as by Semiramis, the wife of the latter ; 
Mdmcbadnezsar silso increased it much both in size and beauty. It was taken 
by CymSy king of Persia, b. c. 538, according to the prediction of the Jewish 
Iiophets, and fell afterwards into the hands of the Macedonians. Alexander 
the Great died at Babylon, b c. 323, having retired hither loaded with the 
spoils of the East : and shortly afterwards this great city began to decline 
in consequence of Seleucus Nicanor, one of his generals, having built Seleu- 
cia on the Tigris. Babylon was Uius gradually deprived of its glory and 
greatness ; it was reduced to desolation in the time of Pliny, and in the days 
eirSt. Jerome it was turned into a park in which the kings of Persia followed 
the sports of the chace. The site of Babylon is still called Ard BabiL The 
Tower of Babel, the top of which was intended by its builders to reach unto 
heaven, has been calculated to have been more than 5,000 paces in circum- 
fierence at its base, and to have attained the same height, when it was sud- 
denly stopped owing to the Confusion of Tongues : it is supposed to have been 
the same with the one which afterwards stood in the famous temple of Belus. 
The circuit of Babylon is said to have amounted to 480 stadia, or 60 Roman 
miles ; the whole of which space, however, was not inhabited, by far the 
gitater part of it being covered with gardens and fields for the nourishing of 
cattle during a siege. Semiramis surrounded it with a wall 50 cubits thick 
and 200 cubits hign ; it had 100 brazen gates, and was built of bricks baked 

^* Nee Babylon sstum, nee fngora PuuUis tkab^VaV— — 

Ottid, ei PonX A\.\^*'Kl * 

L 3 

232 Arabia. 

in the sun, which were cemented together with bitnntea*''. The Temple of 
Belu« or Bel, built for the most part of the same materiali %b the wallgy was 
one of the most wealthy temples on the face of the earth. There was a fa- 
mous Hanging garden in the city, so called from its seeming at a distance to 
hang in the air ; it was not made upon the ground, but raised a considerable 
height from it upon square pillars. The inhabitants of Babylon are thought 
to have invented embroidered cloth '*, or cloth of many colours ; and the 
skill they showed in its manufacture was one among the many causes which 
led to the fame of their city, 

29. A mile or two below Babylon was Borsippa or Barsita, noted for its 
elegant manufactures of linen, as well as for a peculiar sect of Chaldfians 
who were called after the town. Lower down the river stood Urchoa or Or- 
choe Aija, likewise remarkable for a peculiar sect of astronomers and astro- 
logers ; and below it, at the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris, was Apa- 
mia Corny. The island once formed by the Tigris and the old bed of the 
Euphrates was called Mesene, a name which may still be traced in that of 
MUsan, The town of Asia, not far from the mouth of the Tigris, is replaced 
by the modem city of Bassora ; and still nearer the Persian Gulf lay Teredon 
or Diridotis Dorak, the port made by all ships bound from India to Babylon 
and Seleucia. The situation of the land of Eden, and the Garden of Fani- 
dise which God planted there for our first parents, seems to accord remirit* 
ably well with the country at the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris. Of 
the four rivers mentionea in connection with it, tlie Pison is conjectured to 
have been one with that arm of the Euphrates, which once entered the Per- 
sian Gulf to the Westward of its present mouth ; the Gihon is thought to 
be the same with the lower part of the Tigris, called Pasitigris ; the Hidde- 
kel is believed to have been the Tigris itself; and the Eupmiites still keeps 
its name. 



1. ARABIA ^ Arabia was bounded on the E. by the 
Persian Gulf, on the S. by the Erythraean Sea, and on 

^ Persarum statuit Babylona Semiramis urbem, 

Ut solidum cocto tolleret aggere opus ; 
Et duo in adversum immissi per moenia cumis, 

Ne possent tacto stringere ab axe latus. 
Duxit et Euphraten medium, qua condidit arces, 

Jussit et imperio surgere Bactra caput Propert, III. iz. 2]r. 

31 Non ego prstulerim Babylonica picta superbe 
Tezta, Semiramis quae variantur acu. 

Mart, VIII. «p« xzviiL 17. 

' Aspice et extremis domitum cu\Un\W% oibem^ 
Eosisqu9 domot Arabum,— Vvf%, Cnat^,\\, \\^« 

Arahiii. Q2d 

the W. by the Arabian Gulf or Red Sea : to the N. it 
touched upon Babylonia and Syria, and was only sepa- 
rated from Egypt oy the narrow Isthmus of Suez. Its 
peninsular shape has led the natives to call it Geziret el 
Arab i. e. the island of Arabia ; it contains 834,400 

Suare miles, or about as many as the modem countries 
Great Britain^ France^ Spain, Holland, Belgium, 
Sweden, and Germany. It was divided into Arabia Pe- 
ircea, Arabia Felix, and Arabia Deserta, which names 
are still used by us Europeans to distinguish the same 
portions of country. 

3. Arabia took its name from its inhabitants being a mixed race, composed 
oftheCushites, Ishmaelites, Madianites, and Amalekites, the word Arab 
sonifying in the lieln^vir language to vmx or mingle ; it is hence that they 
aze sometimes denoted in Holy Writ as The Mingled people who dwell in 
the desert. Arabia is called Cush in the Scriptures, from its having been 
peopled chiefly by Cush, the son of Ham, and his descendants. In our 
tnuDslation the name Cush is rendered Ethiopia, but this must be understood 
as the Asiatic Ethiopia, and not as the African. Cush had several sons 
whose names may he readily traced in those of some of the Arabian towns. 
From Aram and Arphazad, the descendants of Shem, sprung Uz and Joktan, 
whoie sons also dwelled in various parts of the peninsula : Uz being esta- 
blished in the North on the confines of Syria, where was the Land of Uz ; 
and tiie descendants of Joktan occupying the Southern part of the countiy, 
where one of them, Hazarmaveth, seems to have given rise to the Adramits 
of the profane authtns, and HadratMuU of our own times. Many centuries 
after the settlement of Cush and his descendants in Arabia, Ishmael, the 
son of Abraham by Hagar, came to dwell in the wilderness of Paran near 
M'. Sinai ; here he married a wife out of Egypt, and became the father of 
twelve sons, whose posterity took possession of the Northern part of the 
peninsula. They are called Ishmaelites and Hagarens in the Bible. From 
Nebaioth, Ishmael's eldest son, were descended the Nabathaei, whose domi- 
nions were in Arabia Petraea, and on the borders of the Red Sea ; near them 
settled Kedar, another son of Ishmael, whose descendants were afterwards 
known to the heathen writers as the Cedreni or Sideni. The children of 
Abraham by Keturah also obtained settlements in Arabia adjacent to those 
of Ishmael : the principal of these were the Midianites, whose lot fell from 
the border of Palestine to the Red Sea. Besides these, Moab and Ammon, 
the two sons of Lot, took possession of a part of the country upon the holders 
of the Dead Sea, and became the fathers of the Moabites and Ammonites. 
Some time after this, Esau, the son of Isaac, quitted Canaan and came to 
dwell in Mount Seir, where his possessions and those of his posterity were 
known by the name of Edom or (as the Greeks called it) Idumaea. The 
Amalekites, or the descendants of Esau's son Amaiek, dwelled hard by on 
the borders of Palestine. 

3. Arabia produced so few things to maintain life, that the inhabitants 
were glad to exchange for them those commodities for which their country 


,A24 Arabia. 

jnt to famoui ; ibese were gold, precious tunes, peirli *. nmrfa, fzaaluii- 
etnte, aloei, balsam, and some spice; '. The betl kind of fraokiiKeiue 
tMiug while, wai called by the native; Lilan or Olibaaan ; and fran tfai* 
Une the Grcelu derived thai of Libanos, and Ibe modenu thai of 01iba< 
Bvia. But Arabia wai itill more remailuble fot the tmte il otiied on aitb 

Sntila, Ibniugh its connection with nliich tke people on the shore* of the 
Itdilerranean Sea were lupplied with all the productioat and laiunei of 
At Kail. The Indians are laJd to have first Airaished the Aiabixu wil)i 
fha nuiaerical figures. 1, 9, 3, &c.. wbtcb have recelied the nuae of Anbis 
figures; we are also indebted to Ihem for (tie iavention of AJgehia. AnUa 
was ofieo invaded by the great Asiatic powers, but it waa upver ronquered. 
I'he only exiiediCioa which the Ramans ever made into the inleriot «f Aitbw, 
}HU undertaken during the reign of Augustus', who appeara lo have beta 
tpiirred on by the enormoui wealth which the Arabians were said to pot- 
ttiii'. He gave his governor of Egypt, ^liuB Gallus. ordeis lo proceed 
fnU) the country with lO.OUU men, 1,000 of whom were Nahalhcaa Arabs 
kldcT the eummand of their prince; this prince was to guide the Romaa 
•miv through the (racklesi wastes which they had to uaveise, and be Ailfil- 
led liiH comniisaiDn in such a politic manner that only a few of those wio 
MmpuBcd this unfortunate eipeditioo ever relumed home. 

4. The Sinus Arabicus or Arabian Gulf, which 
bouDded the whole Western coaat of Arabia, was con- 
sidered as an arm of the Erythrseum Mai-e, for which 
reason it is often called by this name. It is otherwise 
known as the Mare Rubrum or the Red Sea, from its 
having been eironeously supposed that the appellation 
^rythrteum (a corruption ot Edom) was given it on ac- 
count of the redness of its sands or waters, 'EpvOpuc in 
IGreek signifying red. Its Northern part was divided 
■into two arms or heads, the Eastern one of which, called 
•^laniticus Sinus from the town £lana which stood at 
the head of it, is now known as the G. of Ahaha. The 
Western arm bordered upon Egypt, and was called 
•Heroopoliticus Sinus Sea of Sues from the city Heroo- 
'polis at its Northern extremity. It was over tiiis latt^ 

Quid maris extcemos Arabas ditantis et Indos ? - -^ 
Hot. Evia. I. tilMl 


QuoB tener e terra divite mittit Arabs 
' Icci, beatii nunc Arabum invides 
Gaiis, et acrem mililUm paras 

Theuuiis Arabum, 

Tibull. 11. Ik's 
Hot. Cam. 1. iia.9 

Jd ni.ui«,fl 


{urm of the Red Sea that it pleased God to show his 
^Iinishty .powers by causing the Children of Israel to 
pass through it on dry ground, whilst the Egvptians, who 
pursued after them, were utterly destroyed by the sea 
returning to its strength. The rersicus Sinus Persian 
Gulf, which bounded Arabia on its Eastern side, was so 
called from its washing the coast of Persis or Persia. 
It was also considered as an arm of the Erythraean Sea, 
and hence this name is frequently applied to it. 

5. Mount Seir Shehr^ the continuation of M ^. Leba- 
Bon in Syria is in the North Western part of Arabia on 
the confines of Egypt and Palestine ; it was formerly 
called M^. Hor, and was the dwelling of the Horites till 
they were destroyed by Esau and his children. The name 
of Hor was afterwards confined to a small portion of the 
ridge now known as M^. Harourty and remarkable as 
being the mountain into which Aaron went up at tlie 
commandment of God, and died, in the 40th year after 
the Children of Israel had come out of Egypt. M^. Seir 
was part of the range known to the Greeks by the name 
of Melanes Montes, and terminated to the Southward in 
the tops of Sinai M^. S, Catharine, and Horeb Om 
Shamar : it was from the former of these that God was 

E leased in an awful manner to deliver His law to the 
sraelites. Between these two mountains lay Rephidim 
Wady Rahaba, where the Israelites having murmured 
for want of water Moses was ordered to smite the 
rock Horeb, upon which water came out for the people 
to drink ; Rephidim was also remarkable for Joshua's 
victory over the Amalekites. The country round M*. 
Sinai was called the desert of Sinai, and touched to the 
N. upon the Desert of Paran where Ishmael took up his 

6. Amonest the principal promontories of Arabia may be mentioned Posi- 
dium Pr. Rat McJiomet, the Southern extremity of Arabia Petraea in the 
Red Sea ; it was a few miles below M^ Sinai, and obtained its name from a 
temple which was there erected to Neptune. There was another Posidium 
Pr. C. Bob-el-Mandeb at the South Western extremity of Arabia, which 
formed, with the opposite Dire Pr. in Africa, the Angustis Dirse leading 
from the Erythraean Sea into the Arabian Gulf; this strait is now called 
Bab-el' Mandeb or The Gates of Death, and is fourteen miles across. The 
Easternmost point of Arabia seems to have bonie \.\\fe x^xn^'VyA'^vsiv'^, 
from its two great capes Ras el Had and Ras el Ilubba *, ?^i^iN^\Xv^^x^4V:,^«v- 



22fl Arabia — Arabia Petr^ea. 

rodanmm Pr. CnrTOBmh P'.. and Hiieeta Pr. C. Mvuttdom : Ihe lait _^_ 
tiancd cape rormed logethet with the opposite Carpella Pr. m Venn, H^ 
entrance to the PerBian Gulf, and was ilso called Asabo Pr. from the tribe 
Asabi wbo dwelled near it. 

7. Arabia Petr.ea, the North Western portion of 
Arabia, touched upoQ Egypt and Syria; it was the 
smallest of the three divisions of the country, and is not 
mentioned by the earliest authors, they havino; included 
it within the Umita of Arabia Deserta. It derived its 
name from its metropolis Petra. Its principal tribe were 
the Nabathaii^, a powerful people, so called from Ish- 
mael's son, Nebaioth: they are said, as were alt the 
Nomadic tribes, to have lived by robbing their nei^- 
bours who again plundered them in their turn ; a charac- 
ter still maintained by all the descendants of Ishmael, 
concerning whom it was propheeied that he should be 
a wild man, that his hand should be against every man, 
and every man's hand against him. The Westera part 
of Arabia PetrEea was formerly called Edom after Esau, 
who came and resided here ; the Greeks named it Ido- 
mcea : it was famous for its palm-trees t. 

S. Tbe wilderness of Shut lay betneeti tbe two heads of tbe Arabian Gnlf; 
it u mentiooed by Pliny under the name of Tyia, which it relaioa to Ihe 
piesenl day in that of £1 Tyh oi Tl,» Waiidiriug. In the WeBtem put af 
Shuc, upon the borders of the Red Sea, was Matah Amara}i, wlkete the 
Jitaelites met with the tillsr water which WS9 miraculously siveetCDed for 
them. Not far hence lay Elitq with it* pihn-trees and iweivo wellj ; and 
Paran or FuBn Pkara, where laboiBel and his mother Hagai dwelled irbei 
seat away by Aliraham. Beyond Uiis stood j£lath or ^laaa Akaba, which 
gave same to (he ^laniticu; Sinus : and Eziongebet Aayaan, a very cooTem- 
ent harbour, afterwards called Berenice; itwaihere that Solomon made his 
navy of ihips, which under the conduct of Ihe Tyriaos set sail to Ophir U 
fetch gold, and here those ships which Jeho^ophat had built were btolwi lo 
pieces. Lower down the coast was Alodiana Moilali, in the country of the 
people of Kedar Ihe dweliiog-place of Jetbro, the bther-iD-law of Moies. 
About midway between Palestine and (be head of the <£laiulic Gulf wm 
Petra, the toelropotis of (he Nabatbsii and of all Arabia Petnea; it ablaiMd 
this name from its situation on a rock, for which reason it appears lo be 
called Selah in the Scriptures, and sometimes merely The Rock ; il was also 
known by the niunei of Recem and Arce, ond waa taken by Amaiinh, son Of 
Joash. It ia now nothing but x heap of ruins, as hud been minutdy pm- 
jAecied concerning it in Holy Writ: these ruins are scattered aboat a ipol 

= Eu; 


; ad Auroram, Nabathieaque regna 
'S IdumsiM refciara liU,Mai 

Arabia— Arabia Feli^. 227 

caUfid Wadt/ JMouia or !%• Vailmf of Motes, above which riies W. Hor or 
HarouHf where Aarqn was buried, and where the Arabt still show his sepul- 
chre. To the N^ of thia lay Carcaria Kerek el Shobak ; Phoeno or Ph^oo 
Tafyle, noted for its copper mines; and Oboth, an encampment of the 
Israelites, near which they murmured against God and against Moses, and 
were therefore tormented with fieiy serpents. 

0. At the Southern extremity of L. Asphaltites was Bela, one of the five 
eities which stood in the Vale of Jordan and were guilty of such great and 
wicked abominations ; four out of these, viz. Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and 
Zeboim, were destroyed by fire from heaven, but Bela was spared at the 
earnest entieatjr of Lot ; and because one reason made use of by him was, 
that it was a httle city, hence it was ever after called Zoar ; t. e, the little 
citif : it is now known by the name of GhorSsafye. To the North Eastward 
of this lay the country of the Moabites, the descendants of Lot's son Moab, 
which extended to the borders of the province Perea. Characmoba, one of 
tkdr towns, is now Kerek, and to the N. of it was their metropolis Moab, 
widi the qpithet Rabbath, denoting gr«at or populous ; this latter city was also 
called Ar, a name which the Greelu changed into that of Areopolis, fancying 
it to have been obtained from 'Aprig or Mars, their ^ of war : it was situ- 
•led on the Southern bank of the brook Arnon, and is now known as Mekalet 
tl Hadf* Still farther Northward, upon the borders of Coele-Syria, stood 
Bostra Bossra, an important city, the birth-place of the emperor Philip, 
ha»e sumamed Arabs : to the £. of it was the Land of IJz, so called from 
U^ the grandson of 8hem, who settled here, and celebrated in theSciiptures 
u the dwelling-place of Job. Hard by were Sabe, whence the Sabeans 
made their descent upon the cattle belonging to Job, and Tema the residence 
of his friend Eliphaz. 

10. Arabia Felix or Eudjemon was the South 
Western part of the peninsula^ touching upon the Ara- 
Wan Gull and the Erythreean Sea. It derived its name 
ftota the great quantity of perfumes which it yielded, as 
well as from the spices and other precious commodities, 
which were for some time imported into it from India, 
unknown to the smTounding nations, and were hence 
deemed to be the productions of the country. And it is 
from the circumstance of these valuable commodities 
being likewise found in the Eastern part of Arabia, that 
it also is frequently included within the limits of Arabia 

11. The Arabes called from their living in tents, inhabited the 
Northern parts of Arabia Felix, as well as those portions of Arabia Petrsa 
and Deserta, which bordered upon it. A branch of them called Saraceni, 
were a savage pebple, attacking and murdering all who fell in their way; 
hence, in the course of time all the Arab tribes addicted to plunder obtained 
the name of Saraceni or Saracens. Upon the Northern coast of Arabia Felix 
lay Hippus Castel, and the tribe Batnizomenes, amongst whom there was a 
celebrated temple held in great veneration by all the Arabs. Lower down 
was lambia Yambo, the port of the neighbouring city lathri^i^at now called 
Medinit or Jatrid, so famous amongst the Mussulmans ^ eoxiX'a^kS^^^^ \^\s^ 




Arabia — Arabia Felix. 
the impoMor Mahomel. Still fartlier Southwaid lay Leiice Gome or AXlaa 
a laacaiu, whence £lius Galliia commGDced his march into the couD- 
and ThebE, which still preserves its name in Rat Maticba. Hard by 

ti Badei Regia Jiddah, the parl'tovo or Macocaba, [ 
'-place '" ■ 

%h1 so celebtauxl ai the hirth-place of Mahomet and the first seat of his power. 
t ' 12. TotheSoulhwardorMeccadwelledlheMiniei, oneof themoslcon- 
liideiable people of tbe whole country; their chief city Camaoa KaTn-at. 
■ttmtii ilooJ upon the borders of tbe Smymophoros Re^a loterioi, the 
ModuCtioDS of which gaiaed them their principal consequence. Below them 
ta Yemen were the Sahsi, another powerful people, who were Ihoaght to be 
_j||H>re wealthy than any other nation not only of Arabia but of the wboJe 
'Jaowq vraild. Their country is called by the Urieutali^ts The South Couittn. 
^imd in the Scriptures its Queen is called the Cjueen of the South; theixcwl 
'" '" come from the ulteimost parts of the earth, to heai the nisdam of 
n, from her dominions lying at the Southern extremity of the tbcs 
world. The chief city of the Sabsi was Sheba Saadi, so named afiei 
_ . ^bo, the grandson of Cush ; it is sometimea called Saba in the profaae 
.Jinthon, or otherwise Mariaba a word lignifying melTopniis in tbe language 
M^ the country. It was here that the vast wealth was seen, at which Ihey 
jgtA become possessed, and which baa letl some to suppose that their tenilory 
l^jns the Opbir of the Bible, from which l^olomon fetched great quaolitiet of 
,«>ld : the Uoglh of time, however, employed in the voyage seems to lender 
,ft juobable that Ophir was much more distant, possibly in the island of Sb- 
tgfilra. The winds which blew from the country rouiid Sheba were lades 
i^lh the smell of such an exquisite variety of spices, thai their liagrance 
iiVac quite overpowering and not to be described'. 

'I*^ 13. The coast of the Red Sea lo tbe S- of Mtwa was inhabited by a 
<|M<age people, called Canrait^; their chief city wasMamals Camjida, to the 
■iUstward of which, a long way in the interior of the counlij, lay Negrwi 
^^lagtran, talcen by the Romans under .^lius Gallus. On the Soulliem fton- 
'' of the Canraits stood Gassaadi Ghimn, m named from the Gauandc 
Is. Farther Southward was the terrilorv of the Elisari enendipg 
the Si, of Bah-el-Manifb ; it seems lo be the same with the Ellasar of (he 
-^niptnita, whose king was a confederate of the kin^ of Klam. Their ehtef 
[tewn was Musa MatiKh'id, a place rendered very important by the tnile 
Tfhicb was there canied on with the Egyptians and other nations, ladwhich 
' % modern times haa been transfeired tu the ncighbDUring Mocha, the anelenl 
<ibeudacelis. Ocelis itself was a city of the Sabsi, only a few miles from the 
" "~' 01 Strait of Bab-dMandfh. In the South Western coiUH^of 
the Homtrits. who were latterly conquered by the Axonitc, 
tiy them lo the Christian fiiith. Their chief city was S«p(rai 
Hhafar, which was rendered ioleresting from the Christian Churche* esBi- 
llUslied here during the reign of the emperor Coustantius. 
^, It. On ihe Soutliern coast of Arabia, a little beyood the Straits, wu 
^Urabia Felii, a famous haven of the Ilomcritce. also called Adana and Edeo 
-Adn. The Chalramotits and Adraniils were beyond these on the coast tn 
^adramant : the limymophoros Re^o Exterior, whence the greater part of 
iite Arabian Incense and Myrrh was obtained, lay nn tbe borders of their 
gCOnnlry. Their chief cily was Sabalba or Sabota, which, from having been 
jealled Muiaba or the mttivpolis, has obtiuned its present name of Martbi it 

' Sadia millit cbur, molles sua thuia Sabci. Virg. Ciorg. 1. £7. 
► Eolis est tViutea »"\i^»Si.\iffifl. \iA\.\«. 


irabia dwelled the '. 
md converted by Ih 

Arabia ^Arabia Deserta. 229 

k MRae distAnce in the interior, ind is the same with the Marsyabe men- 
tioaed in the inTuion of ^f^lius Oallus, who besieged it for a time but 
was at last compelled to retreat from before it. To the Eastward of these 
was Sachalites Sinus, so called horn the little tribe Sachalita;, who dwelled 
apon it and whose name is still preserved in the district Seger : the surrounding 
country produced a great quantity of frankincense, which was collected by 
criminals and slaves on account of the deleterious air of the place, and 
shipped at the neighbouring |>ort of Moscha Monhat. The promontory Sya- 
RM if now Rtu Vire ; from it the ships which sailed to India took their 
oepartureand crossed the Erythrsan Sea. 

15. Dioscxiridis I. Soeotra is nearly 200 miles distant from the Arabian 
coast, and about 110 from the North Eastern promontory of Africa, to whicli 
coDtinent it properly belooss ; in ancient times it was tributary, as it still is, 
to the Arabians, and was inhabited by a mixed population of the latter people, 
nwell as of Indians and Greeks: it produced a great quantity of aloes, 
which the ancients held in high estimation. The island of Panchaia ', so 
glowingly described by the ancient authors, appears to have existed only in 
iieir imagination. Some of them placed it in Arabia near the Sabaei, con- 
sidering it as a fertile and well-cultivated oasis, or island in the deserts of this 
peninsula : others, however, were of opinion that the name referred to India, 
iQfl that the whole account of it was obtained from the Arabians, who could 
not conceal their purchasing those precious commodities with which Panchaia 
was said to abound. From this uncertainty many fictions arose, which 
etnsed the whole account to be disbelieved : and as the earlier heathens had 
lought for the Islands of the Blest in the Western parts of the world, so it 
was suspected that the fabled scene of this final happiness had only been 
changed to the Eastern and Southern countries, in order to keep pace with 
the progress of their knowledge ; for they had become fully acquainted with 
die existence of so many beautiful and extraordinary productions in this 
direction, that the regions whence they were procured seemed capable of 
realizing all the ideal delights of their Elysian Fields. 

16. Arabia Descrta was the Eastern part of the 
country, and obtained its name from its excessive sterili- 
ty. Its limits were ill-defined and but little understood 
by the ancients, who frequently included in it all those 
parts of the peninsula which they did not reckon to Arabia 
Felix; others, however, by Arabia Deserta understood 
only the North Eastern portion of the country imme- 
diately bordering upon Syria and Babylonia. 

17. On its Southern coast, touching upon Arabia Felix, stretched Omasa 
Sinus G. rf Curia Muria, upon the shores of which was Asichon now Hasec. 
Farther Northward lay Serapidis I. now Mateira ; and Ras el Had, the 
Eastern extremity of Arabia, known to the ancients as Didymi Montefl. 
Here dwelled the Omanitae, whose name has been handed down to the pre- 
sent day in that of Omati : a part of their territory produced excellent frank- 
incense, and was on that account called Thurifera Ilegio. Between tliis and 
the promontory Asabo or C. Musseldom lie Corodamum Pr. Carroomb Pt., and 
Cryptus P*"», Sohar, Asabo Pr. so named from the tribe Asabi wlio dwelled 

• Totaque tbunferis Panchaia pinguis areius. Virj*. GeoT^A\.Vi»^ik« 

280 . In^fkerium PerHcum* 

near it, was also called Maceta firom the tribe Macs, whose name likewise 
appears to exist in the famous port MutcaU . Ichthyophagomm Sinus was 
the Southern part of the Persian Gulf^ now so famous for its Grttit Pearl 
Bafik ; in it were many islands, amongst which miay be named Tharro Zar^ 
The Sinus Oerrhaicus Katjf Boy was about midway on the Western shore 
of the Persian Gulf; it was so caUed from Gerrha El Kattf, The Island of 
Daden Bahrein lies in the midst of the Gerrhaicus Sinus, and was also called 
Tyrus ; close to it was the islet Aradus Arad : these islands are supposed to 
have received their names from the Phoenicians, who colonized thiaa. Into 
this gulf also runs the river Aftan, the most considerable in Arabia ; it rises 
in a part of the Marilhi M>. near Inapha lemama, and runs by Laaththa 
LtUisa into the sea. To the N. W. of Gerrha, in the interior of the country, 
was Saphtha, which is conjectured to have been so called after Sabtah, a son 
of Gush : and farther Northward, on the confines of Babylonia, was Mnsa- 
nites Sinus Graen Harbour, round which dwelled the Chaldean Orcheni, 
whose chief city, Urchoa, stood upon the Euphrates. 



1. The province of Persis or Persia ^ was bounded 
on the E. by Cannania, on the N. by Parthia and Media, 
on the W. by Susiana, and on the S. by. the Persian 
Gulf; it corresponded generally with the modem pror 
vince of Fars, It is cs^ed Elam in the Bible prior to 
the time of Cyrus, after £lam, the son of Shem, who 
settled hereabouts ; under this name also parts of Susiana 
and Media appear to have been originally included, as 
the profane authors mention in these the district Elymais 
and the tribe Elymsei : subsequent to the reign of Cyrus 
the term of Persia or Paras may also be found in Holy 
Writ. This was Persia in its confined sense or properly 
so called, and must not be confounded with the nughty 
Empire of Persia ^ founded by Cyrus, which extended 
from the Indus to the Mediterranean, and from the Cas- 
pian and Euxine Seas to the Persian Gulf and the 
Ocean: hence the pompous title which its sovereigns 
adopted of King of kings. 

* Placat equo Persis radiis Hyperiona cinctum, 

Ne detur celeri victima tarda Deo. Ovid. Fait» I. 385. 

^ Nee Crodsi fortuna unqu^im, uec Persica regna 
Sufficient animo,— >« 3\k»«^ax«yiV« 328. 

Imperium Persicum. 281 

2. Three oentoriet before the time of Cyras the Elamites had been con- 
qaered and kept in subjection by the Medes ; bat this extraordinary man, 
whose real name was Agradates, defeated them in a great battle on the banks 
of the little riv«r Cores or Cyras, after which he first assumed the name of 
Gym. He aoon reduced Media and its dependencies, subsequent to wluch 
liu dominions ¥rere described as the kin^om of the Medes and Persians. 
Darius Hystaspis divided the whole empire into twenty Satrapies, but the 
leoaans rerolted from him, and being assisted by the Athenians, took Sardes 
and burnt it to the ground. Darius was proToked by this to send an enor- 
mous army to Greece : it was defeated at Marathon, shortly after which he 
died. Xerxes, his son and successor, invaded Greece with an immense body 
of men, amounting as it has been estimated, to five millions of persons. He 
was gsdlanUy, though unsuccessfully, opposed at Thermopyls, but was sub- 
sequently gloriously beaten at the battle of Salamis, and his general Mar- 
dooius routed at Flatss. Darius Codomanus or the Third was the last 
prince of this dynasty, and was defeated in a series of brilliant victories 
by Alexander the Great, who put an end to the Persian monarchy. Upon 
the death of Alexander this country fell under the dominion of the Seleu- 
dds, but it was taken from them b. c. 141, by Mithridates, king of Parthia, 
who annexed it to his own empire. It remained subject to the Parthian 
princes till the reign of Artabanus, when Artaxerxes, a Persian of obscure 
origin, roused his countrymen to recover their independence : having defeated 
the Pardiians in a pitched battle he was raised to the throne, a. d. 229, and 
thus founded the second Persian monarchy after the people had been tribu* 
tary to the Partbians for nearly 500 years. The name of this prince's father 
was Sassan, and hence his descendants are called Sassanides. 

9. The Persians are often confounded with the Parthians by the ancient 
poets; they were a luxurious* and very superstitious people, paying the 
greatest veneration to the host of heaven and to fire. They were exceedingly 
good honemen, and very dexterous with the bow and arrow ^. The Per- 
tian empire, confined within the limits of M^ Zagros on the West, and the 
R. Indus on the East, was composed of ten great provinces, the names and 
superficial extent of which may be seen in the following table . 

Square Miles. 

fPersis 70,100 

Susiana 80,900 

Media 117,900 

Hyrcania 24,200 

Parthia 86,400 

Carmania ...... 74,500 

a S fGedrosia 92,200 

f^ S J Ariana 224,600 

*||Bactriana 51,400 

P*^£ ISogdiana 129,700 

Total - - 901,900 

' Persicos odi, puer, apparatus ; 
Displicent nexs phDyr^ coronae ; 
Mitte sectari, rosa quo locorum 

Sera moretur. Hor, Carm, I. xxzviii. 1. 

* Quaque pharetrats vicinia Persidis urget,- 


aaa Imperium Persicum. 

- 4, There are two principal ranges of mountains in 
.Persia, one in the Northern, and the other in the 
'Southern part of the country, which are both connected 
fty a third range on thefrontiersoflndia. The Northern 
Jange ia a continuation of the Anti-Taurus and Niphatea 
id Asia Minor, which, as soon as it entered Media, was 
iialled Caspius Mons from the tribe Caspii who dwelled 
upon it. It skirts the Southern shores of the Caspian 
&a, where it ia now known as the Ms. of Elburz, sepa- 
SKt^ the provinces of Hyrcania and Parthia, and then 
trends feither Eastward under the name of Paropamisus, 
miii it joins the Himaleh Ms. or great range of India: the 
Macedonians out of compliment to Alexander are said 
to have given the Paropaniisus the name of Caucasus, 
vhich it still maintains in that of Hindoo Coosh or Indian 
■Caucasus. The Southern range of mountains is a con- 
^uation of M^. Zagros, which formed the Eastern 
boundary of Assyria; upon its entrance into Persia it 
"»a.8 called Parachoathras Ms. of Lourtstan. It passes 
tp tlie S. E. through the provinces of Persia and Carms- 
Bta till it joins Beciua M., now known as the Wushutee 
-mid Sarawanee Ms., which separated Gedrosia from 
■prangiana. The range of mountains which connects the 
'two preceding runs parallel with the R. Indus, and on 
its Western side ; it was called in its Northern part 
Panieti M'., and in the Southern Arabiti M'., fiom two 
powerful tribes who dwelled at the foot of it: the whole 
ftnge is now named Brakooick, and terminates in Eiros 
M. C Monze on the shores of the Indian Ocean. 
' 5. Persia is in general a desert and arid country ; it is 
nirrounded by great rivers, but has only a few of any 
consequence which really belong to it. The Cyrus and 
Araxes, as well as the Euphrates and Tigris, to the West 
of Persia, are sometimes improperly reckoned to it. In 
^e North Eastern part of the country are two rivers, 
which, strictly speaking, belong to Scytliia ; these ixe 
the laxartes Siiion, and Oxus Jihon or Amoo. The 
laxartes rises in a spur of the Paropamisus called Come- 
donim M'. Beloo Tag, and runs with a North Western 
course into the Aral Sea, then only known as The 
MarsheB (Paiudes). It was caiieA SAw \yj dia Scy- 

Impernim Persieum — Per$i$'-^SuMna. S3S 

thians ; but the Macedonians named it Tanais out of com- 
pliment to Alexander, a confusion which was &rther in- 
creased by some of the ancients asserting that it ran into 
tibe Caspian Sea. The Oxus rises in the same range of 
lulls^ and runs also with a North Western course into 
the Aral SeOj whence according to some it flowed into 
theCaspian. To the S. of these two rivers^ in the Eastern 
part of Persia, is the Etymandrus fl. or River of Aria, 
which still preserves its name in that of Heermund.; it 
rises in M^. Paiopamisus, and flows with a Southwestern 
course into Aria Palus X. ofZarrah, The Mardus or 
Amaidus was in Media, and is now called Kizil Ozen or 
Sufeed; it rises in a rart of M^. Zagros, and enters the 
Caspian Sea close to JReshd. Near it rises also the Mo- 
moA Kerahy which runs Southward through Susiana 
into the Tigris. 

S. Pbb8I8. Persepoli8» the metropolis of the whole Persian Empire, 
stood in the centre of the pro?ince of Persis ; it contained a splendid patace, 
which was burnt to the ground by Alexander after his conquest of Dariui, 
when he allowed the whole cit^ to be pillaged by his soldiery. He is said 
to here been provoked to do this by the sight of about eight hundred Greeks, 
wham the Peraians had shamefully mutilated, but others say that he set the 
palace <m fire at the instigation of Thais, one of his courtezans, after he bad 
pnsed the day in riotous revelir. Its ruins are now called htakhar and 
kiiiarA, and are situated near the junction of the two little rivers Araxes 
fiend Ewiir, and Medus Abhuren, To the S. of Persepolis was the district 
of Ccele Persis, in which stood Pasargadae Deh Minaur, the ancient capital 
of Persia ; it was a favourite residence of Cyrus, because near it he cod« 
qnerad Astyages the Mede, and here he chose to be buried. The Pasar- 
gads were reckoned the most iUustrious among the Persians, as the Achie- 
menidn, from whom Cyrus was descended, were a branch of them. The 
dty was situated on the Cores or Cyrus fl. Preskiaf, whence Cyrus is said 
to have derived his name : it rises near Corra now Sutras. Gabs Dera6- 
gkerd, another royal residence of the Persians, was to the Eastward of 
FasargadsB, on the borders of Carmania. To the Westward of this, on the 
coast of the Persian Gulf, stood Gogana Congoon, and Mesambria Cherso* 
nesufl now forming the important harbour of Smheer. 

7. Sxjsi ANA JfXMzi^tow touched to the E. on Persis, 
to the N. on Media, and to the W. on Assyria and Ba- 
bylonia : it was bounded on the N. by the mountains of 
Parachoathras, on the W. by the R. Tigris, and on the 
S. by the Persian Gulf. Susiana is thought to be the 
same with the Land of Cush ^, mentioned by Moses as 

^ It is rendered Ethiopia in our translation. 

t84 Imperium Pergicum — Media* 

adjacent to the Garden of Eden, a name which it derived 
from Cushy the son of Ham, and shared in common with 
the whole of Arabia : it is also conjectured to be the 
same with the Land of Nod, whither Cain went after the 
murder of Abel. Susiana is sometimes called Cissia, 
which is merely another alteration of Cush, although in 
mythology it was said to be derived from Cissia or Aih 
rora, the mother of Memnon. It was likewise included 
in Elam^ and hence the prophet Daniel describes the city 
of Shushan as situated in this province : the name of 
Elam was preserved in that of the Elymaei, who are 
placed by the profane authors in the Southern part of 
Susiana. The Uxii inhabited the Eastern part of the 

8. The principal city of Susiana was Susa^ or Shushan, said to have de- 
rived its name from the number of lilies which grew in its neighbourhood, 
Shushan signifying in the Persian language, a lily. It became the winter, 
ks Ecbatana was the summer, residence of the Persian kings ; its ruing are 
how called Shnster, and are situated on the left bank of the R. Eulnus or 
Choaspes. This river rises on the borders of Media, Peras, and Susiani^ 
and flows into the Pasitigris ; its water was so pure, that the kings of Penii 
drank no other, forbidding it on pain of death to be used by an^ subject' : 
from its name Eulaeus it is undoubtedly the same with the Ulai mentioned 
in the book of Daniel, on the banks of which that prophet saw his lemaik- 
able vision. The Pasitigris Jerdke rises in the Eastern part of Susiana, and 
flows Westward into the Tigris, to the lower part of which it communicated 
its name ; it also finds its way to the Persian Gulf by several mouths. 
Near the junction of the Pasitigris and Euheus was Alexandria Sabletf called 
afterwards Spasinu Charax. The town of Aracca, not far from the mouth 
of the Tigris, is conjectured to be the same with Erech, one of the cities 
built by Nimrod in the Land of Shinar. 

9. Media touched to the S. upon Susiana and Persis, 
to the W. upon Assyria, to the N. upon Armenia and the 
Caspian Sea, and to the E. upon Hyrcaniaand Parthia: 
it corresponded nearly with the modem province of Irak 
Ajemi. It was the most important provmce of the Per- 
sian Empire, not only from its size and the number of its 
inhabitants, but also from its natural strength, and the 

^ Non tot Achsmeniis armantur Susa sagittis, 

Spicula quot noslro pectore fixit Amor. Prcpert, II. x. 1. 

' Nee qua vel Nilus, vel regia lympha Choaspes 
ProBuii, TibuU. IV. i. 140. 

Perncum — Media. fi86 

exaberant fertility of the greater part of its soil ^. Media 
was one of the oldest kingdoms in the world; and is 
thought to have derived its name from Madai, a descen- 
dant of Shem. The Medes were a bold and warlike 
people 9 in the early period of their power^ and had arrived 
at a great pitch ot cultivation and luxury when they were 
conquered oy the Persians. 

.10. The Northern part of Media was called Atropatene after Atropates, 
wImb AleaKSnder had appointed governor of it, bat who afterwards rebelled 
ttiinat him and took poesession of it as its king. Its chief city was Gaza 
ftMx, aitaated on a little river running into the salt lake Spauta now 
eiUad Shahee or Outvowua ; this lake was also named Martianes after the 
Martiaiii or Matiani, who inhabited the Western part of the province. Gaza 
was the aummer-residence of the kings of Atropatene, but they resided dur- 
ing the winter at Phraata or Vera Siiigaoehf not far from the banks of the 
R. Amardus. To the Northward of Gaza was Morunda Marand, the chief 
toiro of the Morunda, and nearer the Casjnan stood Tigrana ArdebH : below 
Phraata* on the Southern side of the Amardus, were Sincar Zunjan, Batina 
Sudtanuh, and Vesaspe CaAin. The shores of Media on the Caspian Sea 
were inhabited by a hardy and savage race of mountaineers. The most 
Northern of these were the Caspii, extending a considerable way into the 
iaterior of the oottntr|^ who were of such consequence '^ that from them the 
Hyreannm Mare derived its general name of Caspium ", which was after- 
wards particularly applied to the South Western portion of it. The Gels 
were culed Cadusii uy the Greeks, and have left their name in the modem 
province of GhUan which was principally inhabited by them ; their chief 
town was Zalace Reshd, Farther Eastward were the Mardi or Amaidi, who 
" " - ■- ■ 11 ■ 

* Media fert tnstes succos tardumque saporem 

Felicis mali : quo non praBsentius ullum 

(Pocula si quando ssvs infecere novercae, 

Miscueruntque herbas, et non innoxia verba) 

Auxitium venit, ac membris agit atra venena. 
• « • « « 

Sed neqae Medorum sylvsB, ditissima terra, &c. 

Virg, Georg. II. 126. 

* Their name is fluently used instead of that of the Persians or Par- 
thiansy to whom they w^e latterly subject : 

— hie magnos potius triumphos ; 
Hie ames dici pater, atque princeps : 
Neu sinas Medos equitare inultos, 

Te duce, Cssar. Hor, Carm, I. ii. 51. 

^° Virgil uses ** Caspia regna" instead of " Asia :** 

Hujus in adventu jam nunc et Caspia regna 

Responsis horrent DivAm ; et Maeotica tellus, 

£t septemgemini turbant trepidi ostia Nili. JEn, VI. 798, 

^* Non semper imbres nubibus hispidos 
Manant in agros ; aut Mare Caspium 
Vexant insquales procellae 
Usque; Hot, Carm^W* xj.^'L* 


Imperium Perxtcum — Hyrcania. 

probaUv given name to tbe modera pravince of Moianibriin which wu 
ly inhabited by tbeia. 
It, In the North Eastern corner of Media, close npaa the bnnlen of 
Anthia, Uy the dislritt RbagiaDi h> called from its capita] Rhagai, which 
■w ancients reckoned the largest city in the whole ptoyince; its ruina, now 
imtA Rha. are only a mile or two to the &.o!Teha-a«: A little to the 
SwtWBnl of RhagiB was a celebraied delile leading from Media into Par- 
pda, over a spur of the Caspius Mens, and hence called CupiK Pyls Cvf- 
"'■rdara -, it was near this pass that Darius was baselv rourderEd b; 
when flying towards Bactriana after the fatal battle of Arbela. Jiot 
I fu from this pass and the city Rhagte was Nisaus Campiis, famed (or in 
fned of beautiful horses, to which use alone it was devoted by the Periiu 
aonarchs. The central part of Media was called Churomithrene. Id iI, 
.^l far from the confines of the Matianl. was the famous city Ecbatans (» 
^gbatana Hamadan, the meliopolis of Media and the summer-residence of 
•^ Persian kings. The Faithian kings, after their conquest of Media, alio 

C'e it their residence during the heat of summer which was felt very le- 
ly at CWsiphon. It was here that Parmeuio was put lo death by onler 
\if Alexander the (ireat in a moment of that moaarch's suspicious re*eiil- 
ipent ; here loo Hephatstion, aaother of his favourites, is said to have (&d- 
To the W. nf Ecbalana was Concobar l^ungowur, and nearer Assyria stood 

jnideot traces of the name of Elam 
•"■irispe in the South Easlern corner of Ihe pi 

lame with the modern lipahnn, the capital of Perm: 

^b« little river Gyndes Zjjruler. The whole Southern part of Media, touch- 
ing upon Persis and Susiana, was termed Syra-Media. 

'[ 12. Hyrcania, thesmailestamongstallthe provinces 
of Persia, touched to the N. upon Scythia, to the E. upon 
Margiaua, to the S. upon Parthia, and to the W. upon 
Media and the Caspian Sea: it corresponded with the 
modern province of Astrabad and the North Western 

■portion of Kkorasan, it was very famous amongst the 
fincients for its tigers "^ and serpents, as well as for its 

I'xines, figs, olives, and honey : from it the Caspian Sea 
was called Hyrcanum, a name which was always more 
especially applied to the part of it washing the snores of 

'jthe provuice. 

13. Hyrcania was surrounded on three sides by mountains, partjcnlatly 
towards the 14. where llie great range of Coronus Eiburt separated it from 
Parthia. In Ihe Northern part of the province was Socanda or Samius d. 
Atiruck, which empties itself into the Hyrcaniau Sea : and below it was 
Mnieras S. Coergann, near the source of which stood Zadracarla, the me- 

Imperium Perskum — Partkia. 93Y 

lrap<dis of the whole prorinoe, •ometimes cmlled Hyrcaoia Goor^oun. To 
the Southward of this lay Svrinx Jah Jerm, said to have been the capital ci 
the coontiy in the time of the Syrian kings. 

14. Parthia was bounded on the N. by Hyrcania, 
on the E. by AriantL, on the S. by Carmania and Persis, 
and on the W. by Media: it corresponded with the 
Western half of the modem province of Khorasan, It 
was in general an exceedingly desert and arid country, 
being considered by far the most barren of all the Per- 
Bian provinces. Tiie Parthians were an athletic, and 
a warlike people, and were reckoned the most expert 
h(»8emenand archers in the world ^^; they derived great 
celebrity from their peculiar custom of discharging their 
arrows whilst retreating at full speed, which is said to 
have rendered their flight more formidable than their 
attack". Their chief city was situated in the Northern 
part of the country, and was called Hecatompylon from 
the number of gates opening to the roads, which led to 
it from all parts of Persia: it was the seat of their govem- 
meuty and the original residence of theh* kings, and is 
now called Damghan, 

15. The Parthians were successively tributary to the Assyrians, the 
Medes, and the Persians, and having submitted, like the other provinces of 
Persia, to Alexander the Great, were for some time under the power of his 
snoceaeoTB, till the tyranny of Antiochus roused them to rebellion. Arsaces, 
a man of obscure origin, succeeded in establishing their independence about 
UO years b. c : and though the Macedonians endeavoured to recover the 
poisesnoDs which they had lost, they were constantly foiled by a race of 
brave imd vigilant princes, who from the founder of their kingdom assumed 
the name of Arsacids. The district of Parthyene, the cradle of the Parthian 
power, was in the North Eastern part of the province, and to it alone, in its 
early history, the appellation Parthia will be found to appl^. In it were the 
towns Mysia and Tastache, which appear to have left their names in those 
of Mtuhed and Tunheez, The North Western part of Parthia was called 
Comisene, a name which it has preserved to the present day in that of Comit ; 
in it was Sauloe Parthaunisa, said to have been the metropolis of the pro- 
vince and the buiying-place of the Parthian kings. Below this lay the 
district T^biene, the name of which may be traced in that of the modern 
town Tubbus. 

'' Non secus ac nervo per nubem impulsa sagitta, 
Armatam saevi Parthus quam felle veneni, 

Parthus, sive Cydon, telum immedicabile, torsit ; 

Vvrg. Mn, XU. 856. 

^* Fidentemque fuga Parthum, verusque sagittis. 


2d8 Imperivm Persicum — Carmania-^-Gedrosia, 

16. Carmania^* touched to the W. upon Persia, to the 
N. upon Parthia, to the E. lipon Aria and Qedrosia, and 
to the S. upon the Persian Gulf and the Erythraean Sea : 
it corresponded in a general way with the modem pro- 
vince of KermaUy to which it has communicated its name. 
The Northern part of the province, called Carmania De- 
serta, Desert of Kerman, contained no cities but was 
inhabited by a number of Nomadic tribes : its Southern 
part was remarkably fertile, producing abundance of 
cbm, wine, and oil. The name of Carmania was said to 
be derived from the word Carma, signifying in the lan- 
guage of the country a viney for which plant it was very 
famous. Carmana, the metropolis of the province, was 
a considerable distance in the interior of the country, and 
still preserves its name in that of Kerman. 

17. Towards the confines of Gedrosia lay the distiict Harmbzia, the in- 
habitants of which, when the Moguls invaded their country in the ISth. 
century, retreated to a little island in the gulf to which they have communi- 
cated the name of Ormuz^ Carpella Pr. C. Bumbarack is the South Western 
extremity of Persia, ^nd forms with the opposite Asabo Pr. in Arabia, the 
entrance to the Pei-sian Gulf; nearer Gedrosia stood Badis Jask upon the 
shore of tlie Erythraean Sea. Towards the mouth of the gulf lay Oaracta I. 
Kishm, supposed to be the same with Ogyris I. where stood the tomb of king 
Krythras, who was said by the mythologists to have been drowned in the 
Erythraean Sea and to have hence communicated his name to iL 

18, Gedrosia was bounded on the W. by Carmania, 
on the N. by Drangiana and Arachosia, on the E, by In- 
dia, and on the S. by the Erythraean Sea : it correspcoided 
with the modem province of Mekran. It was in general 
exceedingly barren and very thinW inhabited, owing to 
which circumstances it proved fatal to the armies of 
Semiramis and Cyrus when they passed through it ; and 
the troops of Alexander, as they returned through it from 
India, only escaped the horrors of thirst and lamine by 
one of the most rapid marches which that extraordinary 
man ever conducted, and which, amongst other reasons, 
he was induced to undertake for the ambitious purpose 
of convincing the world how much more he could accom- 
plish than his predecessors. 

■ ■_ I — - I - I - 111 ■ — ■ M J 

" Tunc furor extremos movit Romanus Gretas, 
Carmanosque duces, quorum devexus in Austiura 
yEther, non totam mergi taineTv asipicit Arcton ; 
Lucet el exigua velox ib\ uocte lioox.^^, l.ucauA\\» ^50, 

Imperium Persicum^^Ariana* 239 

10. Gedrosia formed a part of the great province Ariana, but being se- 
parated from it by the range of mountains called Becius, it is generally 
eoDsidered as. altogether distinct from it. The metropolis of Gedrosia was 
called Piira Pwreg or Phoreg, and was situated in the Western part of it 
close on the borders of Carmanii. The people who dwelled on the coast of 
the province were called Ichthyophagi or Eaters of Fish, and Chelonophagi 
or Eaten of Tortoises ; ^'ith the bones and shells of which they are said to 
haTe built and covered tlieir houses. On the coast of Gedrosia, not far from 
the borders of Carmania, stood Ommana, the most considerable sea-port 
town between India and the Gulf of Persia. Farther Eastward were lyza 
Thz, Cyiza Guttur, and Cophas Guadel : the last mentioned place was not 
fu from the mouth of the river Cophcn or Zorombis, Dustee or Bhugwur, 
which rises in the district Drangiana and runs past the town of Cbodda 
Kke^e into the Eiythrsan Sea. Upon its left bank, in the centre of Ged- 
rosia, dwelled the Parsirse, whose chief town was Parsis, reckoned by some 
the metropolis of the whole province. Farther Eastward were the Orits or 
Ors, a brave and industrious people : their chief towns were Orsa or Ora 
Hour, and Rambacia Ermcyil, the residence of their king. Beyond these, 
and close upon the borders of India, were the Arabits, said to have been so 
called from the R. Arabis Pooratee, which ran through their country into the 
Erythraean Sea atXerabdon Sinus G. of Sotimeany, 

20. Ariana was bounded on the S. by Gedrosia, on 
the E. by India, on the N. by Bactriana and Scythia, 
and on the W. by Parthia and Carmania : it corres- 
ponded with the Western part of the modem Kingdom 
of Cahul or Afghanistan, It was divided into five prin- 
cipal districts, namely Drangiana in the South ; Ara- 
chosia, and the country of the Paropamisadse in the East ; 
Aria in the West; and Margiana in the North. 

21. DnjiNGiANA touched to the S. upon Gedrosia, to the W. upon Car- 
mania, to the N. upon Aria, and to the £. upon Arachosia ; it received its 
name from its inhabitants, the Drangs. In the Northern part of the district 
were the Zarangaei, whose metropolis was Prophthasia Dooshak, where 
Alexander caused Philotas, the son of Parmenio, to be put to death. Below 
these were the Agriaspse, named Evergetse (Jbenejactors) by Cyrus because 
they saved his army from perishing by hunger in the desert : their chief ci^ 
was Agriaspe, or Ariaspe as it is sometimes called. 

22. Arachosia touched to the W. upon Drangiana, to the S. upon Ged- 
losiay to the E. upon India, and to the N. upon the Paropamisadas : it was 
«o named from its inhabitants, the Arachosii or Arachotse, but the Parthian's 
called it India Alba. The principal river of the countiy was Ai-achotus il. 
Lora, which rises in the Parueti M^, and connects itself with a little lake, 
called A rachotus Fons or L. Vaihend: near the shores of this lake stood 
Alexandria Scanderia or Vaihend, built in memory of Alexander's march 
through the country. But the metropolis of Arachosia was Arachotus 
Rokadj, called formerly Cophen and Culis. 

23. The Paropamisads touched to the S. on Arachosia, to the E. upon 
India, to the N. upon Bactriana, and to the W. upon Aria ; they derived 
their name from the great range of Paropamisus, which towered high above 
their Northern frontier, and partly separated them from the B^.clt\AL^%. T^nanx 
chief city was Ortospaua, called also Carura KandaluiT. ^\A&Tfi:^«&\s:k>^'^ 

Imperium Persicum — Saoiriana. 
'9t- of it, and upon the Ensteia bank of the Etymandrua, stood AlexmdiU. 
WwDce Alexander the Great proceeded upon his Indian expedition. In the 
^Bilh Eastern comer of the province nas Gauiaca Gbiati, near the source 
yS tfae H. Cophes Ghiini, lower down which, in the diitiict Capissene, fteoA 
Capssa Calml ^ the people heteabouls were called Csboliis, and it ii doubt' 
mti itom this word thai the modern name of Cabitl has been derived. 

84. Aria touched Id ibe E. upon the Paropamisadie, to the N. upM 
Ifargiana. to the W. upon Parthia, and to the S. upon Dmngiana-, it it- 
riredila name from ilschief iribethBAiii, and from ils being the moat feitila 

nost important district in the Eaatfrn part of Persia it gave name Mtlie 

whole province of Ariana. The continuation of Pafopamisns M., olW 
flahphi Monies, rnns Ihroogh the Northern part of [he district, and contubt 
th* springs of two rivers both named Aril. The more Morthem of Ihw. 
Mill called H«-i, ii the great river of Mai^iana, and loses itself iu a sm^l 
Juke on the borders of Bactriana and Sogdiana ; the Southern Aria fl. 
fartah R. loses ilselF together with the Elymandrus in Aria Palus L. if 
Zarrak, on the confines of Caimania, Parthia, and Diangiana. At lb* 
Western eitremity of This lake was Aleiandria Ariajia ^to, boilt b; 
Aleiander. The metropolis of Aria was siluated in the Northern pert of 
Ihe district, on the baaks of Aria il., ami was called Artacoana or Ana oow 
Herat. Below ifaese lay the district of Anabon, in which were lbs towns of 
fhra or Phorana furrafi, and Abeste or liis float ; and the district SkCM- 

SS. MjuaiiNA touched to the S. on Aria, to the E. on Bactriana, totbt 
N. on Sogdiana and Scjibin, and to the W. upon Hyicania and Parthia : il 
4Brived ita name from the R. Margns lUurgftub, which rises in the range of 
faropamisus, near the source of the Norlhem Aria fl., and flows inU the 
latter river not far from the capital. The Ramans who weie Uken priwoin 
■fter lbs defeat of Crassns, were sent hither and dispersed over the cODDliTi 
where ninny of them settled and intermarried with the inhabitants ; hcM* 
they were unwilling to return home, and several of them even hid thenueltta 
from those who were sent, during the reign of Augustus, to take them back 
to Rome". A little distance from the junction of the rivets Margus aad 
Aria stood the Iowa Sariga Semkha. To the Eastward of it dwelled ih* 
Tapuri and Mardi : above these, in the Northern part of the province, wen 
the Parne and Dabs, and beyond them were the Maisageta! and Derbiecn. 
Antiochia Maijiana. the capital of the district, was hnill by Anuochuithe 
first, on the site of a city which had been already founded there and namtd 
Alexandria : il is now called Mn-i>B Shah Jihan, and is near the terminatioti 
of the R. Margus in Ihe little lake which receives its waters. 

26. Bacthiana or Bactria" is bounded on the S. 

' Horace has alluded to the settlement of many in the country ; 

(Pioh Curia, ii 

Consenuil ss 

Sub rege Medo. Marsusel Appulus, — Curm 

Virgil mention! Baclriana amongst the riehesl connlties in 

idibus halite certenl: non tiuviv <»»\'°« Lndi. 
Totaqtis ihurileiia PanchMa pngiu* itews. Gi 


Imperium Perricwn — Sogdiana. 241 

ParopamisuB or Caucasus Mons ; on the E. by a spur 
the same range called Comedorum M^. ; on the N. by 
R. Oxus ; and on the W. by the desert of Mars^iana. 
Ittcmched to the S. on the Paropamisadae, to the B. on 
die SacsB, to the N. on Sogdiana, and to the W. on 
Hargiana. It corresponded vdth the Nortliern pait of 
QJml, end has left its name in one of the dependencies 
this country, now called Balkh, as well as in that of 
hsAaiL Its metropolis was Bactra BaUt/i, called 

jerly Zariaspa, and situated on Zariaspes or Bac- 

ijfm fl." Balhh K. ; it was in this important city that Alex- 
ibder the Great took up his winter-quarters, and here in 
%>.fit of intoxication he murdered his friend Clitus for 
Jiaving ventured to prefer the actions of Philip to those 
driis son. 


97. The Bactnani or Bactii were reduced by the Macedonians under 
AltttBder, who erected their country into a regular province and appointed 
a governor over it. During the confusion which followed the death of this 
^narrh, the governors of Bactriana asserted their own independence, which, 
W the assifitaDce of the Greek troops who had been left to protect the pro- 
WDoej they easily maintained. They soon extended their dominions over 
Ae whole of Anana and Carmania, reduced Sogdiana under their power, 
9mi carried war into the very heart of India. But their kingdom was at last 
OMBpletely overturned, about 140 years b. c, partly by dissensions amongst 
thamielveSa and partly by the irruptions of the Northern Barbarians. I'he 
fmie round Baetra or Zariaspa were named Zariasps ; to the S. of them, 
q^ Mriaspes fl., stood Cariats Charhaindf where the philosopher Caliisthenes 
Via impfisoned by Alexander, for refusing to pay him divine honours, and 
afterwarda shamefully put to death. Below these, on the confmes of the 
Fan^pamisads, lay the district Guria GauVf in which stood Drapsaca Boot 
** the first Bactrian town entered by Alexander. 

•28, Sogdiana was bounded on the S. by the Oxus, 
on the E. by the Comedorum Montes, on the N. by the 
laxartes, and on the W. by the Oxii M*., a low range of 
hills stretching across between the two rivers. To the 
S. it bordered upon the Paropamisadse, to the E. upon 
the SacsB, to the N. and W. upon Scythia : it corres- 
ponded with the modem province of Great Bukaria, 
a little district of which near the metropolis preserves the 
ancient name in -4/ Sogd. The metropolis of Sogdiana 
was Maracanda or Paracadi Sumerkund, situated on the 

- • m ... — .1 

*• ' Tinxere sagittas 

Errantes Sc^this populi, quos gurgite Bactto^k 

Jndadit gebdo, vastisque Hyrcania aylvis. l.uf onAW/^l • 


24^ Indite. 

banks of the R, Polytimetus Kohuk. Near it was Nau- 
taca Nekshaby where Bessus the governor of Bactriana, 
who behaved so traitorously to Darius, was taken and 
shortly after put to death by Alexander's permission. 

29. The Western portion of the proyince was originally inhabited by the 
two great nations of the Dahte and Fame, who extended as far as the shoies 
of the Caspian : the Massagets dwelled in the Northern part of the pro- 
Tince, extending into Scythia and the dominions of the Sace. From ^ 
Oxii M"., the Western boundary of Sogdiana, another range strikes tpox to 
the Eastward, called So^^ii M'. Ala Tau, &c.» which runs tuough the whole 
province, and connects itself with the Comedorum M"., on the frontienof 
the Sacte. To the Northward of it, on the banks of the laxartes, stocd 
Cyreschata, called also Cyropolis and Cyra Chodjand, the outmost of all 
the cities built by Cyrus. Near it was Alexandria Ultima Koukan, the ont* 
most city founded by Alexander ; he built it in twenty days, although it wai 
sixty stadia in circuit, and peopled it with Greeks, Macedonians, and Bar^ 
banans : it was here that he crossed the laxartes into Scythia. To the S. 
of Maracanda lay the little territory of the Branchide, whom Xerxes had 
carried away captive from the neighbourhood of Miletus, and whose towo 
was destroyeid by Alexander : some distance to the westward of it» upon tht 
Polytimetus, stood Trybactra new Bokhara. 




I. India was bounded on the W. by the Arabiti and 
Parueti M'., on the N. by the Paropamisus and Emodi 
M^.y on the E. by the mountains of the Sinae, and on the 
S. by the Ocean. To the W. it touched upon Ariana, 
to the N. upon the territory of the Sacse and Scythia 
extra Imaum, and to the E. upon the possessions of the 
Sinae. It was divided by the K, Ganges into two nearly 
equal parts, the Western of which, named India intra 
Gangem, corresponded with that portion of modem India 
lying Westward of the Ganges ; the Eastern part, or 
India extra Gangem, included India beyond the Ganges^ 
Tibet, Assam, SiTmah, and nearly the whole of Anam. 
It derived its name from tbe K.. Indus, which was 
cottBidered by many as fonmii^ \V& ^oxidQKSL \»^i^xds 

. India. 243 

Persia: the two proTmces together contained 1,815,600 
square miles, or three*fourths as many as the whole of 
modem JSurope, 

2. The Oneka knew but little of India till its invasion by Alexander the 
Gieaty as may be inferred from none of their existing poets mentioning even 
its name. Toe fabled campaigns, which some of Uieir mythologists repxe- 
lent Dionysus, or Bacchns \ and Hercnles to have undertaken against it, 
were iiiTented after they had arrived at a considerable knowledge of the 
eoontiy : and the accounts which they received concerning the Indians may 
fer die most part be classed amongst those fables, which were related on all 
adei of the people dwelling at the extremities of the then known world. 
Anionnt these fables may be included that of the Pygmaei^ or nation of 
black dwarfs, who were so small that the tallest amongst them seldom ex- 
ceeded two feet in height They were admirable archers ; their animals 
mn all of a proportionable stature with themselves, and upon these they 
went ont to make war against certain birds, called cranes, who came annu- 
ally from Scythia to plunder them. Later traditions, however, remove these 
J^l^ies to the deserts of Africa, wh'jre they represent them to have at- 
tacked Hercules when sleeping after his victory over Ant«us. 

t. The campaign of Alexander was confined to the countries watered by 
the Indus and its branches. He entered India near Cabul, and crossed the 
Indus and Hydaspes, on the banks of which last he ('efeated Porus, one of 
the Indian kings, whose dominions, however, he afterwards increased by the 
addition of several new provinces. Alexander then traversed the Punjab as 
fv as the banks of the Hyphasis Beyah, when his troops refused to proceed far- 
iher Eastward. This disobedience was confirmed by the reports of the warlike 
preparations made against them by the king of the Gangaridae and Prasii, 
which filled even the veterans with such apprehension, that they declared 
openly they would follow their chief no farther in that direction. In this 
crisis of his affairs Alexander yielded to the general wish ; he accordingly 
made preparations for retreating, but first having enlarged the circuit of his 
encampment, he built twelve immense altai-s on the banks of the river, and 
ordered beds and other pieces of furniture to be left behind, of greater di- 
mensions than corresponded with the ordinaiy proportions of man, intending 
them as a subject of wonder for all posterity. He then retreated to the Hy- 
daspes, and descended the Indus to Patala, and subsequently to the sea. 
Having performed sacrifices to Neptune, he ascended the Indus to Xyleno- 
polis, which he had ordered to be built in iils absence; and finally set off at 
the head of his army, traversed the Southern provinces of Persia, in the 
deaertsof which he lost the greater part of his troops, and arrived at length 
at the Babylonian metropolis. 

4. India is said to have contained more than a hundred different nations ; 
its inhabitants were a fine, athletic race, and were divided anciently into 
leven Castes. India was reckoned by the ancients amongst the most opulent 

^ Victa racemifero lyncas dedit India Baccho. 

Ovid, Met. XV. 413. 

* 'flure wep KXay^yt^ yspdviav weXti oifpavddi wqb, 
Acr' ifrcl oifv xniiZva ^vyov koi &^B(rd>aTOv Ofijipov, 
KXoyyy raiy« rrkrovTai kw* 'QKtavdio podu^v, 
'Avdpdai Hvyfiaioiai (j>6vov Kal K^pa ((tcpovaac 
*Hkpuu d* dpa raiyt Kaxijv tpila 7rpo^E9ovTai. Horn. \V. \^ .^, 

M 2 

244 Indie. 

of all the countries of Asia'; it was also exceedingly fertile, producing 
almost every kind of grain, as well as many sorts of spices in great abon* 
dance. Its elephants were especially famed for their sise and strength, and 
were much preierred to the African^; it was also greatly celebrated ibrits 
tigers and serpents. India produced many perfumes^ as weU as precioQS 
stones and gold ; its woods, and the trees in them, were of a vast magni- 
tude and height, and its ebony was very famous' ; there is likewise some 
slight mention made of its indigo and sugar-cane. 

6. The great range of mountains which bounded India 
on the North, was known by the names of Paropamisus 
and Emodus or Emodi M^ The former of these names, 
which the Macedonians out of compliment to Alexander 
are said to have changed to Caucasus, was applied to 
the range in the neighbourhood of the Indus, and is still 
known as the Hindoo Coosh or Indian Caucasus; the 
latter appellation was used to denote the remainder of 
the range as far Eastward as the borders of the Sina?^ 
and is still preserved in that of Himachal or Himalsh, 
It is the loftiest range of mountains in the world. It 
was from these moimtains that the range of the Imaus 
struck out into Scythia, and divided it into two parts. 
The great river Ganges ^, which still maintains its name, 
rises on the Southern side of the Emodi Montes, and 
winds its way with a South-Westerly course into the 
Gangeticus Sinus or Bay of Bengal^ to which it gave 
name and which it enters by several mouths: it receives 
in its course the waters of many great rivers, and from 
its importance to the natives they paid it the most super- 
stitious veneration. 

^ Intactis opulentior 

Tnesauris Arabum, et divitis Indise,-^ 

Hot* Carm, III. zzxr. 2. 

* Quaeque sui monitis obtemperat Inda magistri 

Bellua, servitium tempore seta subit. (hnd. TVtst. IV. vi. 7. 
Its ivory is frequently spoken of: 

non 9.urum, aut ebur Indicum ; — 

Hot. Carm. I. xxxL 6. 

* £t domitas gentes, thurifer Inde, tuas. Ovid, Fast, III. 720. 

* •.«— . Sola India nigrum 

Fert ebenum, Virg, Georg. II, 116. 

^ Nee pulcher Ganges, atque auro turbidus Hermus, 
Laudibus Italiae certent. Id, 137. 

— ^— — lato spatiantem €ium\n« G^\i%<ftu, 

/lU&B — India intra Gangem. 246 

6. India intra Oanoem, or India West of the 
Ganges, included together with the /. of Ceylon 966,400 
square miles. Its Western coast was traversed by a 
lofty range of mountains called Bettigus or Bettigo, now 
the Western Ghauts ; it terminated in Comaria Pr., the 
Southernmost point of the whole peninsula, which has 
retained its name to the present day in that of C Co- 

7. To the South of the Emodi M"., in the centre of India, are three great 
lidgM of mountains, the Northernmost of which called Vindius Vindhya, 
cHMMt the country from the R. Ganges to the head of the Gulf of Cuteh, 
Below it, and parallel with it, is Sardonyx Mods Sautpoora, which separates 
the waten of tne Ntrhuddah and Tapty ; and still lower down is Adisathrus 
M. SeehaekuU, dividinE the course of the Tapty from the Godavery. The 
range of M*. Bettigo is connected towards the South with another ridgf 
eontiderably lower than itself, called Onidii or Arunei M'., now known ai 
the Eattem GhamU from its running through the Eastern part of the penin' 

8* The R. Indus®, or Sindus as it was called by the 

natives, rises in the angle formed by the mountains 

Emodi and Imaus ; it breaks through the high moun- 

I tains ParopamisuSy and enters the Erythraean Sea b] 

[ seven moutns : it is still called Indus or Scind. 

. 9. It receives on its right bank the Choaspes fl. or Cabtd R,, called als< 
f Choes from a little river of this name which joins it. On the N. bank o 

the Choaspes was Massaga, the capital of the Assaceni, which Alexande 
besieged for a long time without success, until the troops who defended i 
capitulated. A little farther Eastward was the rock Aomos Ohund, whicl 
was said to be so high that birds were unable to reach its summit ; Alexan 
der would probably have never gained possession of it, but for some inee 
mous manoeuvres which frightened the garrison and caused them to abandoi 
it. Near the junction of Uie Indus and Choaspes stood Taxila Attoek, th 
residence of kinv Taxiles, at whose especial invitation Alexander enters 
India. Lower down the Indus was Nysa^ Nughz, called also Dionysopoli 
from its having been sacred to Bacchus. It was situated at the foot c 
Meron Mons Kheiber Ms., where Bacchus was educated by the nymphs c 
the place, and hence the fable of his having been confined in the thig 
(;if|pdc) of his father. 

10. The Indus receives upon its left bank the waters of five rivei 
which have given name to the modern Punjab or the Country of the Fii 
JUvert, over which Alexander spread his ephemeral conquests. Thes 
five riven rise in the Emodi Montes. The Westernmost of them is Ui 

* Quacjue, ferens rapidum diviso gurgite fontem, 
Vastis Indus aquis mixtum non sentit Hydaspen ; — 

Lucan. III. 236. 


* Dicam ego matemos ^tnso fuhnine ^it>]L«» 

Jndica Nyamis arma fiigata chori& ; — Propert .\X1. x^ . 1\ 

M 3 

246 India: — India intra Gani/em. 

Hydaspes" Jhylam, wliicL hna ils bource not hi from Ihe lown of Caspni 
Caihmere; upon ils bantu Alexander ddealed foius, aod founded the lown 
Niciea lo perpetuEite hi> victory, as well as aaolliec called BucephakJhylun 
in memoiy of his faiouiite hocae Uucephalus, that died here of old age. 
The Hydaapefl raos ioto the AceaiDes Chunab near the ctmnCry of the Catbst, 
ai do«s also Ihe Hydnuitea Kutu; upon this las! rivet stood the Iowa Lahoix 
Jjihurt. The Acesinea mm pant MBllarum Oppidum M-niUan, the chief 
town of Ihe Milli, in raehly attacking ooe of whose cjtadela Alexandei 
Dsarl; !osi his life. To (he Easiwatd of the Hydraotei ii the Hyphwf 
Gurrah or Beyak, where Aleiander hulll his twelve enoinioiis altars, and 
begon his retreat to ihe Westward : it is joined by the Hesidnis or Zaradrus 
Sullegt. To the Easlward of Ihe Hesidrus was Senada SiMad. remaAable 
SI the lirEt place where the silkwonn was successfully inlrodaced by ibe 
Indiaos ; it was hence that in the Ulh century cralua Dtaoks brought Ibc 
emperor Juatinian the eggs of the worm, and by them the cullivalion of ulk 
iraa Srst inttodtieed amongst us. The Hyphaiis joins the Indus in the 
countrf of the Oxydracas, who seem to have left their name In the modeni 
diatrlei of Outeh. Lower down the Indus were the Sogdi, and below ihen 
the Muiicani : farther Southward were Sydnis Hgiltraliad, and Fatala the 
capital of Ihe district Pataleoe. To the S. of the Indui lay Ihe peninsolar 
district Syraatrene, so named from its chief town Syraslnt Arrykr, wbich 
trilh the apposite diatrici Larice (ioo^Vral tbmred Iiinus or Canlhi Sinus G. 
uf Cuteh. Monoglossuro Cambay was situated ut the head of Baiygazenus 
Sinus G. Iff Camhay ; Oiene Oagm was a cDosideiiible way up Ihe CDUDlrj 
Dear the aource of Sambus fl. ChvnAaL 

11. The two principal riveia which enter the Indian Ocean on the WeM> 
era coast of Inilia are, the Namadus Herbuddak, and Nanwuna Taftj, 
which both empty tbeniselves into Barygaienus Sinus G. of Cambati ; Ihe 
fbrmer flaws into the sea near Baty^aia Bavocha, the metropolis of larice 
Goojeral, and the Nanaguna II. enters the sea near Caljiena GwUa. The 
whole of Ihe peninsula to the S, of the Namadus was called Dachinabailes. 
from the woid Dachanos which in the language of Ihe country signified 
South; and hence in modem times the name of Dtcran has been aj^lied 
to a similar eiteol of country. Il was in the midst of ihla district OC Da- 
chinabades that some of the ancients placed the Brachmani or finiAinw, 
irtiom they elao called Gymnoaophisle from ihcic custom of going nearly 
naked : they were no doubt to be found then aa they are oow scattered ovei 
the whole country. To the S. of Barygaia was Perimuda I. SoJmiI /.,wiih 
a pi'omontory of the same naine : upon it was an emporium much visited by 
the people of ihe neighbourhood, the place of which is dow occu^ued by 

la. To the S. of this dwelled the Pliatie, who lived by plundering all 
vessels that sailed along their coast : to thum belonged Armagara Ckrria, 
and Peperina I. Gua, Beyond Gna, to the Southward, was the district 
Limyrico, which extended as far Eastward as ihe R. Chaberis Cavvtry, neat 
which was its capital Caruia Carow. 'I he Southern part of Limyrlca was 
Utterly called Male, and hence the name of the modem province SSalabar. 


— Medus 

extended i 

g™-^. IV.Sll. 

(Where " Medus'' is used in an 

vel <iu« locatibaVufti 

Lwotiit Hydaspea. 

India — India intra Gangem. 247 

Tbe contiiittation of the coast of India, as far as C. Cotnorin, now called Tnt" 
vancoref was inhabited 1^ the Aii, whose name is preserved in that of the 
modem town Auteattoh ; their chief place was Cottiara or Cottone Cochin, 
titoited in the district Cottonara, so celebrated amongst the ancients for its 
excellent pepper. The whole Southern part of India, now for distinction's 
sake named The Camaiie, was once called Pandionis Kegio from its being 
TOvemed by a prince whose name was Pandion, and who resided at Modura 
Ifisdacra; he sent an embassy to Augustus when at Samos. 

13. A little to the Eastward of C. Comorin is the 
island Taprobana^^, or Salice as it was called by the natives, 
now known as Ceylon : it is said to have been formerly 
called PalsBgimundum, and was imagined by the ancients 
upcm its first discovery to have been the Northern part of 
a new continent or world. Their subsequent investiga- 
tions, however, proved it to be an island : but they so 
ez^gerated its size as to make it larger than the whole 
of Great JBritain, whereas it only contains 19,400 square 
miles, or about 3,800 less than Scotland. Its inhabitants 
were called Salae, and were said to be very rich and to 
live to a great age ; they were governed by a king who 
sent an embassy to the emperor Claudius : their chief 
divinity was said to be Hercules. 

14. In the Northern part of the island stood PalaBsimundum Jaffnapatam, 
bdow which was Anurogrammum Anurajepoera ; both these places are de- 
scribed to have been roysu cities. Upon the Eastern coast was the harbour 
Spatana TrmeomatUe, into which runs Ganges fl. Goorokel Gange: this river 
rises in the lofty Malea Mons Adam't Peak, not far from Sindocanda Kandi, 
Near the Southernmost point of Taprobana, called Orneon Pr. by the Greeks, 
and now Dcndra Head, was Dana TangaU ; above it, on the Western coast, 
was Arubingara Colombo. Ceylon is connected with India by a chain of 
islands and sand banks, called ildom'f Bridge', the Westernmost of these, 
called Coiy by the natives, and now Ramanancar lies off Coiy Pr. Ramen 
Pl and has given name to the modem maiitime district of Coromandel. The 
stnit between India and the I. Taprobana, now known as Polk's St., is 
dirided by Adam*$ Bridge into two parts: the Northern one was called 
Argaricus Sinus Patk*$ Bay, the Southern one Colchicus Sinus G. of 

15. Chaberis fl. Cauoery is the Southernmost river of any consequence in 
India ; it rises in the Wettem Ohauts, and after traversing the country of 
the Bati or Coimbatoor, runs with a South Easterly course past Tallara Tan- 
jore into the B. of Bengal, which it enters by several mouths opposite the 
/. pf CeyUm, At one of these stood Nigama Nagapatam, a few miles above 
CaUigicnm Pr. Calymere Pt, ; and a little farther Northward, at another of 
iti mouths, was Chaberis Cauverypatam. Above this lay the maritime dis- 
trict Soretanum Paralia Coromaridel, the chief town of which was Arcatis 
Arcot; b^ond it was Malange now Madras, Farther Northward were 
Tyna fl. Pennaar, which watered the territory of the Arvami ; Mesolus fl. 

" Aut ubi Taprobauen Indica cingit aqua« Ovid, ei PcmlA.'S,^^^ 


1^48 India — India extra Gangem. 



tnah f^'ing oame lo the district Meiolia, traces n( fbieh sppaTlBtioa mlT 
nbserved id ihatof MoinJipBloni si the mouth oflbe river; Knd Gociris n. 
tlavery, fiDin the mODlh o{ which those ihtps took their departure wludi 
led across the B. of Bengal to the Aorea Cheisonesu*. 
16. The niesolus Kiatm^ R. rises in the Wtttem GAault, and after fais- 
- - "Itle to the Northward of Modogulla Mudgul, receives the (raten e( ] 
B. Bcana, which has its source near Poonalt the ancient Banavan. 
these on the coast we meet with Caliagoo Pr. aeai Calingajiattn, 
Sippara Peory or Jaggimaut. The country hereabouts was inhaliitEd 
lie Liungaridffi CBlin|», a branch of the Northeru Gaogacid^, and was 
tvetsed by MuoadaS, Maluiauddy, which eaters the sea at Caliga Kultoel. 
. IT. The most importanl people iu the Eaitem part of India were 
At Prasii and Gangarida:", the reports concerning mliom so alarmed the 
^Aops of Aleianilcr. Of these the latter were nearer the moulli of the 
_kngGS, wheuce they probably deriTed their na me. Their chief town was 
^«nge Itegia Calcatia, so famous as a place oF trade for the finest liidiaa 
lufaclures, as well as Nard and Chinese Malohathntm : it stood upon 

of the arms of the Ganges now called HMgtii, not far from that nonlb 

vhich the ancients named Maguum Ostium. Yhe Pimii were cantoned 
' ■! up the Ganges on botii banks of the river, in the modern provinces of 
:r. AUahiibad, Oiidt, &c. ; they were the most pDweifut people lu the 
-Mule of India. Their capital was Palimbothra or Palibothra Patna, uu- 
\fted at the conilucnce of the Etannoboa-s Caifle with tlie Ganges, and fabled 
W have been built by Hercules. 'I he Erannoboas received on its left bask 
''fenus B. SiBur, which rises in the Eastern part of Vindius M. near Sage^ 
Sahagtpmr. But the greatest tributaiy of the Gouges is the Jomaaes or 
'*)iauiuiia S. Jumva, which rises not far from it in the Emodi Al'., and lUDS 
early panllel with it; Iheir junctiun takes place at CliioJiora AUalnkad. 
le Junma also receives on its right bank the Erineses fl. BtluuA, Siltocatis &. 
tad, and Sambus fl. Ciuintiril] of these the Sambus is much the lorgetl. 
%e towns of Adisdara and Melhora upon the Jumaa ace now Aga and 
ifHrai above them dwelled the Nanichs round the modem city of £tUioT 
lldrnprnilli, which stands on the banks of the same river, and appears to 
ave been the chief town of tiie Indrapralhie. 

18. India extba Gangem touched to the W, upon 
"pidia intra Gangem, to the N. upon Scythia extra Imauni, 

luid to the E. upon Senca and the country of the Sioffl ; 
1^ contained 849,200 square miles, and comprehended (in 
'itddition to that portion of modem India wnich lies E.of 

(he Ganges) 2'ibet, Assam, Birmak and nearly the whole 


The Ganges recelvos on its Noithem bank several considerable Itibu- 

wliicb rise in the Eniodi Alontes. The largest amongst these it the 

erases or Sabarus fl. Gogra. joined near its confluence with the Ganges 

Andumatis B. Rapty-. the HOple who dwelled between it and the 

_ nges were named Gangani. The great river Bni-rampwln- was koown 

jo the ancients by the name of Dyatdanes or UHdaoes ; it rises in the 


I auru Bolidoqne elephanlu 
victurisQUB ajma Quirini ; 


ItuBm^^India extra Gangem. 240 

AMmntmiflB of lUit, tnd fiowi into the Bay of Bmgsl cIom to the mouth of 
the Gang^. To the Weetwafd of this the Ganges receives near Corygaza 
Gh uip 0or» the waters of Cacuthis fl. Geomty, and still farther Westward 
those of the Magon Ramgonga, Condochates fl. Gtuiduck flows through 
the province of Nepaul, which was anciently inhabited by the PazaJs and 
Cbrancali, and enters the Ganees opposite the metropolis Palimbothra. 
Far^r Eastward are Ozjrmagis fl. Bngmutti/, and Cossoanus fl. C\)5a/i. 
Between this last river and the Burrampooter dwelled the Maruode, whose 
chief city Aganagora appears from its ruins, which are still called Gour, to 
have been very extensive ; the Ganges formerly ran past it, but this river 
now flows several miles to the Westward of its old bed. The people of 
AttoM on the banks of the Burrampooter were called Dabasae. 

90. Below the mouth of the Burrampooter lay the district Cirradia, the 
chief town of which was Pentapolis Chittagon^ or Jslamabad : the Aracan }i» 
was called Tacosanna, and the town itself Tnglyphon. Farther Southward 
is the promontory Temala C. Negrais, at the mouth of Sabaracus fl. h-ra- 
VMddy : this river rises in Tibet, and flows Southward past Adisaga Avuy 
into Sabaracus Sinus G. of Murtabarif so called from it or from the town 
Sahara which stood at its mouth ; it enters the sea by several arms. The 
Westernmost of these arms was called Temala Persaim, frum the town 
Temala Penaim, which stood upon it. Besynga fl. Zittaung, another arm 
tii the river, v^as likewise so called from the town Besynga Zittaung, and 
gave name to the district Besyngitis Pegu ; its capital was Mareura Maro. 
The whole country hereabouts was celebiated for its gold, silver, and 
ieopper, and was hence divided into the Kegio Aurea, Areentea, and Chal> 
dtis : Jn the last stood die town Ziroara Ztmee, Considerably to the S. of 
thu dwelled the Daone in Tanai$erim. 

21. The Aurea Chersonesus, so famed amongst the 
ancients for its great wealth, is now called Malaya, a 
name which it has probably always borne, and which 
may be traced in that of its Southern promontory Malaei 
CSolon ; this promontory, called also Magnum and now 
Romania Pt, was the oouthenimost point of all India, 
and probably of the whole Eastern world as known to the 
ancients. To the Westward of the Chersonesus was 
labadii or Hordsei I. Sumatra, likewise said to abound in 
gold, and thought by some learned men to be the same 
with Ophir, mentioned in the Bible as the place whence 
Solomon had great quantities of gold brought home iu 
ships. At the North Westeni extremity of Sumatra was 
its chief city Argentea Metropolis Acheen : the ancients 
appear to have known nothing whatever of the Southern 
part of the island. The Strait of Malacca, which sepa- 
rates the island from the peninsula, was called Perimub- 
cus Sinus, from the town Perimula in the latter which 
has left its name in the district oiPeraK 

M 5 

SfiO Sinartim Regio. 

as. Upon the Western shores of llw Golden Clieisooesus •ere Salaaga 
SaUtiigon, oad Pilaada Malaccit. The lower part of the peniusula wu io- 
babiled hy a set of lawless i>irates, and was hence naiaed LaltonuiB Ragio. 
Tu the Westward of Samatra were the Siodm In. A'iui, Mug- i., &c and at 
its North Western eitremi^ were the Barassffi Ie. Bfaiite. Farther North- 
ward 'm the B. of Bengal were the Maniolai lie. NiaiiaT U., and above them 
was Agathu Dnmooos or Bona^ Fortans I., now the Great Andavum ; the 
former were said to attract and hold fast aU ships built with iina nails which 
passed near them, although the Lapis Hereufis (or MagHet) was not to he 
found there. Aseeodiog the Eastern coast of the Auiea Chersooesns, we 
find Thagota Ttngoram, and Sinda Cin, the chief town of the Sindi. Be- 
tween the Eaitem coast of the Aurea Chersonesus and the oppOiile shores 
of (he Sinffi is the G. of Siam, which the ancients named Sinus Magnus: 
into it ran the R. Serua Mtiian, a branch of which is stiil called Sm. The 
modern citjof Siam or Julhia, situated at the moulb of this tivei, was called 
Agimiclha and was the chief lawn of (he Barra or Sunaae. 


23. The SinEE, or Thlnse as they are sometimes called, 
were bounded on the W. by India extra Gangem, on the 
J?, by Serica, and on the S. by the Ocean ; all the coun- 
iry to the Eastward of them was Terra Incognita to the 
incienta, who therefore reckoned them the most Eastern 
{leople in the world. They were undoubtedly the same 
with the Chinese of the present day, and it is from the 
Brinciple which these people have always observed of 
excluding foreigners from their dominions, or of throwing 
.■jBUch obstacles in their way as only a few have ever sur- 
jQOunted, that the ancients knew so little about them. 

three places in Serica, (he ancienla 
described bjr thrm 
,. ^ d tallier to oatlsDs 

who were dependant nn (he latter people, than to the people thenuelvei, and 
must be looked for in (he modem provinces of Carnbiidia and Cechin China. 
A few miles below Siam dwelled the Aspilhne on Aspithra B. Sanie Bon, and 
Ikrther Southward lajthe Ambastic wl(htheiT river Aitihastus Bdvnayr, md 
Theriodes or Fetinus Sinus. The Southernmost point in the lerntoiy of the 
MiniB was called Satjrotum Pr. Miii Sha Kaoe, and off it laj the Satyraiun 
In. Oby 1i., the inhabitants of whith were said to have t«ls like (he Salyn. 
W> allusion, no doubt, (o the numliei of long-tailed monkeys with which the 
Uands were intested. Farther Eastward was Codaris fi. Comtudia mj*jim- 

id Serica in the KasLem part of Tihel, and Bows with a 
DouiDBTiy i:uiiiT<e past Coccoranagara Canibodio into the Chinn Sea, At Ue 
■mouth 01 the rivei was a little giilf, named by the ancients Siuaium intjinui 
£inus, hut now called Sai-Con Harbour afler the city Sai Gaa which il pto- 
hably the same with the city Thin». This city and the neighbouring C«(ti- 
(ara Kega were the farthest points visited by the nieicbants who traded to 
Ul»e CDUotries, allheugb they had heoid of (lie Sinarum Meliopolis, which. 

SarmaHa. Ml 

fron its raported diitance, m well as from other coociirreQt circumstances, 
is thoaglit tp have been at Sin4uM or Taan-hoa, formerly the most flourishing 
plM» in the whole of CoekU China. 





1. Sannatia extended irom the R. Vistula to the Cas- 
pian Sea, and from M^ Caucasus and the shores of the 
£uzine to the Northernmost limits of the known world : 
it was divided by the R. Tanais into Europeea and 

S. All the inhabitants of this vast extent of country were formerly knowi 
lo the ancients by the collective name of Scythians, as being a portion ol 
Aat powerful natum inhabiting the whole Northern part of Asia as well at 
of Europe, £rom the shores of the Ister to the utmost Northern and Easten 
limita A the known world. The appellation Sauromats ' or Sarmats wai 
ofiginally described as being that of a separate Scythian tribe on the shorei 
of the Pains MsDOtis, between the Borysthenea and Tanais : the Sarmata 
•nd Scythians are by othen, however, called Jazyges, an indigenous name 
agnizing merely piople^ that of Scythians having never been used by th< 
natifea uemaelves. The SauromaUe or Sarmatc, from being one of thi 
most p o werfu l tribes of the whole nation, contrived to make their name th< 
eoUecdve one for the whole Scythian honle on the borders of the Emzine Sef 
and Dacia. And when the Romans found people speaking the same laih 
giitge» and using the same customs as these Southern Sarmats, on th< 
shores of the Danube, the Vistula, and the Baltic Sea, they readily adoptee 
a general appellation, which they had long wanted to distinguish all th< 
people as lar Eastward as the Caspian Sea, and henceforward called their 
Sannata* and their country Sarmatia. The Sarmats are described by th( 
andents as a most savage and uncultivated people, exceedingly immoral 
and addicted to war and rapine ; they were accustomed to paint their bodies 
in Older to appear more terrible to their enemies. They lived a Nomadi< 
life, phinderiag all who fell in their way ; and many of them are said U 
have fed upon the blood of horses mixed with milk, whence they were sur 
named Hippemolgi. They generally lived under tents or in waggons, ant 
were from the latter custom, narticularly one tribe on the banks of th< 
BfHysthenes, called Hamaxobii\ 

* Ultra Sauromatas fugere hinc libet et glacialem 
Oceanum,— - Juv. Sat. II. I. 

^ Campestres melius Scyths, 

Quorum plaustra vagas rite trahunt domes, 
Yivunt, Hot. Canm HI, xxiv , 10 , 

M 6 


"^ffl Sarmatia — Sarmatia Europaa. 

3. Sarmatia EuROP^A corresponded generally 
odem Russia in Europe. It was bounded on the 

the R. Tanais ; on the S. by the Palus Meeotis, the 
'6ntus Euxinua, and the R. Tyras ; on the W. by a part 
[ the Danube, by the R. Vistula, and the Codanus 
Sinue ; to the N. it was said to be washed by the Hyperbo- 
"fena Oceanus or Arctic Ocean, but it is doubted whether 
he ancients had any knowledge of this, farther than as 
inpart of that ocean with which they supposed the earth 
mhe surrounded. Sarmatia Europsea touched to the W. 

ri Gennany and Panaonia, to the S, upon Maesia and 
la, and to the E. upon Sarmatia Asiatica. 

4, Amongst the great mountain ranges of Sarmatia 
nay be mentioned that of the Carpates or Carpathiani, 
■Wiich quits Germany at the sources of the Vistula, and 

tsses over into Dacia where it is known as the Alpes 
stamicse. From it a range strikes out to the Eastward 
as far as the Borysthenes, called Peucini Montes after 

te people who dwelled near it ; and another a^aio to 
e Northward, known by the names of Venedifi and 
Bndini, from the Venedse and Biidini who inhabited the 

timtry round it. Tlie latter range continues trending 
iBtward between the sources of the Tanais and Rha, 
till it joins the Oural M'. in Asia : in the latter part of 
Ik course it was called the Rhipaei ' Montes Vcdaai M', 
Tte Oural M'., which together with the R. Volga formed 
Ae Eastern boundary of Europe, were called by the an- 
tients the Hyperborei or Rhip^i M»., and were said by 
-^me of the poets to be the receptacle whence Boreas 
wnt out winds and storms, and the place where the 
Got^ons took up their residence. 1"he earlier poets, 
however, who were less acquainted with the earth, place 
*he Rhipsei M" . much nearer Thrace, and sometimes only 
ase the word to denote a high or cold mountain ; hence 
the ancient Greeks give the name of Rhipsei tuthe Alps. 

li. ThE R. Rhiibon Neman flows iaW the Sadie Sea i liltle to the N. of 
.tte Vistula. Between these two tivera dwelled the Venede, wbois pos- 
SMliints eilBDded a paDsidenible wiy into ihe interior of the coualrv, and 
^Aose nnme may slill bt traced in that of K'indau. Farther Narlhwud 

Smumid—Sarmatta Ewrap<m. 269 

were TnraiitaB fl. Wwdatu, mnd Cherinus fl. "Dvina, the latter of which 
xiiet in the Budini M*^ and flows into Cylipenas Sinus G. of Riga ; between 
it md the Rhnbon dwelled the Agathyrsi^i Below these were the iBstisi, 
whine name is still preserved in Estkonia. At the mouth of Cylipenus Sinus 
hy the I. of Latris Oael, to the N. of which was I^agnus Sinus the G. of 
Ftmiimdm A considerable distance to the £. of this dwelled several hordes 
o( the Sanaatae, sumamed Basilici, Hippo])hagi, and Hyperborei^, appella- 
tions clearly betraying the limits of Terra incognita : and above them were 
eantooed the Arimphsi or Argippei, reputed to be the justest amongst all 
the barbarians. The Carambucis fl. and Lytamis Pr., placed hereabouts by 
soflae of the ancients, are thought to correspond with the JR. Dvina and 
Nmmn Nott in Archangel; it is, however, ezceedinely doubtful whether 
they were at all acquainted with this Northern extremity of £urope. 

0. The Jazyges Metanasta were so called from having been driven from 
their original habitations on the shores of the Euxine Sea. They settled 
in tiie South Western comer of Sarmatia, between the provinces of Pannonia 
and Dada, along the banks of the R. Tibiscus or ThMs, where they carried 
Oft a abort but spirited warfare with tlie Romans. Beyond these about the 
soorces of the Vittula, Dniepr, and DniestTf were the Peucini whose chief 
town. was Carrodunum Lemherg: a detachment of these, during the reign 
dT Augustus, migrated to the mouths of the Danube. The great nation of 
the BastamsB inhabited the country to the N. of Dacia, between the rivers 
Tyraa and Borysthenes, extending, together with their brothers the Peucini^ 
as far Westward as the Vistula ; they were reckoned the bravest and most 
niraierona of the tMirbarians on the snores of the Black Sea, To the £. of 
them dwelled the Geloni^ a brave and hardy people, whose city Gelonus 
waa burnt to ashes by Darius Hvstaspis. The Borysthenes fl.^ Dniepr is 
the same length as the Tanais, which two rivets are the largest in Europe 
after the Danube ; it rises from two sources, one of which, callra Borysthenes 
Septantrionalis Daupr, is in the Budini Montes ; the other, or the Borys* 
thenaa Meridiooalis Pripet, is in the Venedici M'. : after their junction it 
runs with a Southerly course into the Black Sea near the town of Carcine 
Kkenon, It was also called Danapris in the lower ages, and hence its 
modem name Dniepr, 

7. The R. Hypanis^ rises in the Peucini Montes near Amadoca Palus, 
and flows with a South Easterly course into the sea close to the mouth of the 
Boiystbenes : in the lower ages it was called Bogus, whence its present 

mixtique altaria circum 

Cratesque Diyopesque fremunt, pictique Agathyrsi : 

Virg, ^n. IV. 146. 

A Visam gementis littora Bospori, 
Syrtesque Getulas canorus 

Ales, Hyperboreosque campos. Her, Carm, II. xx« 16. 

• acerque Gelonus, 

Cum fiigit in Rhodopen, atque in deserta Getarum, 
£t lac concretum cum sanguine potat equino. 


' Cumque Borysthenio liquidissimus amne Djrraspes, 
£t tacite peragens lene Melanthus iter. 

Ovid, ex Pont. IV. x. 5S. 

* Saxosumgue fonaos Hypanis, V'vrg. OMirg«YS .^^^ 

364 Sarmatia — Sarmaiia Euanypma^ 

name of Boug, At the mouth of the river stood Olbia or Olbiopolis, the 
chief amongst all the cities which the Milesians built on this coast ; it was a 
splendid and well-fortified place, and contained a handsome palace which 
the king of the Scythians caused to be built there for himselff To the W. 
of the Hypanis was the little river Axiaces TiligU, which seems to have left 
its name in the neighbouring town of Oxdkov \ and beyond it, towards the 
mouth of the Danaster, stood Odessus now Odessa. The R. Tanais, the 
common boundary of Europe and Asia*, as also of Sarmatia Enropna ajid 
Asiatica* rises in the Rhipsi Montes Valdai Ms., and flows into the Meotis 
Palus or Sea of Atov : the people who dwelled upon its banks were called 
Tanaitae. Between it and the Boiysthenes dwelled the Alauni, Jazyges, 
and Roxolani, three of the most considerable tribes in Sarmatia, the last of 
whom have given name to the Russiatis : the Boiusd, another Sannatian 
race dwelling near the sources of the Tanais and Rha, moved Westwards 
towards the Vistula, into the country formerly occupied by the Venedaf* 
where they are still known as the Prussians. 

"8. The Alauni or Alani*® were an Asiatic people who left their oriffiiial 
dwellings in Sc3rthia, and proceeded Southwards into the Persian provineea 
as far as the borders of India, where many of them settled and are now 
known as the Afghans; others of them, however, directed their conne 
tlirough Persia and across the Caucasus till they seized upon the eountiy we 
are now describing. They were a brave and powerful people, and in the 9d 
century of the Christian era, carried on a harassing war against the Romans 
on the banks of the Danube. They occupied this territoiy till the Goths, 
in the 3d century, began to spread their dominion over all the conntiy be* 
tween the Danube and Tanais, when many of them joined the latter people^ 
assuming their language and manners so completely as to be mistaken for 
a branch of their nation. Between the Borysthenes and the Euzine lay the 
little district of Hylaea, which was used by the Scythians as a place of 
assembly for the whole nation : at its Western extremity is a long and mry 
narrow island, now called Tendra, and famed amongst the Greeks, under 
the name of Dromus Achillis, as the place where this hero inslitnted cer- 
tain games during his expedition to the North. The Eastern continuatiM 
of Hylsea was named Gerrhus, and was reckoned very sacred by the Scy- 
thians, who used it only as the burying-place of their ungs. Farther East- 
ward, upon the shores of the Palus Meotis, stood Cremni, a city fonnded 
at a veiT early period by the Milesians ; it was here that the Amaions are 
laid to have landed on their quitting Asia Minor, but, having made a treaty 
with the Scythians, they subsequently passed Eastward over the Tanais, 
and took up their abode between it and the Caspian Sea, 

0. The Maeotis Palus ^* Sea of Azov j into which the 

- qua vertice lapsus 

Rhipaeo Tanais diversi nomina mundi 

Imposuit ripis, Asieque et terminus idem 

Kuropae, media dirimens confinia terra, 

Nunc hunc, nunc ilium, qua flectitur, ampliat orbem. 

Lucan. III. 27S. 

'^ Nee te Sarmatico transit Alanus equo. Mart. VII. «p. 29. 

" Quos operit glacies MaBOtica ruptaque tandem 
SolibuB e^ndit torpentis ad ostia Ponti 
Vesidia tardos et longo frigoie ^\u^uea. Juq« Sat. IV. 42. 

Sarma ti a 'Sarmatia Evropaa. 264 

Tanais discharges its waters, is an arm of the Black Sea, 
with which it communicates by means of the Bosporus 
Cimmerius St of JEnikale, The people who dwelled 
upon it were called Mseotee, and some of them are said 
to have worshipped it as a god. The Bosporus ^^ Cimme- 
rius received its name from the Cimmerii, who inhabited 
the whole countiy round it, especially the Taurica Cher 
sdnesus, which retains traces of their name in that of 
Crimea : they were said to dwell close to the entrance 
of the infernal regions, and to have been deprived of the 
l^ht of the sun ^^ by the clouds and mists which com 
pletely overspread their country. The greater part of 
them were dnven fix)m their territory by the Scythians ; 
but such of them as inhabited the mountainous part of 
the Crimea resisted the invaders, and maintained their 
posseBsions for a time, till they were at last allowed to 
enjoy them in quiet : upon this they appear to have as- 
smned the new name of Tauri, derived as it is thought 
&om a native word signifying mountain. These Tauri 
were a savage and cruel race of men, who sacrificed all 
strangers that were cast upon their shores, especially the 
Greeks, to a virgin goddess, whom the latter people have 
differently represented as Diana or Iphigenia tne daughter 
of Agamenmon : the story of Iphigenia has been rendered 
fiunifiar by the play of Euripides, who places the scene 
of it in the peninsula here described. The peninsula was 
called after them Chersonesus Taurica i*, an appellation 
which has been preserved by the Mtissians of the present 
day, who have constituted it and the surrounding country 

^' Sic Stat iners Scythicas adstringens Bosporos undas, 
Cum, glacie retinente, fretum non impulit Hister, 
Immensumque gelu tegitur mare ; ■ ■ Lucan, V, 436. 

'* 'Evd'a ik Kififjiipiiov dvdpiov drjfjioc re* voXic r€, 
'Hkoi Kal vc0eXy K£Ka\vfjifjikvoi' ovdk iror avTOVQ 
'HcXiof ^ai!^ii)v kwidipKETai aKTiviOOiv. 
Oi)^ oiror &v crrtixyo't wpbQ oipavbv dfrnpoevra, 
OvBr* *6rav a^ kiri yaXav &v' o{fpav6^Ev TrporpccTriirar 
'AXX' ijTi vvK 6X01) rkrarai dEiXoiffi PpoToX<ri. 

Horn. 0(1, A. 14. 

1* — Msotide saevior ara 

^gyptus. Quippe ilia nefandi Taurica sacri 

Inyentrix homines (ut jam, quae carmina tradunt, 

Digna fide credas) tantum immolat, ulterius nil 

Aut gravius culuo timet hostia. Jun, ^\,^^ %\\^« 

JM Sarmatia — Sarmatia Aiiatica. 

their province of Taurida : it contains 7,050 square 
miles, or 570 more than the mainland of the Pelopon- 
nesus, with which the ancients were accustomed to com- 
pare it, on account of its productions, as well as its 
climate, shape, and magnitude. 

10. About the time that Xerxes invaded Greece, the Milesians sent oat 
colonists who settled on both the coasts of the Cimmerian Bosporus, bmld- 
ing their chief city at Panticapaium near the Eastern extremity of tbe 
Crimea. By the permission of the Scythians, to whom they paid a regular 
tribute, this little state soon grew in importance, and owing to its being 
governed by a succession of wise and brave kings, it quickly obtained a dig- 
nity which had been but little anticipated. But this sudden and unexpected 
fortune induced them to refuse paying their accustomed tribute to the Scy- 
thians, a breach of faith which remained unpunished so long as the kings of 
the Bosporus had the ability to back it by stratagem and force of arms. At 
length, however, wearied out by the unequal warfeire which the Scythians 
waged aeainst them, the last prince of the Bosporus resigned his dominicms 
to Mithndates, king of Fontus, who had already subdued most of the bar- 
barous tribes bordering upon his empire. Mithridates soon became involved 
in a difficult war with the Romans, which cost him both his kingdcMn and 
his life. By the policy of Pompey, his son Phamaces was allow^ to keep 
possession of the dominions on the Bosporus, under the direction of the 
Romans ; he was succeeded on the throne by a line of princes, who main- 
tained the same policy towards the latter people as well as towards their 
barbarous neighbours, till the reign of Valerian, when the government fell 
into the hands of native kings. 

11« The isthmus which connected the peninsula with the mainland was 
called Taphne, and upon it stood the town of Taphre now Fenkop : that 
part of the Sea of' Azov which lay to the Eastwara of this, was known by 
the name of Byces or Sapra Palus L. Sivmih or the Putrid Sea. On the 
Western coast of the peninsula stood Eupatoria now Eupatoria or Katlev, 
built by Mithridates. Near it on C. Kherson^ was the city Cheisooesus 1^ 
far the most remarkable spot in the whole Taurica Chersonesus ; it was here 
that the Tauri immolated all strangers on the altar of their Virgin goddess, 
and it was hither that the Greek my thologists represent Iphigenia to have been 
conveyed by Diana, and entrusted with the service or her temple till her 
flight with Orestes and Pylades. But Chcrsonesus was rendered more 
famous by the republic founded there by the inhabitants of the opposite city 
Heraclea in Asia Minor, which flourished for more than a thousand years» 
until it was compelled to open its gates to Mithridates, and subsequently to 
the Romans. Criu Metopon Prom, now C. Aya, was the Southern extremity 
of the Taurica Chersonesus ; farther Eastward was Theodosia built by the 
Milesians, and now called Kaffa. The city Panticapsum Kerteh, built 
also by the Milesians, was the residence of the Princes of the Bosporus, 
and was situated at the Southern extremity of the Strait. 

12. Sarmatia Asiatica was bounded upon the W. 

by the R. Tanais, upon the S. by the Euxine Sea and by 

Mt. Caucasus, and upon the E. by the Caspian Sea, the 

/?. Rha, and the Rhvmnici Montes. It touched to the 

W. upon Sarmatia Europ^ea, \;^:> \5afc ^^ x^y^u Colchis, 

Sarmatia — Sarmatia Asiatica, S67 

Iberia, and Albania, and to the E. upon Scythia intra 

13. The Pontui Euziniu Black Sm washed the shores of Asia Minor oa 
the South, those of S.innatia on the East and North, and those of Dacia» 
Bloesia, and Thracia on the West : it receives the waters of more than 40 
livers, three of which, viz. the Danube, Boiysthenes, and Tanais, are the 
largest in Earope. It was formerly called Axenus from Ashkenaz, the son 
of Gomer, who settled on its shores in Asia Minor. But this original being 
fingotten in course of time, the Greeks explained the term by dKavog '* in- 
hmpUalUt in which they were favoured by the inhospitable and stormy nature 
of the sea itself, as well as by the savage manners of the people who 
dtreOed around'it; in the course of time, however, when their ferocity had 
^een gradually sohened by intercourse with foreign nations, and by the 
numerous colonies, which had been planted on their coasts, the name of 
the sea was changed to tvKeivoQ hotpitalis. The Caspium Mare, called 
Slso Hyrcanum and now the Caspian, lies to the Eastward of the Black 
Sm I it touched to the W. on Sarmatia and Armenia, to the S. on the 
Peiuan provinces, to the E. and N. upon Scythia intra Imaum. The an- 
cients 'formerly fancied that it was an inlet of the Northern Ocean ; and 
that the two seas were only separated from each other by a narrow straut 
df four stadia, the Caspian Sea being much longer from East to West 
thui from North to Soutn. This latter error was occasioned by the con- 
fused reports they received concerning the Aral Sea, of which they knew 
Ibr a long time nothing, though its existence seems to have been latterly 
guessed at by their placing in its neighbourhood some very extensive 
Maxshes. The water of the Caspian is as salt as that of the ocean and 
even more bitter; the ancients asserted that it produced enormous ser* 
pents and fishes different in colour and species n*om those of any other 
sea. It receives the waters of many considerable rivers, the greatest 
amongst which is the Rha or Volga. 

14. The R. Rha, now called Volga^ rises from two 
sources ; the moi'e Eastern of these, or the Rha Orientalis 
)R. Kanuij has its source in the Hyperborei M>. Oural 
M'.y whilst the Rha Occidentalis, or true Volga, rises 
considerably to the Westward of it in the heart ot Russia : 
after their junction the united stream flows with a 
Southerly direction into the Caspian Sea at Astrakhan. 
It was &med for the root Rha-barbarum, now called 
Rkubarby which grew upon its banks and was held in 
great esteem amongst the medicines of the ancients. 

16. The Asaei were cantoned at the junction of the two branches of the 
Volga : below them dwelled the Phthirophagi, noted for their filthy habits, 

'^ Frigida me cohibent Euxini littora Ponti : 

Dictus ab antiquis Axenus ille fuit. 
Nam neoue jactantur moderatis asquora ventis : 

Kec placidos portus hospita navis adit. 
Sunt circa gentes, quas prsdam sanguine quaerant : 

Nee minus infid^ terra timetur aqu^ 
Illi, quos audis hominum gaudere cruore. 

Pane aub ejusdem sideris axe jaceuu Ovid, Tt\i;1.\N • v« .^^« 

a&8 S<ythia. 

ud stil) lowei the Rhfimtici. The last situalioD assigned to llie Amatoni 
before theic total dkappearance from fibuloui history, was at the mouth at 
the Volga, nhither they are said to have coroe after many wandeiian from 
FODtDD in Alia Minor. Between the mouths of the Rha and Tanaii dwelled 
the Siraceni, whose name is thought slill lo exist in that of the Circoiiiani, 
now cantoned at the loot of the Caucasus: farther westward weie the Msolc, 
whose chief city was Tanais Auk, built by the roniederate Greeks of the 
Bogponis as the great emporinm of their tr^c with the Scythians. Phanx- 
I^ria TvnitaTakan, the Asiatic capital of the Greek coloniits her«, wu 
founded by the Milesians oo the Eastern shore of the Cimmenan Bospom, 
opposite to Fanticapatum. A few miles below lay the mouth of the K. Hy- 
paoii orVaidanus Kuban, which rises on the Northern side of the Caucasus 
and runs into the Black Sta, Belweeti it and the Caspian dwelled theTnicc 
01 Turhi, who lived in immense woods and gained their subsistence by IIk 
efaace; they seem la have left their name in the R. Terek, the annenl 
Alonta A., which mns into the Casjriaa Sea. These barbarianii made no 
figure in the world til) the beginning of the 7 th century, when they laid waste 
' Persia and joined the Romans against its king Chosroes : they aftenrsidt 
overran all the hither Asia as well as Grffce, and at length, in U5>, lo^ 
CoiuianllnnpU. which put an end to the Roman Kmpire io the East. To the 
3. uf tiie TurciG, on tht North Eastern shores of the Euxioe, were a piraliol 
■el of people, known by the various names of Acbai, Zichi, Heniochi, &c 

18. Scythia was bounded on the W. by Sarmatia 
Asiatica, on the S. by the Persian provinces and India, 
on the E. by Serica, and on the N. by r^ons altogetlm 
unknown to the ancients, who asserted that their extreme 
coldness rendered them perfectly uninhabitable. It was 
divided by M^ Imaus into Scythia intra Iiiiaum, and 
Scythia extra Imaum. The whole of Sarmatia is fre- 
quently included by the more early authors in the term 
Scythia, and the appellation then becomes a general one 
for the Northern part of the earth, from Scandinavia, 
the Ister, and the Vistula, to the Easternmost limits of 
the known world. M'. Imaus is a branch of the Emodus 
Himaleh, which it quits on the bordere of the Sacse and 
India, and asBuming a North Eastern direction, became 
lost to the knowledge of the ancients on the confines of 
Serica ; it is now known by the names of G*. Altai and 
Changai, and attaches itself to that immense range of 
mountains which forms the line of demarcation between 
Russia and Morigolia. The Scythians"' were divided 
into many tribes, who possessed no towns but lived 
a wandering Nomadic life : they inured themselves to 

- protugi ScythiB — 

^lus ParlhurD pav«at 1 Qub geMum ^j^^u:a^ 

Scythia — Scythia intra Imaum^SactB. 269 

fatigue and labonr, and are represented by some authors 
to have been aa barbarous and savage, as to have fed upon 
homan flesh, and to have drunk the blood of their ene- 
mies* Other accounts, however, state them to have 
liyed upon milk, and to have clothed themselves with the 
skins of their cattle; to have utterly despised money, and 
to have instinctively practised that philosophy and virtue, 
which other nations acquired only by long study. They 
were remarkable for the very great veneration which they 
paid to their kings : after one of whom they called them- 
selves Scolotae, a name which the Greek colonists on the 
Euxine shortened into that of Scythee. 

17. Scythia intra Imaum corresponded generally with the modem pro- 
Tinoe of Indtptndent Tartary and the North Western portion of Mongdia : 
it tcmditd to the W. on Sarmatia Asiatica, to the S. on Hyrcania, Sogdiana, 
and the dominions of the SacflB» and to the £. on Scythia extra Imaum. The 
Diiz is a small river running from the Oural Ms. into the Caspian Sea, and 
itill preserres its name in JaUc, though it is frequently called tne R. Oural : 
about its mouth dwelled the Aorsi, a powerful and numerous nation. The 
Noiosii were cantoned to the £. of the Aorsi, and to the N. of these, in 
Idtim, was a considerable detachment of the Alani, who have been already 
alladed to« The country on the Eastern side of the Aral Sea was inhabited 
by tte Cachasss or Kirgees : the Chorasmii dwelled below them in Kharasm 
on the Southern side of the sea, where was their chief town Cborasmia or 
Gorgo Old Urgantx* The people who dwelled on the Northern bank of the 
lazartes were called lazarts : to the N. of them were the Aspisii, the Galac* 
t(^iliagi or milk'tatgn, and the Syebi. In the Eastern part of the province 
wen the Tectosaces, Anaraci, and Tapursi, concemiug whom, as well as 
many other neighbouring tribes, nothing is known but their names. 

18. Sac£. The dominions of the Sacap^^ comprehended the modem pro- 
vinces of Little Tibet and Little Bukaria. They were bounded on the N. 
by the Comedonim M"., which separated them from Sogdiana and Bactriana ; 
on the S. by Mt. Caucasus and Emodus, which separated them from India ; 
and on the £. by the great range of Imaus, which separated them from 
Scythia extra Imaum : they touched to the N. upon Scythia intra Imaum. 
The Sac« lived a Nomadic life and possessed sufficient strength to repel 
Cyrus when he made his attack upon them. Their manners and customs so 
much resembled those of the Scytnians, that the Persians applied the name 
of Sacs to all the Western Scythians, in the same way that they used that of 
BlassagetflB^' to denote the Extern people of the same race. Many of these 
Sacs luid Massagets wandered into Persia and the Eastern part of Europe, 
where they left evident traces of their names. The Comedonim M". Beloo 
Tag are a spur of the Paropamisus or Caucasus, which received their name 
from the Comedi; who dwelled at the foot of them. The R. Indus rises in 

^7 Sive in Hyrcanos Arabasque molles, 

Seu Sacas, sagittiferosque Parthos, CatulL XI. 6. 

•• O utinam novA 

Incude diffingas retusum in 

MassagetaM Arabasque femim. Hot. Carm. \. xix« . ^* 

t60 Scythia — Scythia extra Imawpn* — Serica. 

the Southern part of the territoiy of the Sace ; upon its baokB was. the Tttirii 
Lapidea Leh, the most distant point originally reached hy the meiehuiU 
who traded in the productions of Serica, until some of them at last poshed 
their joumeyings seven months farther Eastward to the very limits of th« 

19. Scythia extha Imaum touched to the W. upon Scythia intra Imanm 
and upon the dominions of the Sacs, to the S. upon India, and te the £. upon 
Serica : it corresponded with the central part of Mongolia* In theSoatnerB 
part of the province were the Chauranaci, and a fortified station of the mer* 
chants who traded to Serica, now probably Guinnak. The Issedones wcpe 
cantoned in the Eastern part of the province, and extended into Serica; they 
were a great nation, and it was through their hands that the merchandize M 
the Seres first passed on its way to the Westward. Their name is preeerved 
in the little river Etc/iine, on the borders of China and the Desert ^'Skaau: 
upon this river stood their town Issedon Setcheou, surnamed Scythica, in op- 

C'tion to Issedon Serica which was in the latter province prolnibly at i7«M. 
be Northern part of the province dwelled the (Echards, who also extended 
into Serica ; they inhabited the banks of the CEchardes fl. Orehon, a tributtiy 
of the Selenga. Beyond these were the Abii, supposed by some to be the 
people so much commended by Homer for their justness ; the Uippopha|p> 
Anthropophagi, and other fabulous nations, for whom the ancients were an* 
able to find any situations but those of unexplored countries. 


20. Serica, or the Land of Silk, touched to the W, 
upon Scythia extra Imaum, and corresponded with the 
modem Chinese province of Skensee, together with parte 
of such other provinces as border immediately upon it 
To the S. it joined the territory of the Sinse, between 
whom and the Seres, from their being the same people, 
the ancients were unable to draw any line of separation ; 
indeed one of their authors plainly asserts that the silk 
came from Thina. The name Seres ^9 was altogether 
unknown in the country to which the ancients applied it, 
and was used by them as a collective appellation for 
many tribes, derived from the production wnich they fur- 
nished : the Greeks called the insect from which silt was 
procured Ser, the thickly woven stuff itself Holosericum, 
and the country which produced it Serica. 

21. The Indians were familiar with the productions of Serica many years 
before the Greeks and Romans ; it was not till the time of Augustus that the 
latter people became acquainted with them. The most important of its ]m>« 
ductions, silk'^'^, was then for the first time brought into the Western coun- 

'^ Ille seu Parthos Latio imminentes 
Egerit justo domitos triumpho, 
Sive subjectos Orientis oris 

Seras et Indos. Hor, Carm, I. xii. 66. 

*^ Quod Nilotls acus comniessum ^pet^ikft SesMm 
Solvit, et eztenso laxavit stam\naL vc\o% Iamwk^^AVL 

ioa Septentrionalis. 261 

lriei» and wai pvdnMd with the greatest avidity, especially after a Greek 
vmnan of Cos oiscorerad a method of unravelling the stuff and weaving it in 
a more thin and elegant manner. The Indians at last successfully intn^uced 
tibe culture of ailk into their ovm countiy at Serinda or Sirhind, after which 
it became a common article of clothing amongst the Western nations. The 
aneienta were for a long time ignorant of the way in which silk was pro- 
duced ; tiie Indians told them it was a fine coating which covered the leaves 
of certain trees, and which the Seres moistened, combed off, and farther pre- 
pared : this method of fnocuring it is mentioned by Virgil, the first author 
who alludes to the Sericum*'. Others were of opinion that the Seres had a 
method of interweavinff the beautiful flowers of their prolific meadows ; but 
they at last became fully acquainted with the nature and properties of the 
lilk-wonn, or bambys as it was called by the Latins, of which a very tolerable 
description is given by Pliny. The fact of the Romans having despatched 
am embassj to the OUnese, seems to be very fairly established by the his- 
tnians of the latter people^ who state it to have been sent from An-toun 
{U(§, Antoninus) £mperor of the West, to Oan-ti who reigned in China 
•bout A« D. 160. 

I. The Bautisus fl., which rises in the Casii Montes and flows Eastward 

Est die metropolis of the country into the unknown regions, is the Whang- 
i, Hoane-hOf or Yellow R,, as it is variously called ; the ancients were 
icquainted with little more than the half of its course. Sera, the metropolis 
of Serica, is represented as the most Eastern city in the whole ancient world : 
it is plai^d with considerable probability at Shiganfou, which is said to have 
been at a very early period a capital city in the North Western part of China. 
Amongst the tribes of Serica may be mentioned the Sizyges, Annibi, and 
Rhahbanasi, on the borders of Siberia ; the Thaguri and Bats towards the 
Bautisus B. ; and the Ottorocon as about the springs of the same river, in the 
Southern part of the district. The last-mentioned of these tribes was the most 
ftmoQS, on account of the delightful salubrity of their climate and the fertility 
of their s<»l ; they lived upon their hills, where they are reputed to have been 
protected from i& noisome vapours of the earth, and to have enjoyed all the 
advantages of the fortunate Hyperborei. These accounts are sometimes re- 
ified to the whole of Serica, which is generally represented as a fertile and 
well-watered countiy, abounding in fruits, cattle, and trees. The Great 
Ckit^te WaU, which is mentioned by Ammianus Marcellinus alone of all the 
kistorians, must not be left unnoticed : this immense effort of human labour 
is described as a lofty wall surrounding the country of the Seres in the form 
of a circle. 



1. THE whole Northern part of Africa, from the At- 
lantic Ocean to the limits of Egypt and as far inland as 
the borders of the Great Desert, was very well known to 

. ** Velhnque ut foliis depectant tenuia Sete&l Virg. G«ot^AWI\« 

962 Africa SeptentrionaUs — MoMrUmmia. 

the ancients. They divided it originally into the ibnr 
great provinces of Mauretania, NumicQa, Africa, and 
Libya, but these were in the later ages again subdivided 
into several others. 

2. The names and superficial extent of tfiese divisions may be seen in the 
following Table : 

Provinces. Square IMQiea. 

fMauretania Tingitana . - - 66,1001 
Mauretania :< Mauretania Ca&sariensis - - 42,800 \ 126,200 
(fMauretania Sitifensis - . . 17,800j 

NuMiDiA : Numidia . . - . • 22,600 

fZeugitana - - - - . 7,100" 
ArniCA : s Byzacena . - - - . 30,700 1 lff5,S00 

tTripolitana - - - - . 117,500^ 

rCyrenaica - - - . . OOjOOOl 
Libya . < Marmarica - . - . . 60.700 1 166,100 
(.Libya Exterior .... 54,800 J 

Total - - - 470,200 

3. Mauretania was the North Western province of 
Africa^ and derived its name from its inhabitants the 
Mauri. The Greeks at first called the people Maurusii 
and the country Maurusia, in which they were followed 
by some of the Latin poets ^ ; but they afterwards adopted 
the proper appellations of Mauri and Mauretania. Tuen 
as a whole it was an exceedingly fruitful country, and 
sent great quantities of com to Rome and other parts of 
Italy ; some portions of it, however, were too mountain* 
ous or arid to be capable of any cultivation. Besides 
com the Romans obtained from it and Numidia very 
beautiful marble and precious stones, as well as a num- 
ber of wild beasts for their exhibitions and spectacles. 
In the later ages it was subdivided into three provinces, 
sumamed Tingitana, Caesariensis, and Sitifensis; the 
first of these alone was the original country known to the 
Romans as Mauretania, the two last forming the Western 
part of what they called Numidia. 

' Jupiter omnipotens, cui nunc Maurusia pictis 
Gens epuiata toris Lenaeum Ubat honorem,— 


Afri6a Septentrianalis — Mauretania. 5!63 

4. The Mauri* are said by some authors to have obtained their name 
from their bladt or tawny skms, compared with tiie paler complexions of 
tile Southern Europeans ; however this may be, it was certainly the coUec- 
tire appellation used by all the tribes of Mauretania and Numidia to dis- 
tmguisn their nation. They all spoke the same lan^age, and adopted the 
same mode of life; and hence the term Numidae or Nomades, which was 
only deduced from I heir wandering habits, is found constantly disappearing 
before that of Mauri, in proportion as the knowledge of the ancients became 
more extended. It seems even that the Carthap^inians were unacquainted 
with the-lferm Numidie, and that they called each tribe of the Mauri by its 
own separate name, though they acknowledged the two great divisions of 
them into Massylii and Massssylii. The former touched more immediately 
upon the Carthaginian territory ; the latter were to the Westward of it, ai^ 
stretched as far as the Kiver Molochath Moulouia : the two together inha- 
bited the modem Kingdom of Algiers, The proper and general names of 
Mauri and Mauretania remained only to the territory bordering on the 
Atlantic and the Western part of the Mediterranean, and it was in this 
confined sense that the Romans first heard of them, under their king fioc- 
chtts, during the Punic war. 

6. The Massssylii were much more powerful than the Massylii, and in* 
habited the whole country between the rivers Molociiath and Ampsaga, or 
those parts of Mauretania, which were afterwards surnamed Caesariensis 
and Sitifensis. They were governed by Syphax, who having invaded the 
kingdom of Masinissa, the ally of the Romans, during the second Punic 
war, was taken prisoner to Rome, where he starved himself to death b. c. 201. 
The Massylii or Massyli ^, on the other hand, inhabited an extent of terri- 
tory nearly two-thirds smaller than the preceding, lying between the rivers 
Ampsaga and Tusca, and corresponding with what the Romans afterwards 
eonstitnted their province of Numidia : the most famous of their kings was 
Ifasinissa, who defeated Syphax and took possession of his dommions. 
Masinissa was succeeded in his kingdom by his son Micipsa, who upon his 
death -bed, appointed his nephew Jugurtha his successor, conjointly with 
his two sons, Adherbal and Hiempsal, both of whom were murdered by 
Jugurtha. This gave rise to the Ju^rthine war, the history of which is 
written by Sallust ; for the Romans indlppfiant at the cruelties which had 
been practised on the descendants of their old and faithful ally, despatched 
a large army against Jugurtha commanded by Cscilius Metellus. The 
successes of this general, followed up by the activity of Marius and Sylla 
omnpelled Jugurth^ to take refuge at the court of his father-in-law, Boc« 
chus, king of Mauretania, by whom he was delivered up to the Romans : 
he was dragged in chains at the triumph of Marius, and being thrown 
into prison died six days afterwards of hunger, b. c. 106. Subsequent to 
this Numidia was governed by Juba, so well known from having favoured 
the cause of Pompey against Caesar : he was conquered by the latter at the 
battle of Thapsus, when the whole of his kingdom was seized upon by the 
Romans. Augustus, however, afterwards restored it to his son Juba, who 
so won the attachment of the Roman emperor, that he gave him in mar- 
riage Cleopatra Selene, the daughter of Antony and Cleopatra. The younger 
Juba was succeeded by his son Ptolemseus, upon whose death the whole 
of Mauretania was divided into provinces under Roman governors. 

' Et Mauri celeres et Mauro obscurior Indus, 

Juv, Sat. XI. 1^5. 

* Mas8yUqu9 ruunt equiles, ■ m VVr j. KavAN ,\%1» 

264 Africa Septentrionalis — Mauretamia Iptgkana. 

6. Mauretania Tingitana, the Westernmost pro- 
vince of Africa, derived its name from its metropolis 
Tingisy and was separated from Spain only by the narrow 
Fretum Gaditanum Strait of Gibraltar. It was bounded 
on the N. by the Mediterranean, on the £. and S. by 
the R. M olochath and by M^ Atlas, and on the W. l^ 
the Atlantic Ocean. To the E. it touched upon Maure- 
tania Csesariensis and upon Ga)tulia, and to the S. upon 
the barbarous tribes of^ the Autolatee and Phorusii : it 
corresponded with the modem empire of Morocco and 
Fez, It was an exceedingly fertile province, aboundmg 
in corn, wine, and oil, but infested by all sorts of wim 
beasts, as well as serpents, scorpions, and crocodiles. 
Here dwelled the indigenous race, called Mauri, who 
distinguished themselves as admirable lightrhoi-semen 
and expert archers *. 

7. M^. Atlas ^, still called Atlas by us JEuropeans, is 
a lofty and extensive range, stretching from the shores 
of the Atlantic Ocean opposite the Fortunate Islands, 
to Carthage and the coasts of the Little Syrtis. It oIh 
tained many names whilst passing through this great 
extent of country, and is still distinguished in the same 
way : the native appellation by which it was known to 
the £. of Tingitana, was Dyrin now Tedla, M^. Atlas 
was said by the ancient poets to have derived its name 
from Atlas, one of the Titans, and a wealthy king of Mau- 
retania, who having treated Perseus with great violence, 
the latter hero showed him Medusa's head, and thus 
changed him instantly into a large mountain, which was 
imagined to have been so high that the heavens rested 
upon its top, and Atlas was therefore said to bear the 

^ Integer vits, scelerisque purus 
Non eget Mauri jaculis neque arcu, 
l^ec venenatis gravid^ sagittis, 

Fusee, pharetrl ; Hor, Carm, I. xxii. 2. 

volans apieem et latera ardua cerait 

Atlantis duri, coelum qui vertice fulcit : 
Atlantis, cinctum assidue cui nubibus atris 
Piniferum caput et vento pulsatur et imbri : 
]Vix humeros infusa tegit : turn flumina mento 
Precipitant senis, et glacie n^el Viomd'aL \MJcba. 

Vvt^. 2Liu\N ,^6. 

Africa SepfmiirumalU — Mattretania Tingitana. 265 

woridcm his Bhoulders^ The legend concerning Atlas 
18 thov^t to haye arisen from his cultivation or astro- 
nomy, which induced him to frequent elevated places for 
the sake of making observations. M^. Atlas gave name 
to the AthuiticusOceanus Atlantic Ocean, which washed 
the whole Western coast of the world as it was known 
to the ancients, and extended Northwards to the Hyper- 
borean Ocean ; they also called it the Oceanus Exterior, 
fiom its being the Outmost sea with which they were 
acquainted. A spur of M^ Atlas strikes out from the 
mam ridge, and terminates on the shore of the Gadita- 
nnm Fretum, in a mountain named Septem Fratres Apes' 
Hill, which overhang that Pillar of Hercules, called by 
the ancients Abyla Ceuta. 

8. The two best known and most important rivers of 
Mauretania Tingitana are the Molochath and the Subur. 
The first of these, called also Mulucha and Malua, now 
Maulauia, was rendered very important for a long 
period of years, by its forming the boundary between 
the kingdoms of Mauretania and Numidia; it rises in 
M^, Atlas, and flows with a Northerly course into the 
Mediterranean Sea a Uttle Eastward of Rusadir. The 
Subur Seboo also rises in M^ Atlas not far from the 
springs of the Molochath, and runs thence Westward 
into uie Atlantic Ocean at Banasa. 

9l Below this is the Asama 6 ,Morbea, the largest river in the province, 
and fiuther Soathward is the promontory Solois C. Cantin, called also Solis 
Morn* The R. Phut Tensif't, gave the name of Phut to the surrounding 
dirtrict, and is thought to have been so called from Phut, the son of Ham, 
who appean to have settled in the country between it and Cyrenaica. The 
Soatbern part of the prcvince was inhabited by the Autololes Vesunni, a 
branch of the great tnoe Autololes^, who had wandered from Gstulia and 
fallen upon the Roman possessions here. The I. of Ceme appears to be 
the aame with the modem Suana, a few miles above Atlas Major Mons 
C. Noon : it was used by the Carthaginians as a place of security for their 
ships, during the voyages which they made hither to traffic with the neigh- 
bouring ^thiopes. The Southernmost Roman town in Mauretania, on the 
coast of the AUantic was Sala Sallee, at the mouth of Sala fl. Bu Begreg ; 
and above it linr Banasa MehedumOf colonized by Augustus, who gave it the 
epithet Valentia. The coast hereabouts formed a kind of extended gulf. 

ubi ccelifer Atlas 

Axem humero torquet stellis ardentibus aptum. 

Virg. iEn. VI. 796. 

— Populi tot castra sequuntui, 

AutoJoleB, Numidaque vagi, lAican.\N i ^*ll « 


S66 Africa Septentrionalis — Maurelania Casariensis. 

called EiDporicua Sinus, fiam tile maa; Fuuic facUriea atanding Da ite 
ihores, the oldest of which was Thymiateriuni, founded by the CarthagiDUiiii 
under the conduct of Hanno. Volubilis PliuTiuik'i CailU stood on <i branch 
of the B. Subur, and has given name to thu raDdern Valiti; it wu a colony 
of the Romans, and the most advaniKd position whiub liicy poaseued 
towards Ibis aide of Gstulia. About midway bttween Banosa and (he St. 
•f Gibraltar stood Limis El Hatatch, at the moulh of a copiominal rivei 
Km called Luctos ; it was from the earliest times the moat imporuni 
^tony on the Weitem coast of Africa, and near it the gigantic Aatam ia 
(aid to have been Dieicome l» Hercules, i^ilis Ar-silla, only a. few miles 
M the S. of the promonlory Coles, was originally colooized by the Cai- 
thaginians, but subsequently by the Romans, under Augustus who suraamed 
it Jnlia Conslantia. 

10. The North Western promDntoiy of Africa was named Cotes If the 
Carlbaginians and Phceniciana, and AmpeliUiia by ihe Greeks, from tiw 
DDmbei of eicelleut vines which giew in the neighbourhood i it is now 
called C, Sportri, and forms with the opposite Junonis Pr, C. Trafalgar lb 
Spain, the entrance of the Si, of Gibreit^, A few miles to Ihe taMwird 
M C. Spantl stood Tingis roiigier. the metropolis of the province, wbicii 
<ras 90 ancient that it was said to have been buill by the giaut Antxiu, 
or as others maintain br Sophai. the son of Hercules by Tinge, wbom 
the hero married after the death of Antsua. At the Easlein end of Ibt 
Strait stood Abyla Ceuta, only Iwetve miles and a half dii.tant from Calpc 
01 CiAratlar, on Ihe opposite side of Ihe strait in Spajnt these two eleraud 

Cts were called Cottininffi Heicittis', or sometimea simply Columns, 
. the tradition that Hercules fonnerly tore asunder the narrow isthmss 
which separated the Mediterranean from the Atlantic, and piled up the 
earth into a lofty mountain on each side of the strait as a pcrpetial m- 
morial of his labmir. Below Ibis, on the Norlhem coast of the province. 
waa lagalb now Titiian. The whole Northern coast was called Melago- 
nium, and the people who dwelled on it were named Ktelagonitie -, appel- 
lations which were once given to all the shores and ttibcs of the Me- 
dilerranean, as fat Kastward as Zeugilana, owing to their having bno 
(bunded or conquered by the Carthaginians and Tyriana; hence then 
name from uiTuyai ciVtiiuiDgo. In the North Eastern corner of the pio- 
f ince stood Kusadir Meliila, which gave name to the neighbouring Rusadii 
Pr., now called Tra For™. 

11. MfttiRETANiA CffisAEiENsia derived its name 
from its metropolis Ceesarea, and corresponded with the 
Western half of the modern Algiers. It was bounded 
on the W. by the R. Molothath ; on the N. by the 
Mediterranean Sea ; on the E. by a line drawn from the 
pity Sald«e to the source of Savus fl, ; and on the S. by 
the continuation of the great chain of Alt, Atlae: it 
touched to the W. on Mauretania Tingitana, to the E. 
on Mauretania Sitifensis, and to the S. on Gcetulia. 

' sic clausum linquens arcano peclore belliim, 
A ique hominum finem Gades Calpenque secutus, 
Dvm ferl Herculeis Gat-uaBDUc&s\^Qa.cnbimnia, 
Ubcubuit SKvu Tyiius ceaamuxi ^ucui^. &V. Vul.l. IM. 

Africa Septentrwnalis — Mauretania Sitifensis. 267 

Though in many parts extremely fertile, it was by no 
means so productive as the province of Tingitana. To- 
gether with Mauretania Sititensis it formed the territory 
of the Massaesyliiy mentioned in history as the most 
powerful of all the Numidian people : upon their reduc- 
tion by the Romans this collective name disappears, and 
the MasssBsylii are found cantoned in the Western part 
of the province, round Siga, the original residence of 
their lung Syphax, and the cradle of their power. The 
Musonii or Musulani were amongst the most powerful 
of all the Numidians ; their leader Tacfarinas served in 
the Roman army during the reim of Tiberius, but he 
afterwards took up arms against his benefactor, and dis- 
played much courage and talent in the vigorous war 
which he carried on against the Romans : after he had 
routed the officers of Tiberius in several battles, he was 
himself defeated and killed by Dolabella. 

12. The first city we meet with, beyond the limits of Mauretania Tinn- 
tana* is Siga Takumbreet : it was the capital of the Massaesylii, and ue 
loyal residence of Syphax before he conquered the Massylii and removed bis 
court to Cirta, after which it lost nearly all its consequence. Farther East- 
ward on the coast were, Guiza Geeza near Oran ; the Latin colony Arsenaria 
Aneo i and Cartenna Mustagennan, which derived considerable importance 
horn the emperor Augustus having sent thither a colony of the 2d legion : 
a little above the last was Apollinis Fr. C. Kuhneta, near the mouth of 
Ciunalaph fl. SheUif, the greatest river in the province. Cssarea, the me- 
tfopolii of Mauretania CsBsariensis, originally called lol by its founders, 
the Phoenicians, was chosen by Bocchus as his residence, and afterwards by 
the younger Juba as the capital of his new kingdom, when he changed its 
name to Ctesarea, in gratitude to his benefactor Augustus. Rusucurum, 
which received from the emperor Claudius the rights of a Roman colony, is 
now Koleah near the great city of Algiers, which sippears to have been known 
to the ancients under the name of lomnium. The interior of Mauretania 
was tolerably well filled with cities, for the peaceful inhabitants who 
vithed to preserve their property from the ravages of the wandering hordes, 
fimnd it necessary to defend themselves with walls; but they were, for 
this very reason, generally small and inconsiderable places. Amongst the 
BMWt inoportant of these was Auzea Burgh Hamz<^, destroyed by the Moors, 
bat the Romans thought its situation so valuable, that they rebuilt it and 
colonized it with some of their veteran troops : it stood at the source of Usar 
or Sisar fl. (hue. 

18. Mauretania Sitifensis, so called irom its 
metropolis Sitifis, was a narrow strip of country in the 
centre of the modern state of Algiers. It extended from 
the desert to the Mediterranean Sea, between the Romaxv 
province of Numidia on the East, aivd Ma.\«e\axsa. 

N 2 

2(i8 Africa Septentrionalis — Africa. 

Cassftriensis on the West. The nature of the country 
was in general the same as that of the neighbouring 
Ctesariensis, being intersected throughout with the van- 
oua undulations of M'. Atlas, and well cultivated where 
the irregularities of the surface would permit : both these 
provinces produced great quantities of com, with which 
the inhabitants paid most of their tribute to the Komans, 
whose servants collected and stored it in large magazines 
built for the purpose, until they had opportunities of 
sending it to Italy. 

14. Sitilis. Ilie meCropolis of Mauietania Sitifensia, still called Setief. 
\ns sbonl filty miles Rvid the coaet, close on tbe botdeis of the H«n>ui 
proniice of IVuniiilk, In tbe time of tbe old Numidian kiags it win little 
more than a lillage, and was fiisl raised lo the rand of a colony by the 
Romaiu, whea they established Iheir provioce of Mauretaaiii, owing to the 
— ' — ■■ --^--^ gad the great fertility of the BUrrounding 

countiy, Balda; Delhii. the Weslernmost town on the eoast of Sililnsii, 
once formed the boundurj tietween the dominions of Bocchus and Jnba ; 
farther Eastward lay Chota Biyejo at the mouth of the R, Audus. Beyoiid 
this was IgilgiliB Ztseli, colonized by Augustus, and a ]iort-towii of some 
consequence, on the shore of the Sious Cvutnidicui G, nj' Ztuli. Thnbnna 
Tabnah was some distance 'to the S. of SiliGs, close on the bordere of the 
Roman province of Numidia ; it was not far from the Salins NubotteaM), 
a salt morass now called the Shatt, which receives the waters of all tiie 
neighbouring rivers. The fiuntiei of Sitifensis toniids the di!Sert was tOnned 
hy the rivet Savus or Zubus Zab, which is the longest liver in the Northem 
part of Africa, and loses itself in the little lake of Milgig. 

IS. The Carthaginian territory, from lying opposite to 
Italy and Sicily, was the Bret part of the continent of 
Africa with which the Romans were acquainted, and 
hence they distinguished it by the name of Africa, the 
origm of which appellation is ascribed to the Phoenicians. 
In proccBS of time they extended the original name to 
the remainder of the continent!', but even then they ap- 
plied it more especially to the country originally so 
designated by them, sometimes calling it Africa Propria 
or Carthaginiensis. Upon the defeat of Jubaby Ceesar, 
the latter seized upon the dominions of the Numidian 
king, and converted them inio a Roman province under 
' Suctorcique alii, quos Africa terra triumphis 


Percussa Oceana Kiloqueadaioui lepenl 
jtursus ad iEthiopum populos a\Wftiyi'; ft\e^? 

Septentrionalis — Numidia. 269 

the name of Africa Nova, so called to distinguish it from 
Africa Vetus or the old Zeugitana ; at a later period^ 
however, this great extent of territory was again subdi- 
vided into the provinces of Numidia^ fiyzacena, and 
Tripolitana^ which together with Zeugitana constituted 
Africa Proconsularis. 

16. Numidia. The Roman province of Numidia 
corresponded with the Eastern part of Algiers. On the 
E. it was separated from Mauretania Sitifensis by the 
R. Ampsaga ; on the N. it was washed by the Mediter- 
ranean Sea ; on the E. it was divided from Zeugitana by 
the little river Tusca, and lower down the range oi 
M^ Atlas parted it from Byzacena. This was the 
country of the Massylii, who were governed by Masi- 
nissa : and must not be confounded with Numidia in 
ite more extended sense, which also comprehended the 
country of the MasssBsylii, and thus included the whole 
of what is now called Algiers^ together with the South 
Western part of Tunis. 

17. The inhabitants of the whole North Western coast of Africa are 
Beotioiied in the earliest period of their history as a pastoral wandering race 
of people, living upon their flocks and herds : they had no general name for 
tbemaeiTes, and it was from the Greeks that they first received the appella* 
tioQ by which they were afterwards known, though they themselves never 
acknowledged it, and which was common to all the wandering pastoral 
people of the earth. The Greeks first heard of them in their wars against 
Sicily^ and in the expedition of Agathocles against Africa, and then dis-^ 
tineuished them by the name of No/xa^ec'^ ^^ wandering pastoral people, 
and their country by that of Vofiddia ; which names, derived from vtuut 
fuen, were ever afterwards employed by their poets and historians. The 
Ronmni learned them from the Greeks in the first Punic war, and used them 
in reference to these African tribes alone, calling them Numids and their 
eomitiy Numidia. They afterwards confined the names to the country im- 
mediately adjoining the territory of Carthage and dependant upon it ; but 
the Greeks, on the other hand, maintained the fiiU application of the term 
Nomades, and thus designated all the tribes from the Atlantic Ocean to the 
Syrtis and the borders of £gypt 'llie Numidians were a hardy and athletic 
race of warriors, and remarksible for their custom of attacking their enemies 

^° Virgil probably alludes to the Nomades or Numids, when he says. 
Quid tibi pastores Libyas, quid pascua versu 
Prosequar, et raris habitata mapalia tectis 1 
Sspe diem noctemque et totum ex online mensem 
Pascitur, itque pecus longa in deserta sine ullis 
Hospitiis : tantum campi jacet. Omnia secum 
Armentarius Afer agit, tectumque, laiemque, 
Armaque, Amyclsumque canem, Cressamque pharetram. 

N 3 

870 Africa Septentrionalis — Zeugitana. 

by night ; ibey rode mlbout tatber saddle or bridle, and are hence samamed 
utrteai". They made admirable light troops, and duiiDg Uie secoad Punic 
Vu they aanoyed the Romaiu dieadfutly. 

18. Ampsaga fl. Kebir as the Great Rhtr deiived all its intermit from 
ka»ing formed the boundary between Ihe MassEsylii and Maisjlii, as it 
yfterwardi did belfeen Mauretania and Numidia. To the EBitward of n 
were Thapsa Stora, fivrngaame to Ihe G. ifSma anciently called Olcachilea 
Sinus ; and Hippo £i?nii, sumamed Regius when it was given la king Masi- 
ja«ii by the Romans, in order to fctinguish it from the more Eastern Hippo 
in Iha odghboDrhoad of the Republic of Carthage ; it became the episcopal 
lee of SL Au^stine. Beyond (his, in the North Eastern coraer of (hs tm- 
fince, Htood Tabrnca", Ilie name of which is still preserved ia the neigti- 
bwiring isle of Tabarca ; it was the place where Gildo, Ihe tyranniral 
gOTecnor of the provint'e of Africa, met his death, and stood at the moatli 
of Tasca S. Zaine, a mean little river which formed the Eastern bonndai? 
•f the province in this direclioo- 

< ly. Cirta, the metropolia of Numidia, na<i situated on a bianch of the 
l&mpsaga, close to the boideiS of Manrelania Sitifensii : from tbe earliert 
limes it was chosen as their residence by the kings of Nnmidia, namely, 
Sjrphax, Mttsinlssa. and their sDccessors. When Cssai was prosecuting 
tbe war in Africa, he was much assisted in his operaliout by an attack made 
apon Cirta by an adventurer Darned Siltius, whom, with his troops he afUr- 
irards rewarded by giving them the city and the aiirroonding country. After 
tfiis Citta was called 9iltianarum Colonia, and maintained its old dignity, 
till it was nearly destroyed ia the rebellion which btoke out here miring 
the reign of ConstantiaB ; thi; emperor recompensed the fdelity of its dti- 
tam by restorii;g their city, and naming it Coosutntioa afler lumselft a obb* 
wbich it presenes to tbe present day in thai of (loaaSina, To the EaMwaid 
«f Ciita was a rugged range of moumains, called Thambe* or Pappna; 
it wai hither that Gelimer, Ihe last king of the Vandals, took i«fuge tiom 
tbe troops of Belisarius, to whom he afterwards submitled, and being taken 
to Kame, adorned lbs triamph of that rising general. The impartiut Iowa 
Tlieveite Tiffeih was close an the coohnes of Byiaeium ami Zeugitana ; 
above it were Tagaate Tajtelt and Madaura, the former of which was th« 
Mnh-place of St. Augusdne. tbe latter that of Apuleius. To the W. of 
ITieveate was Aurasius M. Aurea, on the Weslera dklivity of which inod 
Ijtmbese Tesouie, fortified by the Romans as an advanced post againsl liie 
rovi^ Numidians. Tbe Soutbemmo^t town in the province was TbabudeM 
or ThubutUB on the borders of Getulia, serving as an emporium for the 
goods which ■aeie brought from the interior of Afnca. 

20. Zecgis or Zeugitana (sci/.Regio) occupied the 
Tforthem part of the modern state of Tunis, It was 
■bounded on the W. by the little R. Tusca : on the N. 
and E. by the Mediten'anean Sea ; and on the S. by a 
line running from Hadrumetuni to Sicca Veneria on the 
R. Bagradas: it touched to the W. upon Kiimidia and 


it Nnmidse lufrceni ciogunt. el inbospita Syitis: 

Virg. Mn. IV. 41. 

Africa Septentrionalis — Zeu^t/ana. 271 

to the S. upon Byzacena. Nothing is known with any 
certainty concerning the origin of the name Zeugitana, 
but it is conjectured to have been derived from the 
Zngantes, who dwelled hereabouts ; they were an 
aboriginal people, and are supposed to have been con- 
nected with the neighbouring Ibyzantes who gave name 
to Byzacium. 

21. About the time of the Trojan war, certain colonists set sail from 
PhoBnicia and settled on the North Eastern coast of Africa, where they 
CMuded several cities, as Leptis, Thapsus, Hadrumetum, &c. : they were 
leeeiYed kindly by the rude savages, wno obtained from them many articles 
iH immaase value in their estimation, and found in their turn a ready market 
for their own commodities, such as skins, honey, and the like. Amongst 
the last of the cities founded by the Phoenicians on this coast was Car- 
Ih^e, which for a long time followed the example of its fellow colonies 
b paying the accustomed tribute to the natives : but it soon obtained a 
mt of direction in the aflkirs of the other Phoenician settlements, which 
fay d^^rees was converted into actual dominion; and their system of se- 
cuing the interest of the Nomadic princes, by giving them in marriage 
the daughters of their most distinguished citizens, completed the last link 
of chat powerful chain, with which they fettered the whole coast of Africa 
frm the Syrtis to the Atlantic. The immediate territory of Carthage was 
very highly cultivated, more so probably than any other country mentioned 
in ancient history ; it was owing to this, and to the excellent constitution 
^ which they were governed, as well as to the politic manner in which 
l£ey enroHed so many of the Numidiaa hordes amongst their citizens, 
that the Qarthaginians rose, with the assistance of their navigation and 
coDuneroe, to such power as at last threatened the destruction of Rome 
itMlf — attacking her possessions, beating her on her own soil, and at last 
only yielding, after a war of more than 40 years. The Carthaginian ter- 
ritory extenokd from the Pillars of Hercules to the Southern extremity of 
the Syrtb, a distance of 16,000 stadia or 1,600 miles, Carthage being 
nearly in the centre ; with the exception of Zeugitana, however, it did not 
teach far into the interior of the country on either side of the metropolis. 

22. The R. Ba^radas Mejerdah rises in the centre of Numidia, and 
lans into the Mediterranean Sea a little below Utica ; it is a very slow 
river ^, and upon its banks Regulus and his whole army attacked and 
slew, with warlike engines, a huge serpent, which measured 120 feet long. 
The Bagradas entered Zeugitana at Sicca, surnamed Veneria, from a famous 
temple of Veuus which stood there. Close upon the borders of Zeugitana 
stood the strong city Zama Zowareen, celebrated for the victory obtained 
there over Hannibal, by Scipio Africanus the elder, b. c. 201, which put an 
end to the second Punic war: it afterwards fell into the hands of the 
Numidian kings, and was chosen by them as their usual place of resi- 
dence, whence it received the surname of Regia. On the Northern side 
of the Bagradas was Vacca Beja, remarkable as the greatest place of trade 
in the int^or of the province. At the mouth of the Bagradas was Castra 
Cornelia, where Scipio Africanus laid up his fleet, after having effected a 
landing at the neighbouring Pulchrum Pr. C. Zibeeb ; this promontory is re- 

'3 Primaque casti-a locat cano procul aequore, qua se 

Bagrada lentus agit, sices sulcator aiens. Lu»mAV« ^^^« 

N 4 

S72 Africa Septentrionalis — Zeugitana. 

mariuble fm being mentioned in Ihe first treaty made betfreen the Carthi- 

S'aiimi and Hoinaoi in the first year after the banishment of thmr kingi, by 
hich the latter peopEe solemnly engaged that neither they nor their aJlies 
Ihonid sail beyond it in any armed ship, nor attempt to plant there any co- 
lony whatever. Near it stood LFtica '' or Ityci PitIo Farino, ona of the 
oldest Tyrian settlemeata on the coa«t of Africa ; it was besiegcil in vaio by 
Scipio, dnring the second Punic war, and was frequently the scene of con- 
tealion dnring the ciri) broils of Rome. It was here that Podipey defeated 
the enemies of SjUa, that Cnrio fought with such impmdeoce for lie 
cause of Ciesar, and the opposers of Ctebar iiiied that head quarters duiiw 
fheir Etnig^lei agaiost him; it was here also that Cato, hence sucotuBed 
tJticeQiis, clibbed himself" to picvent his falling into the handB of Hie 
Dictator, n. c. 46, Hippo Zaiytua Biteria was an old Ptirric colony a lew 
^iles to the Westwanl of Ulica; it was situated at the jnnction of an 
eilensive lake with the sea, which led the Greeks, when they first heard 
Its name, to suppose it was called Uiarrhylui, from the wirds fid ftr 
and pill _^, owing to the water ninning' lAraug-A it. The Kortheni pari 
loTthe lake was called Hipponitis Fajus, and tbeSnnthern port SisaraPalm . 
lletween them was the town Thirmida Thiunda^ where JngorCha treacher- 
ously murdered Hiempsal. 

23. Carthago '^ or Carchedou aa it was called by the 
Greeks, the Queen of Africa, and the rival of Rome, 
was founded by the Tyrians, b. c. 81fi, or 65 yeai-e be- 
fore the building of the latter city. It stood a little belcw 
the mouth of the R. Bagradas, and only a few miJea 
from the modem Tunis ; it was situated on a peninsula 
washed by the sea on all sides but the West, where alone 
it communicated with the mainland of Zeu^tana. In 
the centre of this communication, and upon a hill of con- 
siderable elevation, rose the citadel Byrsa" (frequently 
put for the whole city), so called from a Phcenician 
word signifying a fortress ; but the Greets, always de- 
Birous of finding the origin of proper names in their own 
language, asserted that it derived its name from the 

" A»t fugies Utieam, ant vincUis milterifi Uerdam- 

Hur. EpHf . I. XI 

" Hence Horace, " Catonls tiobile letbum." Cnrm. 

" Urbs antiqua fiiit, Tyrii lenuere coloni, 
Carthago, Italiara contra, Tiberinaque longe 
Oslia; dives opum, studiisqne asperrima belli; 
(juam Juno ferlnr lerris magis omnibus uoam 
Posthabit^ cohiisie Samo. die iilius anna. 
Hie currus fuit ; hoc regnum Dea gentibus esse, 
Si qua fata sinant, jam turn tendilque fovetque. Viirg. Xn. Ii 1 
'^ Deveuere locos, uhi nunc ingentia cemes 
Mtenia, surgeolemque nnvie Carthapnis arcem ; 
Afea'aligue solum hcti de nomine liyraatn, 
:l3uriao quantum pasiKM uicamiu« \£i|,u. 

4fiioa SeptmUrUmaliB — Siengitama. 1273 

word BvjpcML a hide, and invented a scurrilous iable to 
justify the assertion. This was^ that when Dido came 
to Amca she bought of the inhabitants as much land as 
•oould be encompassed by a bull's hide, but after the 
agreement she artfiilly cut the hide into small thongs, 
and with them inclosed the enormous territory on which 
she built her. citadel. The city grew so exceedingly in 
wealthy power, and magnificence^ as to be 184 stadia, or 
S3 Koman mUes in circuit, and to contain a population 
aS 700,000 souls. It has been immortalized by the 
daring gallantry with which it opposed the ambitious 
jRiojects of Rome, and for the thriee great wars, which 
at different intervals, and with various success, it canied 
on c^ainstthat great republic, during a space of 118 
years. The name Poeni, sometimes applied to the Car- 
thaginians, and from which the epithet runicus is derived, 
appears to be a corruption from Phoeni or Phcenices, as 
the Carthaginians were originally Phoenicians. For up- 
wards of 240 years before the breaking out of these 
hostilities, the two nations had beheld each other's rising 
power with suspicious jealousy ; but by settling in three 
aiflTerent treaties the boundaries of theu* respective terri- 
tories, the number of their aUies, and the navigation of 
the Mediterranean Sea, they avoided any actual coUisipn. 
At length, however, b. c. 264, the first Punic war broke 
out in Sicily, an island, which, from its proximity to 
Africa, as well as from its exuberant fertility, was ex- 
ceedingly valuable to the Carthaginians, and a great 
?)rtion of which they alrea^dy possessed. The third 
unic war terminated in the utter ruin of the Carthagi- 
nian lempire, after a duration of 672 years ; their city was 
destroyed by Scipio Africanus Minor, b. c. 146, in the 
san^ year that Mummius burned Corinth. The Roman 
historians, whose impartiality is utterly lost in the bigoted 
jealousy with which they have narrated the affairs oftheir 
rivals, represent the Carthaginians as a most treacherous 
and faithless people, and hence arose the censorious pro- 
verb Punica fides, 

24. The iirst Punic war was brought on by a dispute between the two 
nations about the possession of Messana in Sicily: it terminated b. c. 24], 
after it had lasted 23 years, the Carthaginians agreeing amongst other 
terms to evacuate Sicilj and the islands in the Medvtert^ii^^vi* TW -sss.'y^ 

N 5 

074 Africa SepteairutJtalis — Zeugiiann. 

fi Eagnnlum by Huinibal gave riie lo the lecond Punic war, a.c. 210: 
Iw followed up his cODquesC of this ciL; by RiHrehing into Ilaly, wheie a< 
JOw hattles of the Ticinus, the Treiria, Trasimenua, and Cannffi, he gave 
Ae Rwnuis the Beveteal defeats they ever experienred. Scipio, howeiw, 
JnTing cairied the war into Africa, Hannibal vita compelled by hUcenii' 
iijmea to quit the brilliant field of his victoiisi : upon hti arrival in Zen- 

Kua. (he two armies met at Zama, where after a long aud bloody bottle, 
pio oblaiDed the victory. The Canha^aiaus Here obhgBd to sue fat 
peace, which was granted them by their haughty contjuerors, b. c. 201. 
■fler the war had lasted 18 years: anioagst otbei attides in the treaty 
fhey agreed to surreodei the whole of their fleet excepting tea ^allies, siiid 
not to make war upon any oattoD whatever without the special pennu' 
Rion of the RomanE. The rapacious attacks made by Ma^nissa upon tbc 
territory of the Catthaginiaoa led them to cany their complaints lo .ibe 
XiOman senate, when commissioners were appointed to investigate the matter. 
Amongst the number of these commissioners was the elder Cito, who, with 
Jl jealous eye, saw Carthage rising again in all the gieatness of her fbtmer 
power; and when he returned to Rome he declared in full ssoate tbal 
nte peace of Italy wonld never be secure so long as Cuthage was m Wng. 
constantly exciting against it the hatred of his countrymen by the em- 
jhatic expression ' Delenda est Carthago.' Masinissa was encouraged in 
lis attacks upon the Carthaginian territory by tbe sentence pronounced 
iji his favour at Home, tlial Carthage had no right lo more ground than 
tbe single spat upon which her Byrsa stood. He accordingly penisted in 
Jl justified course of unheatd-of aggreBsiona, which led the Carlh»gini»ns 
Jo fall upon him, and thus, by breaking their treaty with the Roroaas, 
ttiey brought on the third Punic war a. c. IJ9. A regular siege wascom- 
nenced against Carthage which, under the able conduct of Asdrubal, wu 
Vigorausly resisted for the space of two years : at last Scijrio AfricaDUi the 
Younger, the descendant □( that Afticanus who finished tbe second Punic 
war, was sent In conduct the operations against the city. He sood sirc- 
Meded in cuttiitg off att its communicatioDi with the land, and after > 
time gained admittance within its walls. His progress was disputed with 
the greatest fury, and the houses were set on fire lo stop his advandngi 
liut when SD.OOV persons of both sexes had claimed quarter, the rest of 
tbe tnhabituits lost their courage, and such as disdained to become pri- 
toners of vrar. perished in tlie flames which gradually destroyed their ha- 
bitations. The city continued bumiig for seventeen days, duringwhich the 
Wldiera were allowed losave what they could from the general wreck Thus 
«nded the third Punic war, n.c. 140, after it had lasred three years, during 
which by far the greater part of the population of Canhage had perished 
within its walls. The news of the victory caused the greatest rejtMcingi 
in Rome, and commissioners were immediately appointed, not only w taar 
Ibe walls of Carthage, but lo destroy every trace of it that remained', 
»nd curses were solemnly pronounced on any one who should daie to foaod 
n new city on that spot where Byrsa and Me°ara once stood. 

as. Notwithstanding the curse pronounced upon it, twen^-thiee yean 
bad scarcely elapsed from the destruction of the metropolis of Africa. wbeD 
the aristocratic party \a Rome found it advisable la rid themselves of Caios 
Gracchus, and he was accordingly commissioned to fouud a new city of 
Carthage ; he, however, met with certain hindrances in the way of ODMns, 
and it was not uutit the reign of Augustus that liie foundations of New 
Carlhsgt were laid. The curse, which had been pronounced, was lOoB 
^MgolleD, aod the new citj occajnti W Vut. nsuVf tbe same site with tbii 

Ajriea Septentrionalis — Zeugitana, 975 

of Old Cvtiiage, except that it extended somewhat farther Westward ; 
the Proconsul of Africa chose it for his residence, and at the end of Aa- 
gostna' re^i it was one of the most flourishing cities in the whole con- 
tinent. In the 7th centoiy it fell into the huids of the Saraemu, who 
de stroy ed ,it so completely that there are scarcely any ruins of its build- 
ings to be aeen. Its memory is still preserved iv the name of C. Car^ 
tiugt, at the Eastern extremity of the old city : and in that of £/ Merta, 
qi^iad to a village and port near the famous Byrsa. 

S6. The Byisa was the first and the only part of Carthaee which the 
l^rians erected for some time, and was therefore the name by which the 
lettlenient was originally known : but upon its receiving a great accession 
of colomsts from the motherrcountiy, it materially increased its limits, and 
fhea for the first time assumed the FhoBnician name Carthada, signifying 
the New City. The City of Carthage stood upon three hills, the highest 
of wfaich was occupied by the Byrsa or citadel ; its lowest part was two 
RomBn miles in circumference, and upon one of its loftiest peaks stood 
the famous temple of iEsculapius, which was ascended by sixty steps from 
fhe citadel, and in case of need, itself served as a fortress. Owing to the 
fipid increase of the population of Carthage, the foundations of a suburb 
were laid at the North Western extremity of the city: this new settle- 
ment was called Magar, Magara, or Magalia, a Punic name signifying a 
Mv eUy, which the Greeks and Romans altered to Megara, or translated 
by Neapolis. Carthage had two harbours, an outer and an inner one. The 
outer harbour was in fiLCt only the Eastern extremity of the sreat Bay of 
Hyiiu, divided from the remainder of the lake by chains, and locked on 
the Eastern side by the promontory of the city, which from its tongue-like 
tkacge was called Glossa or Lingua. Beyond it, to the Eastward, was the 
Inner Harbour, or Cothoo, so called, as it was said, from the word JLta^tov 
poeulum, owing to its resembling a cup ; it was cut by the Carthaginians, 
for the convenience of containing their fleet, and was surrounded on all sides 
by a lofry wall. 

27. Tunes Tunit stood 120 stadia to the S. W. of Carthage, on the same 
bay with it ; near it, in the first Punic war, the Roman general Regulus 
was defeated and taJcen prisoner bv the CarUiaginians under the command 
of Xantippus the Lacedemonian, the Sinus Carthaginiensis G. of Tunis 
extended from Apollinis Pr. C. Farina to Hermaea Acra C. Bon : in it was 
the I. ^gimorus Zembra, close to which lay two small rocks, called 
JE^mori Arae ^^ remarkable for a treaty said to have been there entered into 
be^een the Romans and Carthaginians, which others, however, refer to the 
JBgades Insuls. C. Bon was formed by the North Eastern extremity of 
M'. Atlas, which was here called Aspis Mons, from the neighbouring pro- 
montory Aspis. The native name of this cape was Taphitis, but Agathocles 
and his Sicilians, during the descent which they made here, fancied it re- 
sembled a shield (deririg), and therefore named it Aspis ; here also they 
built the fortified town Aspis, which was afterwards occupied by Regulus 
during the first Punic war, its Greek name being rendered m Latin by the 
synonymous one of Clypea, which it has preserved to the present day in 
that of Kalibia, To the Eastward of this was the banen island Cossura or 

*' They are said to be alluded to by Virgil, Mn. 1. 109, though the passage 
itself is doubtful : 

Tres Notus abreptas in saxa latentia torquet ; 
Saxa vocant Itali, mediis que in fluctibus, Aias, 
Dorsum immane mari summo. 

N 6 

276 Africa Septentrionalis — Byzacena- 

Cosyra Pani^iaria. A Tew milei lo Lhe S. of Aspu were Curubii Gharba. aoil 
Neapolis i^abai, whicb g&ve name to Siaus Nuapolitaaus G. oj' HammamM. 

28. Byzacena touched to the N, upon Zeu^itana, 
to the W. upon Numidia, to the S. upoQ Tripolitana, 
and to the E. it was washed by the Mediterranean Sea ; 
it corresponded with the Southern part of the Stale c^ 
Tunis. Prior to the conquest of it by the Romans, ite 
Western half was included in the kingdom of N'umidia, 
but the Eastern part of it, along the coast of the Medi- 
terranean Sea, belonged to the Cartht^nians, who named 
it Byzacium and Emporia. They derived the former of 
these two names from the Byzantes or Byxacii, a tribe 
who dwelled hereabouts, and are supposed to have been 
the same with the Zugantes of Zeugitana. The name 
Kmporia was applied to the towns on the shores of the 
Little Syrtis, and by extension to those on the coast of 
Tripolitana, from the flourishing commerce which they 
carriedon. When the whole ofNumidiafell into the hands 
of the Romans the two names Emporia and Byzacium 
were used indifferently to distinguish the whole country, 
till they formed their province Byzacena, and subee- 
quently that of Tripolitana. It was extraordinarily fer- 
tile, and was considered, from the vast quantities of com 
which it exported to Rome, as one of the principal gra- 
naries of that city. 

29. The Northernmosl cily on the shores of Bjzacena was Hadmmetum 
Siua, founded bj the Pbteniciuis, as were alt the other cilies on liik cnast^ 
it wu of such importance as la have been conaideted the capital of Bya- 
cium. A Ullle below it was LeptU Ltmpta, aumamed Minor to dislinguisli 
it from the Great Leptis on the caast of Tripoli : and lower down iiood 
Thapaus Semon, Ismous for the viDtary obtained there by Cssar over Jnba 
and Metel]u3 Scipio, the latter of whom had fled hither with the wreck of 
Pompey's party aflei the fatal battle of Pharsalia. Close lo Thai«5us was 
Toms Hanniballs AJ'riea, whence Hannibal took his depaitu re for Syria, 
when banished by hia uti^rateful countrymen. Farther Southward was Ute 
promoDlury Hrachodes, Ca-pomiia, which together with the Opposite Me- 
nmi I. Jerba, formed the limlti of the Syrtis Minor" Ciil/ g/' Caha; (his 
gulf and the more Eaatem one of the Syrtis Major, so dreaded by the 
ancient navigators, denied their nanipa from the Greek word aupiiv tral'tn, 
owing to the winds and currents ilratcing in as it were, and en^Hing the 
vessels which traversed them, or as others say, from the winds, and waves 
influeaeed by the winds, dritiiiag ta there vast quantities of oiud, mad, and 

" Tres Furas ab alto 

Afriita SeptenirianaUs—Syzacena. 277 

ncks» which iMiMd a thoal thence called Syrtii. The.ancieDt sailors 
dnaded being cait upon tbem, so much >o that the earlier Greeks asserted 
the Davieatioo of either Syrtis as an utter impossibility, without the imme- 
(Eate assistance of Uie gods. In the Northern part of the Syrtis Minor lies 
tk& I. Cerdma Karkmma ; at its Southern extremity, and joined to it by a 
bridge, is the smaUnr island Ceicinitis. 

SO. Taeapa Cabm, was the most important city on the shores of the Little 
^frtis, and stood at its Western extremity. To the £. of it lay the I. Me- 
mnx, also named Lotophagitis, and famous as the favourite dwelling of the 
Lotophagi*, so called from the Greek words Xtarbg lotus and ^ayiiv edere, 
owinff to their fiving upon the lotus. Meninx had several cities, one of 
which, called Girba, has given the modem name of Jerba to the whole 
island : the emjieror Yibius Gallus was bom here. The R. Triton Cahes^ 
to famous in the mytholo^ of the Greeks, rises in a part of M*. Atlas called 
Usaktus, and after passme through two lakes, called Libya Lowdeah and 
TritODis Furmnmi, enters toe sea at Tacape. The Lake Tritonis ^' was also 
named Pallas, from the tradition that Minerva, hence suraamed Tritogenia 
and Tritonia, first made her appearance on its shores ; the surrounding 
coontiy was inhabited by the Atlantides and the wild Gorgons, and it was 
here, by the assistance of Minerva, that Perseus killed Medusa. Here too 
was the place originally assigned to the Gardens of the Uesperides, which 
were robbed of their golden apples by Hercules, after he had slain the 
euonnons dragon, which, with unceasing watchfulness, guarded the fmit ^^^ : 
the fable of the Hesperides is explained by their having possessed an im- 
mtese number of flocks, and by the ambiguous Greek word fiijXov signifying 
both a sheep and an apple. The people of Gyrene pretended that all the 
mytholo^cied wonders connected with the Tritonis Palus were to be sought 
for in their country. In the centre of Byzacium stood its metropolis Capsa 


Faiqc AwTo^dykw, oiT dv^ivov eldap ISovaw, 

Oifd* dpa Ataroiftdyoi p,ri$ovy krapoKJiv oXe^pov 
*HficrEpoic» iXXd a^i $6aav XtaroXo vrdaatr^au 
T&v S* 'oariQ XtoroXo fdyoi fisXiiidsa icaovdv, 
Oi/K ir* dnayyiTXai trdXiv ijSrtXBV, oitdt vkiad^ai* 
- 'AXX* aifTov povXovTO fur* dvdpdci Autrofdyogtri 
Atarbv kpttrrdfitvoi fiivsfttv, voarov re Xa&kd^ai, 

Horn, Od, I, seq, 

>* Torpentem Tritonos adit illaBsa paludem. 
Hanc, ut fama, Deus, quem toto litore pontus 
Audit ventosa perflantem marmora concha, 
Hanc et Pallas amat : j>atrio qusB vertice nata 
Terraram primam Libyen (nam proxima coelo est, 
Ut probat ipse calor) tetigit : stagnique quieta 
Vultus vidit aqua, posuitque in margine plantas, 
£t se dilecta Tritonida dixit ab unda. Lucan. IX. 347. 

^ Hinc mihi Massylae gentis monstrata sacerdos, 
Hesperidum templi custos, epulasque draconi 
Qus dabat, et sacros servabat in arbore ramos, 
Spargens humida mella soporifenimque papaver. 

Virg, Mn, IV. 481. 

Dr. Maltby says, in a note upon the word *£(r7rcpt^ef , in his Greek Gradus, 
that the fable of Golden Apples probably took Its rise from. Qt^sx^g^. 

278 Afrioa SiptmtriofuiliS'^THpolitana. 

Gajfsa, where Jugurtha kept his treasures : it is said to hare been founded 
by the Libyan Hercules, who called it Hecatompylos from its hundred gates, 
and to have derived all its importance from the £gyptianS| who colonized 
the shores of the Little Syria at a very early pNenoo. Above Capsa was 
Thala Feriana, afterwards called Thelepte during the dominion of die 
Romans, who fortified it as an advanced post against the Numidian hordes. 
In the Northern part of the province stood Sufetula ^aitla ; to the £. of it, 
not far f^om Thapsus, was Tusdrus El Jemme, which was taken by Casar, 
and was the city whence Gordian was called to the Imperial pov^er. 

31. Tripolitana (sdl Provincia) or Tripolis was 
bounded on the W. by Byzacena, on the S. by jPhazania 
and the territory of the Garamantes, on the E. by Cyre- 
naica^ and on the N. by the Mediterranean Sea : it. is 
still called Tripoli. It derived its name from its three 
chief citieSf Sabrata Sabart, (£a Tripoli^ and Leptis 
Magna Lebida, where the emperor Severus was bom. 
It formerly constituted part of the Carthaginian terri- 
tory, the limits between this people and the Cyreneans 
being marked by the Philaenorum Arse Mukdar. These 
altars were erected by the Carthaginians at the Southern 
extremity of the Great Syrtis, in memory of two brothers, 
named rhilaeni, who were killed there by the Cyreneans 
during a dispute between the two states concerning the 
extent of their limits. 

82. The Syrtis Major called the G. af Sidra or Djoon al Kabrit, was 
much larger than the Little Syrtis, but by no means so dangerous, although 
it was a great terror to all mariners navigating the sea in its neighbourhood : 
it seems to be the quicksand {trvpTig) Eluded to by St. Paul in bis tem- 
pestuous voyage from Crete to Melita. Tripolitana was in general a barren 
and desert province, the cultivation being chiefly confined to the banks of 
the rivers and streams, in the immediate neighbourhood of the sea coast. 
The Westernmost ciihr on the coast of Tripolitana was Sabrata or Abrotonum 
now Sabart or Old Tripolit the birth-place of Flavia Domitilla, the consort 
of Vespasian, and mother of Titus and Domitian : near it, and likewise 'on 
the coast stood (£a, otherwise called Eoa and (£ca, Tripoli, Beyond these 
was Leptis Lebiduy sumamed Magna to distinguish it from Leptis Minor, 
which was not far from Carthage. It was founded by some Sidonians, who 
quitted their native city during a cabal, and it rose in the course of time to 
such importance, as to pay the Carthaginians, in whose territory it stood, 
a talent a day for tiibute. Near it runs the little river Cinyps or Cinyphus 
Khalian, the country round which was reckoned the paradise of all Africa 
and jrielded three hundred-fold -, its goats were noted for their exceedingly 
shaggy skius^. 

33. Farther Eastward were the promontories Trieron C. Mentrata, and 
Cephalae Kharra, foiming the Western termination of the Syrtis Major. 

^ Nee minus interea barbas incanaque menta 

Cinyphii tondent hirci, setasque comantes ; 

VxT^, G«org. III. 312. 

Africa Septentrionalis — Libya. 270 

The much enned Lotophagi extended as far as this point, and in later times 
the countiy about it was the only part they were thought to inhabit. Below 
Cephalae Pr^ <m the Western coast of the Syrtis was the territoiy of the 
8eu or Psylli, who were said to be remarkable for tiieir power of charming 
serpentB, and of cuing such as had been bitten by them ; they are men- 
tbned on this account by Lucan, in his description of the serpents which in- 
lasted the army oi Cato, when marching along the coast of Africa**. They 
extended into the province of Cjnrenaica,. and are said to have been attacked 
and almost exterminated by Uie Nasamones. About 40 miles to the- 8, of 
C. Mtfurata stood Gerisa stdl called Ghirxa : its ruins are in very good pre- 
servation, and from the number of statues and other pieces of sculpture 
with winch it abounds, the people of the countiy fancy the whole city has 
been petrified. Below it is the mountain Gillius Gila, which is a part of 
that great range known to the ancients under the name of Chuzambari or 
Mons Ater, and now called the Black Mountains or the Black Harutsh ; it 
iateiaects the whole Southern part of Tripolitana, aiid is lost in the wilds of 
the interior. To the N. of it were the Macei Syrtits, so named from their 
dwelling along the Syrtis ; and in the South Western comer of the province 
was Culamus Gadamis, which seems to have been the most advanced 
station of the ancients in the desert. 


34. The Greeks were acquainted at a very remote 
period with that part of Africa which lies opposite to their 
own country. The North wind hardly ever blew witli 
any violence, without dashing some of their ships on its 
shores : hence the precision with which Homer speaks of 
it, when compared with his febulous accounts of the 
more Western countries ^. They soon learned that the 
natiye name of the tawny people who wandered over it 
was libyes, and they therefore named their country 
Libya, in which they were followed by many of the Latin 
writers^. In the course of time they discovered the 
same race of men extending from the lunits of Egypt to 
the Pillars of Hercules, and henceforward named the 
whole continent Libya. The Romans, who copied the 

** Vix miseris serum tanto lassata periclo 
Auxilium Fortuna dedit. Gens unica terras 
Incolit a ssvo serpentum innoxia morsu, 
Marmaridae Psylh : par lingua potentibus herbis : 
Ipse cruor tutus, nullumque admittere virus, 
Vel cantu cessante> potest. Pharsal, IX. 893. 

•* Ai^ioTrdc 3"' ico/iijv, Kal ^idoviovg^ xai *EpeuPoi>c, 
Kai AiPvriv, *iva t apviQ d(pap Kipaol rcXs^overt. 

Horn, Od, A. 85. 

^ Defessi iEneadae, quae proxima litora cursu 
Contendunt petere, et Libye vertuntur ad eras. 

Ftrg. iEn. L 158, 

*80 Africa. Septentrionalis — Cyrenaica. 

Greeks in most of their geographical arrangements, con- 
tracted Libya conaideramy towards the East, inaemnch 
as they extended the frontier of Egypt to the Great 
Catabathmus, making it the common boundary between 
the two : but the name of Libya waa always foreign to 
their language, they having become acquainted with that 
part of the country which hea opposite Italy and Sicily, 
under the name of Africa, and tlus name they soon ap- 
plied to the whole continent. Nevertheless the name of 
Libya was always preserved as a distinguishing appella- 
tion for the country, from the borders of the Greater 
Syrtis tp Egypt, although it was latterly subdivided into 
the three provinces of Cyrenaica, Marmarica, and Libya 
Exterior : it is now called Barca. This whole extent of 
territory, with the exception of the district of the Pentar 
polls, and a few other patches of ground too inconsider- 
able to be mentioned, is one wide desert displaying not 
the least sign of cultivation. 

35, Cyreme or Cvhenaica (scil. Provincia) was 
boimded on the W. by Tripolitana, on the S, by the ^-ast 
-deserts of the interior, on the E. by Marmarica, and on 
(he N. by the Mediterranean Sea : it corresponded with 
the Western part of £arco. It derived its name from 
its metropolis Cyrene, founded by Battus the Dorian, 
who quitted the Spartan island Thera in the jEgaaan Sen, 
about 712 years B. c, having been commanded by tlie 
oracle to build a city on this coast. 

,. 36, BaltUG landed on the cooai, and having founded his cilj" neu a 
nuntain sacred to Apollo, and called Cyie, he reigned in ll (at forty }-cars 
laid died. He was fallowed bj seven other kings, during whoae reigm a 
Knmber of Greeks cmswd over at the command of the oracle, and founded 
tb« cities Teuchira and Hesjierides; Barce, too, nas buiit durine the retgo 
of the siith king, in consequence of whose tyranny its mhabilants rose 
■gaintit him, and finally succeeded in gaining (heir independence, which they 
pnseived till the reign of the last king, nlm was publicly murdered Id it. 
Tjie united confederacy of the several eilk.i was named Cyrene or Cyrenea, 
U appellation which the Koraans lallerly converted inlo Cyrenaica. A(- 
t«t this the lyranniral power exercised by the metropolis of Cyrene over 
&e other Greek setliemenls, was taken from il, and the Jive chief eidfi 
suited into one league, hence snmamed the Penlapolis: these dties were 
Cjrene, Apollonia, Ptolemais, Teuchira. and Bereaice, of which the first ttill 
kepi its «uptriority as the capital. Hie country in the immediate neigbboor- 

Afiriea SeptentrionaKs — CSfrenaica. 281 

feod of the PentraoUt was remarkably fertile ; its horses were amongst the 
inest in die world, and often gained the prize in the games of Greece : the 
Cyienean chariots were also much praised for their many excellencies. One 
?ery important production of Cyrenaica was the Silphiura, or Laserpitium as 
tlie Latins named it, supposed to be the same with what is now called Aia 
Fittida ; it was a shrub which flourished to the greatest advantage in the de- 
sert, and sent forth a strong gum veiy efficacious as a medicine. 

97. The Nasamones inhabited the lower part of Cyrenaica, and are repre-^ 
seated to have been an infamous set of pirates -, their constant plundenngs 
drew upon them the vengeance of the Romans under Augustus and Domi- 
lian, who cut them to pieces, or drove them into the interior of the countiy. 
On the Eastern shore of the Syrtis Major stood Amastoros Kurkora ; and 
sdll ^Euther N. was Boreum Pr. C, Tyones, upon which there was a cogno- 
minal town chiefly inhabited by Jews, who had built themselves a temple 
which they pretended had been erected by Solomon. The Southernmost 
dty of the PentapoUs was Hesperides, so called by the Greeks, who readily 
discovered in the exuberant fertility of its neighbourhood the mythological 
gardens of the Hesperides, though these had by common consent been lone 
siooe sought for near the Little Syrtis. The Cyreneans, however, pointed 
oat the exact locali^ of the wonderful Gardens, as well as the course of the 
river Lethsus or Lathon, conmiunicating with Hades, which entered the sea 
at a little lake, declared to be the Tritonis Palus, where the goddess 
Minerva first appeared to mankind. It was owing to these circumstances 
that the Greeks laid the foundations of their city Hesperides, which was sub- 
lequently much beautified and enlarged by Ptolemy £vergetes, who, in 
honour of his queen, called it Berenice, a name which it has retained to the 
present day in that of Bengazi, 

88. Farther N. was Hadrianopolis Adrian, so called after the emperor 
Hadrian, who sent colonists hither. Above this last was Teuchira, founded 
br the Cyreneans, and called Arsinoe after the consort of Ptolemy Philadel- 
l^us, but it kept the latter name only a short time, and is still known as 
Teuhera, The next city on the coast was Ptolemais Tolometa ; it was ori- 
ginally merely the harbour of Barce, but was afterwards raised by the 
Egyptian kings to the rank of a city, and became more important than any 
other in the province. Barce ^ Barea was only 100 stadia distant fVom the 
coast, and was an aboriginal settlement of the Libyans : they remained for 
a long time on friendly terms with the colonists of Cyrene, but at last some 
of the latter durin? a domestic sedition took refuge at Barce, which from 
henceforth assumed the appearance of a regular city. It was shoitly after- 
wards joined in a league against Cjrrene by many of the towns on the sea- 
coasts, and amongst others by Teuchira ; but the last Greek king of Cyrene 
having been murdered here, it sunk rapidly. Its old inhabitants migrated 
to Ptoiemais, or took to their rovine life, and rendered themselves so terrible 
to the Greeks by their systematic robberies, that the name of Barcitse 
or Barcaei became the general one for all the Nomadic tribes between the 
Syrtis and Egypt ; hence the appellation Barca by which we distinguish the 
same extent of country. 

39. Phycus Pr. C. Rasat, the Northernmost point of Cyrenaica, was to 
the £. of Ptolemais, and on it stood a cognominal town, which the people 
of Cyrene used as a harbour after ApoUonia had been made a city of the 

*® Hinc deserta siti regio, lateque furentes 

Barcaei. Ftrg. iE«. IV. 43. 

962 Africa Septentrionalis — Marmarica. 

VvatvptXa. A few miles Eastward at Ibis mpe wa^ ApoUouia. Utt old 
faveo of Cyreoe, so called after the god of Deljibi, who was Ihe (nvouritG 
duty of the state ; in the loner ages it was called Souiusa, and beuce id 
fgodern nBme Marm Susa. Cyretie, the metmpolia of the whule province, 
vss situated a little inlaad, at a ilistaace of 80 stadia frem this port ; it wu 
built by colaoists Troai Ihe 1. of Thera, undei Battus, e. c. T 12. or about 4(i 
years after the ibundBlioQ of Rome. It wasgoveroedduiiug a period otSOO 
grean by a succeaBiun of eight kings, the last of whom being touidered, the 
Carerninent become a detuucfacy. soon after which it fell uoder the yt^ of 
Egypt, and Eoally undei that of the Rumans. The Imier people, who com- 
monly called it Cyrenffl, raised it to the rank of a colony but designedly 
inflected it ; at last it fell into the hands of the Saraceia, who reduced all 
fti splendid buildings (o a mass of luins, now known as KuTfn or Gteiiwl 
Cyteoe gave birth to many eminent men, amongst olhert to Eratosthenes, 
gallimacbus, Aristippus. Carneades, and Annlceiis : it was also famous fbr 
"a. sect af philosophers, hence called the Cyrenaic. Of this place also was 
^at Smon, on whom the Jews laid our Saviour's cross, compelling him to 
Virty it after him to the place of crucifixion. The Easternmost town of 
Pyrenaica was Daiuis, close on the frontiors of Maimarica, and now known 

40. Mabmarica was bounded on the W. by Cyre- 
naica, on the S. by the Great Libyan Desert, on the E. 
by Libya Exterior, and on the N. by the Mediterranean 
Bea : it corresponded with the central part of Sarca. 
The people were called Marmaridfe, a name which was 
'priginally applied to all the tribes between Egypt and the 
^rtis, but which, after the arrival of the Greeks in 
Cyrene, was confined Westward by the country of which 
they took possession : the latter people afterwards ex- 
itended their dominions to the Catabathmus, and thus 
included a great part of the country of the Marmaridae 
.ivithin their territory. When Cyrenaica fell into the 
Jiands of the Romans, they incorporated its Western half 
(or that part of it which was actually inhabited by the 
Oreeks), in their province, of Crete, adding the remainder 
ta Egypt, of which it then foniied a separate natnos or 
pnefecture, called Marmarica. This nomos extended 
pom the borders of the Pentapolis to the Catabathmus, 
l»eing bounded as described aboye. The Marmarid^ 
were much famed as swift runners, and for certain anti- 
dotes to the bites of the most poisonous serpents. 

41. The MarmaridK were divided into many tribes, the most powerful of 
Which seem to have been called Cigame, and dwelled on the sea-coast 
'Close on the confines of Cyrenaica und Ataim^rica was the Cheisooesus 
bagua C. Razaiin, where luy the Gieek senletnent Aiylis ; below it was 
A7juni9 Samba, llie capital of the province, situated at tbe mouth of 
S jirer, which issued from a cogQomi(ia.\ \&Ve in v\k wAsMn &E the counuy. 

Africa Septentrianalis — Libya Exterior. S88 

The flCft. here fonns a conskierablt gulf, now known as the G. of BombtL, io 
which lies Platea L, remarkable as the island where the colony of Battus 
imnded their first settlemoit after leaving Thera in the ^Egsan Sea : fieirther 
Bastward was Meodans F"^ said to have been founded by Menelaus during 
Jys wanderingSy and the place where Agesilaus is stated to have died. At the 
Eastern extremity of Marmarica was the Catabathmus Magnus Akaba Osio- 
Arm, a broad, de«> valley, remarkable as originally forming .the limits be- 
Iweea the territonea of Cyrene and Egypt, as it did in later times between 
CyrenaiGa and Marmarica. In the interior of the province were the Augilfe, 
a branch of the Nasamones, whose chief town Augila still preserves the 
iame name. 

42. Libya Exterior was bounded on the W. by 
Mannarica, on the S. by the Great Libyan Desert, on 
the E. by Egypt, and on the N. by the Mediten*anean 
Sea : it corresponded with the Eastern part of Barca, 
It formerly constituted a part of the territory occupied 
by the great nation of the Marmaridse, but having been 
conquered by the Ptolemies, they added it to their king- 
dom of Egypt, of which in later times it became a sepa- 
rate nomas or preefecture, under the title of Libya or Libya 
Eacterior. The greater part of the province was nothing 
but a desert, interspersed with a few oases or cultivated 
places, the most celebrated of which was that of Ammon 
or Hammonium Siwah, which is thought to have derived 
its name from the Ananim, or grandsons of Ham, who 
settled in these regions. It was famous for the temple 
of Jupiter Ammon ^9^ which the Greeks of Cyrene pre- 
tended had been founded by Bacchus in honour of his 
&ther, who here saved him and his whole army, when 
about to perish by thirst in the desert, by appearing in 
the shape of a ram and showing them a fountain ; hence 
they derived the name of Ammon from a/ifws arena. 
Other, and more probable accounts say, that the temple 
was built by the Thebans and the people of Meroe ; 
the former indeed always worshipped Jupiter under the 

^ Ventum erat ad templum, Libycis quod gentibus unum 
Inculti Garamantes habent : stat certior illic 
Jupiter, ut memorant, sed non aut fulmina vibrans, 
Aut similis nostro, sed tortis comibus Hammon. 
Non illic Libyes posuerunt ditia Rentes 
Templa, nee £ois splendent donana genmiis. 
Quamvis ^thiopum popuUs, Arabumque beatis 
Gentibus, atque Indis unus sit Jupiter Hammon, 
Pauper adhuc Deus est, nullis violata per eevura 
Divitiis delubra tenens : morumque priorum 
Numen Romano templum defendit ab axico, Liueaii,VL, ^W« 

fS4 JEgyptus. 

title of Ammon, and their priests en^leayoured to account 
for the god's being represented under the form, of a ram 
at the Oasis we are describings by the fable, in which it 
is related that he once concealed his glory under the skin 
of a ram to gratify the urgent request o^ Hercules, who 
had desired an interview with him. 

43. The temple possessed a famous oracle, said to have been estabtished 
about 1,800 years before the afi of Augustus, by two black doves, which 
Hew from Thebes in £gypt, and settled, one at Dodona, the other hert. 
Thef fame of the oracle was established not only in Lib3ra, but likewise 
amongst all . the civilized nations of £urope and Asia ; it was consulted by 
Hercules, Perseus, Croesus, and many others, but lost all its veneration after 
it had servilely declared Alexander the Great, who visited it with his army, to 
be the son of Jupiter. Cambyses, after his conquest of Egypt, sent an army of 
50,000 men against Ammon, not one of whom was ever afterwards heard o^; 
they were said to have been overwhelmed by the sands of the desert, but 
they probably perbhed from the want of water. The district of Ammoi 
(Ammoniaca Regio), though subjeot to Egypt, was governed originally bj 
its own kings, but in the time of Alexander, the supreme power was in tfee 
hands of a chief priest. At no great distance from the temple there was 
a celebrated fountain called that of the Sun (Solis Fons), froin the tempera* 
ture of its water varying with the time of the day ; in the morning and even- 
ing it was warm, at noon cold, and at midnight hot^. The Northern part 
of Libya Exterior was originally inhabited by the Adyrmachidai, who 
extended as far Eastward as the Nile. 



1. ^gyptus ^ was bounded on the W. by the Libyan 
Desert, on the S. by-3Ethiopia, on the E. by the Arabian 
Gulf and the Isthmus of Suez, and on the N. by the 
Mediterranean Sea. It contained 122,000 square miles, 

30 -. 

— medio tua, cornier Ammon, 

Unda die gelida est : ortuque obituque calescit. 

Ovid, Met. XV. 309. 
Esse apud Ammonis ftinum fons luce diuma 
Frigidus, at calidus noctumo tempore fertur. Lueret» VI. 848. 

' vsag KvavoTTpwpiiovQ 

'onu Od. r. 300. 

JEgyptus. 386 

bot not more than one sixth of this space was inhabited, 
the remainder being a barren desert. It is still called 
Egypthj us EuropeanSy although the natives themselves, 
as well as the Turks and all the oriental nations, only 
know it by the name of Misr. This latter appellation 
is merely a corruption of Mizraim, who was a son of 
Ham, and settled together with his father in this country, 
to which he gave his name; hence we generally find 
Egypt caUed Mizraim in the Old Testament, although 
it is sometimes mentioned as the Land of Ham. The 
origin of the term -^gyptus (Atyv^roc) is deduced from 
Ai Captor, or the Country of Caphtorj by which name 
also, as well as by that of the Caphtorim,.we find Egypt 
alluded to in the Old Testament ; and as the Greeks are 
thought to have derived their word Ala terra from the 
Hebrew -4i, so they may have converted Captor into 
UwTOQj and thus faithfully rendered the original Ai 
Captor by Ala HdirTov or Aa-oTrroc, the land of Coptus, 
which they afterwards- softened into Alywrros iEgyptus. 
Indeed the original natives of Egypt are called Copts 
at the present day, to distinguish them from the Arabs 
and Turks : hence the translation of the Bible used by 
them (for they profess Christianity, although their 
worship is degraded by a number of superstitious prac- 
tices) IS called the Coptic translation, 

2. Egypt derived all its fertility from the Nile, the overflowings of which 
caused it to be so productive, that it was called the public granary of the 
world ; those paits of the country not visited by the periodical inundation, 
are, with the exception of the few oases, completely desert. Egypt produced 
little wine and oil, but so much the greater abundance of corn, which in the 
latter ages was exported in immense quantities to Rome. It was also famous 
finr the papyrus, a sedgy weed which grew upon the banks of the Nile, and 
has given rise to our word Tpa-per, from the Egyptians having used it to write 
upon. The invention of papyrus afforded such great facility for the trans- 
cribing of books, that Ptolemy Philadelphus collected a magnificent library 
at Alexandria, which Attains, king of Pergamus, endeavouring to surpass. 

ends with the conquest of the country by Cambyses, king of Persia, b. c. 525 : 
the second, A^na% which the Egyptians threw off the Persian yoke and be- 
came again subject to their own kings, terminates with the death of Alexander 
the Great, b. c. 323, who had reduced it under his dominion : the last epoch 
includes the reigns of the Ptolemies, and ends with the death of Cleopatra. 
This beautiful princess, having supported the cause of Brutus, was sum- 
mooed to Tarsus by Antony, to answer foi her coudvxcl, \>\>X Vi^ \)^'ds&!t v^ 


969 jEgijptvs. 

' dsepl; enamoured oriier, that be divorced his wire Octa via, tfa« iiEterorAu- 
ustua, and having pnbliclj married Cleojjatra, ijave her the greater part af 
'^" "" " a proviuces of the Roman empire. Thia behaviour produced a 
inpmre iwtweGB Au^EtUF) and Antony, which eitded in the bmous battle of 
Actiiim, where the latter was deleated in consequence of Cleopatra's ^i^ 
wilh atX^ ships ; Antony, finding his cause desperate, took refuge in Egypt, 
where he stabbed himself, a c. 30, aod Cleopatra, to ^void falling inW llie 
htnds of Augustus, poisoned herself by (he bite of an asp. From Ibi* time 
£gypt became a Roman piovince. 

4. Tbe EgTptiaaii reckoned Ihcmtelvea the most ancient people in the 
woiid, and placed the reign of Ibnc first mortal king 17,000 years befoit (he 
Chiislian eia, or, accoidmg to some accounts, even at duuble that distance 
of time: prior to this they had bten governed by the gods, all of whom they 
Aaerted had been bom in their countty, and the knowledge of whom mi 
been conveyed from Egypt to every other nation. Osiris, when kiog of Egypt, 
il said to have invented writing and sacrifices, and to have been the first who 
became acquainted with tbe motions of the host of heaven. However this 
ma; be, there is no dnubl but the E^ptiann were amongst the earliml people 
to discover the apparent path of the Sun and Moon, together with the mo- 
tions of the other heavenly bodies, and the true length of the solar year. AU 
ttis learaing appears to have been eiclnsively in the hands of the piieiB, 
Who preserved and cultivated it by means oFa secret writing iDtelligible only 
to themselves : the characters of this writing were called Uieroglyphici m 
the Greeks, from the two words Upoc sacer and yXu^uj iculpo, from then 
' " ' Ted types of history and mythology, which the priests caused la 

■e represented under these palpable signs' 
5. The R, Niliis^ or Nile was the longest river in the 
world with which the ancients were at all acquainted. 
It derived its name from the Hebrew word Nachal or 
Nabal, signifying merely the river, and hence, in tbe 
book of Exodus, it is mentioned only under this appella- 
tion : it was also called Siris by the Ethiopians, whence 
ve find it mentioned by the prophet Jeremiah as the 
Sihor. The Nile rises 23° to the S. of the Mediterranean 
from two sources. The more Eastern of these, t;aUe<l 
Astapus by the ancients, and now Mahr el Azergue or 

• Omnigenflmque Defim monslta, Virg. Mn. Wll. GSa. 

~ m et cspe nefas violare et frangere tn 
clas gentes, quibus h:£C naicunlur in 

Juu. Sat. XV.l 

magno naerenteni corpore Nilum, 

the Shie iVife, was the one visited by Mr. Bruce, the 
British traveller; but the Western branch, called the 
Bahr el Abiadov White Nilcy is much more important, 
and from its being the true Nile, it preserved amongst 
the ancients the original name Nilus. Many of them 
thought that the Nuchulor Nigir in the interior of Africa, 
was the same river with the Nile, an opinion which is 
still maintained at the present day ; but others have 
placed the source of the Western arm in a lofty range 
of mountains, called Lunse Montes Gebel Komri or 
Mountains of the Moon. There are two well-known. 
cataracts in the Nile, the upper one of which, called 
Cataractes Major, is at Wady Haifa, the lower one is 
near Syene, and is now known by the name of Es- 
Shdlaale: ihe latter one formed the Southern frontier 
of Egypt, and from it the river ran through the long 
valley of this country, till it entered the Mediterranean 
Sea by seven mouths*. 

6. The ridge of mountains, which hounded this valley on the Eastern side, 
was called Arabicus M. Gebel Mokuttem, the Western range was named Li- 
bycos Mons. A little above Memphis, these two ridges suddenly stop short, 
the Eastern one striking off towards the head of the Red Sea, and the Western 
one into the interior of Libya : from this point the river, dividing its waters 
into several arms, enters the Sea by seven mouths. I'he nam^s of these are 
Canopicum, Bolbitinum, Sebennyticum, Phatniticum or Bucolicum, Mende- 
tiiuD, Saiticum or Taniticum, and Pelusiacum ; of which the first was nearest 
to Alexandria, and the last to Palestine. The two outer arms of the river 
form a triangle, the basis of which is the Mediterranean Sea ; and hence, 
from its representing the letter ^, the Greeks gave it the name of Delta, 
which it has preserved to our own times. But the most interesting pheno- 
menon connected with the Nile, is its periodical inundation^. About the 
time of the Summer solstice the river begins to swell, and continues gradually 
rising ibr nearly one hundred days, till the Autumnal Equinox, when it over- 
flows its banks and covers the whole valley ; it remains stationary for some 
time, and then gradually decreases, till after the end of one hundred dajs, 
and towards the Winter solstice, it has again reached its ordinary level, which 
it maintains till tiie summer of the succeeding year. The ancients, who wit- 
nessed this inundation, exhausted their imagination in conjectures as to its 
cause, and it is only of late years that it has been ascertained to arise from 
the periodical rains, which fall in the Tropical regions from June to Septem- 
ber, assisted by the Etesian winds which blow violently from the North East, 
and thus hinder the waters from throwing themselves with their usual volume 

* At Nileus, qui se genitum septemplice Nile 
Ementitus erat, clypeo quoque flumina septem 
Argento partim, partim cslaverat auro. Ovid, Met, V. 187. 

» ■ aut pingui flumine Nilus, 

Cum leBuit eampia, et jam se conduit a\v%o, V\t^» 2E.^Yk»^iV% 

888 JEgyptv^—JEgyptus Inferior. 

he average inse of the Nile has ilwafs Ix 
' twcnty-Jour icet above its ordiuaiy Uvel, ( 

: seel. The average inse of the Nile has ilwafs been, u it still it. 

cubits ot twcnty-Jour icet above its ordiuaiy Uvel, oae jeaj varying 

much from another ; when the inundation has rttireil the whole soil is found 

coveted with a. thick, black sliiae, id which the principles 
filily contained. 

T. The range of mountBiDS Kiresdy noticed aa stiikiog oS'lrom the neiffh- 
bourhood of Memphis to the bead of tlie Arabian Gulf, was named TiDicusld. 
Atoka, and a remarkable as having furnished the stone for the building of 
the great {^ramids ; it derived its name from (be town of Troja Tuiira on the 
Saiilem Innk of the Nile, opposite hiemphij, where Menelatis is reputed to 
ktve settled the captir^, whom he had taken at the siege of Tnty. From 
this Tioicus Moos a lofly range of mountuios extends Southwards ilitD 
Ethiopia, runaiog.abont midway betweeo the Nile and the Red Sea; it bote 
id difiereiil parts the several oaoies of Alabastiinus Mons, Forphyritis Mitni, 
Siger X.apis Mons, and Saia'a<;dus Blons, and furnished the kings of Egypt 
Bot only with very valuable quarries of the finest marble, but with mines of 
fcecious stones and |;old. 

e. From the gieat power obtained by the priests, who were also the law- 
givers and judges of the whole nation, the people built their tuwtta ip tbc 
Iieight>ourhood of the temples; hence it naturally followed, that (be conntiy 
thould become divided into certain prsfeclnres, which derived tlieir naoiei 
ftcaa the ptindpal cities, in which these temples were Ibund. These picftc- 
tures, called ^DnIi by the Greeks, were at litst only 36 in nimiber, but iImj 
were aflerwards materially increased under the Ptolemies. At the same 
time Egyp' underwent an alteration in the three great divisions of Upper, 
Central, and Lower, by which it had hitherto been known. The last of tamt 
«■£ no longer conliuetl to the Delta, but atl the Nomi lying in its nnghr 
bourhood were hencetbrward included wilhio its bounds. In the same man- 
nor, several pra^fectures were taken from Central Egypt, and added to itie 
Upper Province, so that it contained only leoeu A'mji, whence it received lb« 
name of ITeptanomis ; its name was subsequently changed into that of Arcv 
dia, in honour of Arcadius, son of the emperor Theodosius. The whida 
number of theNomi amounted at this lime tofifi, but they were much altered 
in after agea, several of them being subdivided, new ones made, and some 
entirely dooe away with. The superficial extent of the three great pio- 
vlnces, into which Egypt was usually divided, may he seen in the fullowilkg 

Square Miles, 

jSgyptus Inferior 19.T00 

Heptanomis vel Arcadia - . . . Dl.ifou 
ThebaJs tel .^gyptus Superior - - - 70,4IM) 

s. jEgyptus Inferior, the smallest and Northem- 
most ol' the three great provinces into which the whole 
of Erj'pt waa divided, obtained its name from its ly- 
ing about the mouths of the Nile ; hence the appella- 
tion Bahri by which it is now known to tlie natives, 
though Euro'peai\s still call it Lower Egypt. It touched 
to the W, on Libya Extev\oi , to\]&fe'&.att.^e.'^\anQiuis ; 

Mgyptu — Mgyptus Inferior. 289 

to the E. on Arabia Petreea and Palestine, from which 
last it was separated by the Torrent of Egypt ; and to 
the N. it was washed by the Mediterranean Sea. 

10. Its chief city, and in later times the metropolis of all Egypt, was 
Alenudria', still known as AUxandria or hkenderiehf founded by Alexander 
the Great ; it was situated at the Western end of the province, on a narrow 
neck of land washed on one side hy the Mediterranean, and on the other by 
L. Maieotis. In order to make his new city at onoe the general place of 
tiade on the estern side of Egypt, Alexander compelled all the merchants 
flf the neighbouring Canopus to remove to it, when their city being thus de- 
serted, aoon fell to decay. Alexandria, on the other hand, rose to t& greatest 
eminence, from the circumstance of the Ptolemies having chosen it as their 
oidmuy residence; it carried on an extensive commerce with the whole 
world, and became the great emporium for all the merchandize passing to 
and fro between Europe and the East Indies, goods being transported up the 
Nile, then over land to Arsinoe, and so down the Red Sea. Opposite the 
city was the little I. Pharos FariUoH, latterly joined to it by a mole, and now 
become a peninsula. As Alexandria increased in population and importance. 
Pharos became covered vnth houses, and one of the Ptolemies built a splen- 
did liefat-house on it, for the direction of all ships which might be passing 
near uie coast at night ; this light-house was callerl Pharos, aAer the island, 
and from its notorious magnificence, the word has become a common appel- 
lation for all such buildings. The royal palace stood in the Eastern side of 
Alncandria, and covered a space of ground equal to one fifth of that occupied 
fay the whole city. In it was the famous library collected by Ptolemy Phi- 
ladelphus and his successors, which was finally burnt by the Saracens at the 
order of the Calif Omar, a. d. 642, when the numerous works are said to 
have fanushed all the public baths with fuel for six months. Mareotis Lacus 
L. Marrout communicated with the Nile by several canals ; the surrounding 
oonntiy was famed for its wine'', which the ancients reckoned among^ the 
finest kinds in the world. At the Western extremity of the lake stood JPlin- 
tUne, giving name to Plinthinetes Sinus G. of the Arabs : and beyond this 
last, towards Libya, was ParsBtonium At Bareton, To the S. of Alexandria, 
in ihe interior of the country, was the district Nitriotis or Scythiaca, now 
called the Natron Valley and Barrai Sciahiat ; it obtained the former of these 
names from its natron. There were two towns in the district, one called 
Nitria El Kasr, and the other Scetis or Scyathis AMt, which gave name to 
the whole district, and was afterwards much famed for the monasteiy of St. 
Macarius. In the early ages of Christianity the new converts fled hither for 
refuge firom their persecuting oppressors. 

11. A little to the N. of Alexandria was Nicopolis Casr Kiassera, so named 
by Augustus, from a victory which he gained here on his landing in Egypt, 
over Antony. Above this lay the I. Canopus Aboukir ; opposite which was 
the dissolute dty Canopus ^ which the Gr^s asserted had been built by the 

quo die 

Portus Alexandrea supplex 
Et vacuam patefecit aulam, — Hor. Carm. IV. xiv. ^5. 
From its neighbourhood to Alexandria, Virgil calls Canopus " PeUsus." 

7 Sunt Thasis vites, sunt et Mareotides albas: — Vhrg, Georg, II. 91. 

* Nam qua Pelliei gens fortunata Canopi 
Accolit effuso stagnantem flumine Nilum, 
Et eiicum pic^ vehitur sua mra pha&tt\iA \ 1A.A\ .^fiSV . 


2D0 JEgyptus^-Mgyptus Inferior. 

Spartans, apd hence it is not unfrequently called Menelaus and Amyclsa. 
It stood at the Westernmost mouth of the Nile, which was from it called 
Canopicum Ostium .* the lower part of this arm is now little more than a 
stream, the great body of the river directing its course farther Northward past 
Metelis JPoua, and entering the sea by the Bolbitinnm Ostium or BMetta 
Mmith. This latter mouth derived its name from Bolbitine Abtmmandauf 
near Rosetta. Farther Eastward was the Sebennyticum Ostium Bcurla 
Mauthf so called from the city Sebennytus some distance up the Delta ; prs- 
▼ious to entering the sea this branch of the river passes through Sebennytus L. 
L. Bourhs, also called Buticus from the town Butus, which stood in it, and 
contained a celebrated oracle of Latona resorted to by all Egypt Near 
Butus was the I. Chemnis, which the Egyptians pretended floatedin the lake, 
and was the place where Latona protected Apollo and Diana, the children of 
Isis, against the machinations of Typhon. The next mouth of the Nile to the 
Eastward was called Phatniticum JJamiatta Mouth; and beyond it were two 
others named Mendesium and Taniticum or Saiticum, from the two cities 
Mendes and Tanis or Sais in the interior of the country; they are now called 
Fown DiMi and F<ntm mu Fartdjeh, The Easternmost mouth of the Nile 
was called Felusiacum Ostium Tineh Mouth, from the city Pe*lusium TinA, 
which stood upon it, and was reckoned the key of £gypt on this side. Peln- 
sium^ derived its name from the Greek word ntiXbg lutum, inasmuch as it 
lay in the midst of lakes and marshes, and hence in the Bible it is called Sin, 
a word denoting its miry situatiott. 

12. Farther Eastward was the district of Casiotis Catieh, at the Nordiern 
extremity of #hich stood Casius Moos Kasarowif where was a temple sacred 
to Jupiter ^^. But M^ Casius is more famed from Pompey the Great having 
been basely murdered near it, b. c. 48, by order of Ptolemy, when upon the 

Eoint of landing to take refuj^e in Egypt after the fatal battle of Pharsalia* 
e was buried on the mountain, and a monument raised over his ashes, which 
afterwards falling to decay was beautified and repaired by the emperor Ha- 
drian. Close to the mountain was the Sirboois Palus" Sabakat nardawali 
where, in Egyptian mythology, Typhon, the murderer of Osiris^ was said to 
lie concealed. Beyond this was the Torrens ^Egypti or Torrtut of Eg!/pi» 
the common boundary between the latter country and Palestine ; at its mouth 
stood Rhinocomra El Arish. To the S. of Pelusium, about midWay between 
it and the head of the Red Sea, stood Heroopolis, where, acc<»ding to Egyp- 
tian mythology, Typhon was struck by lightning; it gave name to Sie HeiDO- 
politicus Sinus or Western arm of the Red Sea, and appears to have beeo 
the same with Pithom or Patumos built for Pharaoh by the Ctiildren of Israel. 
Close by was the city Rameses, which was also built by them as a treasure- 
city for Pharaoh, and which was the place whence the Exodus commenced : 
the surrounding country was called Goshen or Gosen. Heroopolis stood on 
the banks of the great canal which led from the Nile into the Red Sea. This 
canal was first commenced by Pharaoh Necho, and ^tended from the head 
of tlie gulf to Bubastus on the Nile ; there was also another arm of it which 

* Accipe Niliacam, Pelusia munera, lentem : 

Vilior est alic^, carior ilia fab^. Mart* XIII. ep» 9. 

'® manesque tuos placare jubebit, 

Et Casio prsferre Jovi J Lucan, VIII. 858. 

>* A gulf profound as that Sirbonian bog 
Jietwixt Damiata and mount Casius old, 
)Viiere armies whole \ svlhSl-.- 

^Sljiyptus — Mgyptus Inferior, 201 

mined the river not hi fram Heliopolis : it was subsequently continued by 
l)ariii8 Hystaspis, and completed by Ptolemy Philadelphus, who dug another 
9tm irom Phacusa to Heroopolis, where it joined that which had been cut 
bf Necbo. Towards the ena of the first centuiy, the emperor I'rajan repaired 
the oricinal canaJ of Necbo, and gave it the name of Trajanus fi. after him- 
self : ul these canals have fallen into complete decay, but some traces of 
them may still be discovered. The canal entered the Red Sea at Arsinoe 
fives, fDundcd by Ptolemy Philadelphus, and bamed in honour of his sister 
Anmoe; it was situated at the Southern point of the hthmut qf Suez, which 
separates Asia from Africa, being about 60 miles distant from Pelusium on 

the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. 


IS. On the ririit bank of the Nile, and not far from the borders of Hep- 
laxiomis, stood Babylon Babmtl or Old Cairo, which was founded by the 
Fenians, who settled some Babylonians here and called the place after their 
neat metropolis. A little N. of it was Heliopolis, the famous City rf the 
Skat, held in the greatest veneration by the Egvptians ; it is mentioned in the 
BiUe by the vanous names of On, Aven, and jBethsbemesh, all having the 
same signification with Heliopolis. It lies now in ruins at Matarieh, but its 
name may be traced in a place some distance from it, called KeUouh, When 
Onias, the son of Onias and the lawful successor to the priesthood of Jeru- 
salem, was deprived of his rights by Antiochus Eupator, king of Syria, who 
made Alcimus high priest in his stead, he fled to Egypt and obtained per- 
mission from Ptolemy Philometor, b. c. 173, to build a temple at Leontopolis 
not fu from the city just described ; the name of the place was changed to 
Onion, and the worship kept up till after the destruction of Jerusalem, when, 
ovring to an uproar of the Jews here, the emperor Vespasian caused the 
tem{i!e to be shuL It appears, nevertheless, to have been afterwards re- 
opeoed, and the place to have received the name of Vicus Judaeonim from the 
Jews yrho still inhabited it, and which is still preserved in that of its modem 
Hyellalion Tel loudUh, 

14. The two great arms of the Delta separate to the Westward of Helio- 
nAs. A considerable distance down the more Western of these stood Sais 
Sm-^Hagar, the most &mous and important city in the Delta, and reputed 
to have been the place where Osiris was buried : it derived much of its 
grandear from having given birth to the last dynasty of the Pharaohs, whose 
tooibB were erected in its famous temple of Mmerva. A little to the North- 
ward of Sais was Naucratis Ed Desoug, founded by the Milesians with the 
permission of Amasis, king of Egypt, to whom and to his predecessor Psam- 
meticfaus they had rendered many services ; it was the only place where the 
Greeks were allowed to carry on a regular trade with the Egyptians. The 
Eastern arm of the Nile was called Bubasticus or Pelusiacus fl., from the 
two towns Bubastus and Pelusium which stood upon it. Upon it also stood 
Athribis Tel Atrib which is stated to have derived its name from the two 
words Ath and Rib, denoting the heart of a pear, to the shape of which fruit 
the Delta was compared by the ancients : hence in the Bible Rahab is 
thoagbt to signify the Delta or Lower Egypt. Lower down the Pelusiac 
arm of the Nile stood Bubastus, the Pibeseth of the Scriptures, Tel Basta ; 
it was famed for the worship of Diana Bubastis ^^ who was said to have 
transformed herself into a cat when the gods fled into Egypt. Below this 
were Phacusa Tel Fakhous, and Daphns. thought to be the same with the 
Tahpanhees of the Bible, where Pharaoh had a palace. That branch of the 

^ Sanctaque Bubastis, variusque coloribus Apis : — 



t92 .Mgyftat — H^tanomit. 

Nile which stiikes off rrom Athribis Norward, and enters the m at Datxi . 
allu, was ancienlly tailed Athribiticiu or Buiiciucus B., from the two loxni 
Alhiibis und Bniirts. Desctending it, we meet with the cities Leonlopiilis 
Mil Ohamr, so called from the religioaii woiship there paid Id Che linn; 
Busiria Aboitar, celebrated Tor a ma^iGcent temple of IsU ; Sebeaaytiu 
Samanimd ; and Mendea Kmaoura. To the E. of Mendea, Bul about mid- 
way between the two Rastero branches of the river, stood Tanit Son, a vBjy 
■Dcient city, at one time the capital or all Egypt, aad the arigiaal residcoce 
Of its kings ; it is called Zoan in the 8cripture», and was the place where 
Moses performed his mtraclei before Pharaoh. 

15. Heptanomis or Arcadia was bounded on the 
N. by j^EWptus Inferior, on the E. by the Red Sea, on 
the S. by the Thebais, and on the W, by Libya Exterior ; 
it is now called Vostani or Central Egypt. It received 
its name from the Greek words inri septem, and vofun 
prafectura, owing to the circumstance of its containing 
teven nonti ; but these were increased in the latter ages 
ia ten, from Antinoe and the two Oases being included 
ia the number. 

16. Its chief city was Memphis ", called in the Bible Moph or Noph, 
and built at a tgit early period by lung Menes ; it stood originally on (he 
light bank of the Nile, but Menes by erecting a dam in the liver cotDpelled 
it to take a more Easterly course, and thus leave the city on its left innk. 
II was ISO stadia in circumference, and grew rapidly in wealth and imjnrt' 
ance, especially after the union of the E^pKan kings, who then made It tile 
Metropolis of the whole countrj.' its ruins now cover a great space ofp^ani 
tOUBd Mangel Mum and Mil Riifcrni. About 40 Kladla to tho W. of Mem- 
phis were raised those gigantic and immortal monuments of human laboni, 
the Pyramids ", now called by tho Arabs Gihel Pkaraim or Pharaoh's Jtfoiiit- 
toini. They are many in Dumber, and two of them were teckoncd smonnl 
■Ihe Seven wooden of the world ; they were intended as sepulchres for the 
'kings and neat people of E^pt, and were of such high aatigui^. thai even 
'Cinlonis Sicalus, who Bonnsned 44 years before Ihe Cbiislian era, hu re- 
corded that in his time neither natives nor foreigners were able to asceibun 
their age. The first and largest of these pyramids, said to have been buib 
by the profligate king Cheops, was a work of 20 years, aod employed 
ITD.OOO ;nen ; it was of a square form, each side being SOO Greek feet long 
and OS many io height : Ihe stones were very skilfully cemented, and wen 
never less than thirty feet long. It had several subterraneous ohiunbcti. 
bnd a channel for the admission of the Nile which flotvad lOUtid ■ liltic 
'island, wherein the body of Cheeps was said to be deposited. Close by tte 
' great pyramid was the enormous statue of a Sphini cut out of a lolid rock 
with great ingenuity ; lis height from the stomach to ihe top of the head was 
.83 feet, and its length IIS leet, and it was said that king Amasis wax buiied 

.Egtfptui—Tkebais. 293 

17. To iIm S. of ]fem|riiis, and on the opposite tide of the Nile, was 
AphrodiUmdlis sacred lo tbe goddess Aphrodite or Venus : the name of the 
dir ia atall pre ee r r c d in the modern AtJiA, but its ruins are found at Doutab- 
d^ayitkm • Here commenced Heraclea Insula, the longest of all the islands 
sf the Nile. la it stood Heraeleopolis Magna Ahnat, remarkable for the 
idaratkMi which was paid there to the Ichneumon, because it destroyed the 
Asp, the most venomous of all serpents, as well as the eggs of the crocodile. 
Axaatm Mwdmtt-^FaioHm was situated in a fertile valley about SO miles 
W. fiooi the Nile ; this valley of Foiotim was formerly a mere desert, till 
one of the Pharaohs cut a canal» now called the Bohr Youirf, from the 
river to it, and by dividing it into several arms produced the g^reatest fertility. 
Amnoe was formerly adied Crocodilopolis, from the worsmo paid there to 
the dooodile: Ptolemy Philadel|Aus subsequently changea the name of 
die city to Aninoe, aner his sister and wife Arsmoe. The canal which 
was cut to water the valley of Arsinoe communicated, as it still does, with 
the L. Moeris Birket el Keroun or Quom, About midway between Arsinoe 
and the NUe was the femous Labyrinth, constructed by the Twelve kings, 
who mkd £gypt in common prior to the reign of Psammetichus. These 
Twelve hingSy ha^g resolved to leave behind them a common monument 
of thdr (hine, built i&B enormous Uhvnnth, which contained S,000 chambers, 
€oe hiJf beinff abofe, and the other below the ground ; in the latter of these 
the kings and sacred crocodiles were buried. 

18. To the S. of Heradeopolis Magna were Ozyrhynchus Behenese, and 
Co Cmffawr, opposite to which stood Cynopolis Nale-ShM'Hastan, where 
the deity Anubis was adored in the shape of a dog. The two Southernmost 
Ipwns in the Heptanomb were Hermopolis and Antinoe. Hermc^lis, sur- 
uuned Magna, now Eshmownein, gave name to the Hermopolitana Phylaco 
Mdmoi, or the Northern of those two militaiy posts, by which the frontiers 
of Heptanomis and Thebais were guarded ; the Southern one was in the 
latter province, and was hence named Thebaica Fhylace Tarout-eS'Sherif^ 
To the £• of Hermopolis, on the right bank of the Nile, was Besa, so called 
fiom the worship paid there to the Egyptian god Besa : Antinous, the fa- 
nmrite of Hadrian, is said to have here drowned himself in the Nile, after 
which the dty was called Antinoe or Antiooopolis, now Enseneh or Shehh 

19. In the immense deserts of sand which extend from the banks of the 
Nile to the Western Ocean, there are found here and there insulated spots 
of cal6vation, which were named Oases by the Egyptians : one of them, 
called the Oasis of Ammon in the province of Libya Exterior, has been al- 
aeady described. But there were two others in Egypt, sumamed Major and 
Minor, to which the name was more particularly applied. The more North* 
cm of the two, or the Oasis Minor, now called El-Wah-el-Ghurbi, lies to the 
Vf, of Oxyrhynchus and Hermopolis. The Greater Oasis El-Wah lies to the 
W. of Ptolemais and Thebes, from which last place it is 160 miles distant, or 
n tlie ancients reckoned it, seven days' journey: it contained a military 
poet, named Hibe Charje, for the protection of the frontier against the bar- 

20. Thebais or ^gyptus Superior Said or 
Upper Egypt touched to the N. upon Heptanomis, to 
the E. upon the Red Sea, to the S. upon Ethiopia sub 
iEgypto, and to the W. upon Libya Exterior. 

o 3 

194 Mgirptus^ Tkehais. 

SI. Tbe £ral towD of any consequence ia (be prayince was Ljccipolts Et- 
Sigul, sttaaled on the left bank of tbe Nile ; il was so called (rom the wof- 
■hi[i here paid U) the Jivlf. Above it, but on the opposite side of tlie rivet, 
fbiod ADlsopolIs Cau-el-Kibiy, wtiich uiai repotted to have derived its name 
feani AntffiUs '', wbom Osiiis pliueil over the Libyan part of bis kin(^aiii 
sod Hercules afterwaids killed. Ascending itill higher we meet with 
At^roditopolii, or the city sacred to Venus : be/and it, on the Eastern bonk 
«r the rivet stood Chemnis Uihmin, whicb the Gt«eks tnjislated by Paao- 
polia or the cityoFPao, who was the companion of Osiris in his eipedidofl 
■niust the Ethiopians ; be bad a temple here, io which be was worehimcd 
^th the greatest salemnity. Ptolemais Uermii Maakidi built by oiie <u the 
Alt Ptolemies, stood on the left bank of the Nile, aud became after the M 
•f Thebes the chief city in Upper Egypt Higher up the Nile wtia Abydos 
Barda, celebrated for the magnificent palace of Memnoa uid a leMpwof 
Osiris, in which, according to Plutarch, this deity was buried, though, iDan 
Aies of Kgypt claimed that honour. Still higher up the river was Tentyia " 
Jfmderah, lamoiia for its iahabltaols destroyiug the crocoditcii, and Ihtu 
Itringlng themselves into collision nith tbe people of Ombos who paid adon- 
ttOD to IhelD. Not far from Tentyra, but on (be opposite baak of (lie Nile, 
Vu CoptOB GHoufi, whicb became the most famous trading Iowa ia all 
Upper Egypt, owing to two roads having been made between it and tbe Red 
8(^, by which the merchandifc o( India vras brought to the Nile : ooe^ 
Iheie iTKids led to Berenice, and the other Io Myos Hormus. Coptos pniba- 
Uy derived its aame from the Captoi of the Bible: it was famous ibi a splcn- 
<lid temple of Isis. Above these, and 

22. Extending along both banks of the Nile was the 
magnificent city Thebte, built at bo remote a period, 
fhat the Egyptians reckoned it the moat ancient city in 
fte world. Thebes is mentioned in Holy Writ by the 
fiame of No and Amnion No, and it was called by the 
Greeks Diospolis Magna or the Great city of Jove, from 
ka being sacred to the father of the goda. It had ob- 
tained a great importance in a very early age, as may 
be conjectured from its being mentioned by Homer, who 
describes it as having a hundred gates, whence it was 
Burnamed Hecatompylos, from each of which it could 
pour fourth 200 armed men ". It was 40 miles in cir- 
cumference, and was surrounded by a wall 24 feet thick. 
It was the first residence of the kings of Egypt, who 


'Avipce JfaixvEUCi. viv 'i-rrircistv tai axii'pif Ham, II. I. 3B1i- 

JEgyptHS^ Thebais. 296 

were buried in magnificent sepulchres hewn out of the 
Libyan mountains on the Western side of the Nile ; their 
great palace wfus also on the same bank of the river^ in a 

Srt of the city named Memnonium after the famous 
emnon. In the times of the Greeks and Romans the 
appellation Diospolis was entirely confined to that part 
of Thebes which lay E. of the Nile, the remainder being 
known by its old title of Memnonium. This Memnon 
was represented to have been the son of Tithonus and 
Aurora, and king of Ethiopia ; he carried his arms over 
many parts, of the world, but at last went with a body of 
10,000 m«i to assist Priam during the siege of Troy, 
where he was slain by Achilles. His subjects the Ethi- 
opiaQS or l^yptians erected a statue to me memory of 
their beloved monarch, close at the entrance of his great 
jpalace or temple. This statue, which was 52 feet high 
and cut out ot a solid stone, had the wonderful property, 
as it was said, of uttering a melodious sound Kke the 
snapijing of a harp-string as soon as the first rays of the 
Momii;!^ fell upon it ; but at the setting of the sun and 
during me night it uttered very luonbrious sounds. Cam- 
byaes, king of Persia, wreaked his vengeance on the per- 
son whom this statue represented, by causing it to be 
.b|X>ken and thrown upon the ground ^^ ; but its wonderful 
power of speech still remained, and the superstition of 
the people was more firmly rivettied to it than ever, when 
^▼en in its mutilated state it did not cease to welcome the 
first smile of its beautiful Mother, nor to bemoan her 
absence during the gloomy watches of the night« This 
extraordinary phenomenon was witnessed by some of the 
most exalted and illustrious men in the world, who in- 
scribed their names upon the pedestal of the statue, in 
attestation of their having heard the sound. The upper 
part of this femous colossus has been brought to London^ 
and may be seen in the gallery of the British Museum. 
After its. destruction by Cambyses, Thebes never rose 
to its former grandeur and importance, the subsequent 
kings having taken up their residence at Memphis ; its 

** Hence Juvenal : 

Dimidio magics resonant ubi Memnone chorda 

Atgoe vetus Thebe centum jacet obruta portiA. Sat, KV, 5« 


aS6 Mgyptus — ThebaU. 

■ite ia now occupied by several villagea, as Camac, 
Xjtixot, Medina- Tkabv, &c. the last of which appears atill 
to preserve some vestiges of the ancient name. 

23. A few miles to the N. of Thebes ilogd Tathytja or Pathvria, ibouj-hl 
lo be the same with the Palhros of Holy Writ, if This does not lathEr refer 
U the whole of Upper Egypt- A Utile to the S. of Thebes, on the left bank 
of the Nile, wu Hermoninia Emunl ; and aboie it was Lalopolis Emih so 
Balled (iom the fish Latos Farther S. were HierBcan-polis ti'aum-tl-iihmar. 
or tlie Qily sacred U the hawk ; and Apollonapolis Magna EdJ'im. the inha- 
Utanlii of'^wbich worshipped Apollo, and were inveterate enemies to tbi 
etoctidile which they took in nets and dealroyed. Above these, on llif 
Eastern side of the nver, was Ombos or Ombi KmiK-Ombi), famous fw Ibe 
'worship of the crocodiles, in defence of which the Ombilc fought IraMlta 
with the people of Tenlyra and Apoilonopolis ; the horrible effects of thsif 
Mligious zeal are ably satirized by Juvenal". Fattber S. wan Syene £i- 
iDiian, the frontiertown of E^pttonards Ethiopia, and reckoned one of the 
keys of the Koman Empire. Juvenal was seal hither into a kind of hoDoiu- 
able haaisbmeat, by being made the camniander of a prstorian c«bon 
■tationed ia the aeighhourhood. Close to Syene was a small island in llw 
middle of the Nile, called Elephantine r" '-'-■'•- -...->. 

handsome town, and formed oHgiaall] 
bul the Ptolemies, and alter them thr 
neighbouiing Fhilie. Farther South was the Catanctes Minor oi Little Ca- 
laracl, now called Fi-SlitUaaU. A little higher up the river was th» LlnnJ 
of Philn Gtiiret-al-BiTbe, with its cogoominal town founded by the I 

plitce of communication with the Ktliiopiaas of Uen>e : the Romau 
qufitered here, at Elephantine, and Syene, tbc three cohorts vntli which 
uey guarded the frontiers of ^^pt. 

' 24. About ISO miles to the S, E, of Syene was Berenice, On the sham 
Cf the Red Sea ; it was founded by Ptolemy Philadetphus. who called it 
Hersnice in honour of hii mother, and it became the great havea for all shipt 
trading to the East. It is now called the Port of' RahheA, and lies at tlw 
Western extremity of Fmil Bail anciently known as Acathartus orlmmuiidus 
Sinus, on aciMiunt of the dangerous rocks and shoals with whidk it irai 
covered. To the N. of Berenice was Leucos Portus now Oid Cnunr. Abwe 
itwas another harbour, named Myos Hormns or sometimes Aphrodites Poilai, 
a great rendezvous for the ships which traded to the Eait India, and of 
which, during the reign of Augustus, there wet« often lao tiding faeieal 

" Inter linitimos lelui atque antiqua aimultas, 
Immortale odium et numquam sanibile vulnus 
Atdet adhnc Ombos el Tentyra. Summus utrimque 
Inde furor vnlgo, qtiod numina vicinorum 1 

Odil uletque locus, quuni solos credal hnbendos J 

£»e Deoi, qum ipse colit. Sot. XV. ]| 

JEtki&pia. 297 



1. \£THIOPIA. ^thiops was the term used by the 
Ghreeks to denote every thing which excessive heat had 
rendered of a very dark colour ; and hence they applied 
the appellation to black men^ caUing them ^thiopes aiid 
their country Ethiopia, precisely in the same way that we 
name them Negroes and their country Negro-iand or Ni- 
gritia* Hie name of iBthiopes became therefore a com- 
mon one fcMrall the people South of Mauretania, Numidia, 
Afiica, and Egypt, tnose towards the Atlantic being distin- 
ffoislied as so situated, or as the Hesperii iEthiopes, whilst 
UiOBe to the S. of Egypt caused their territory to be named 
£iluopia sub ^dSgypto ^. The country inhabited by the 
Western Ethiopians was in general called Libya Interior ; 
and though it never altogether lost its ethnic appellation, 
yet this was more especially appUed in the later ages to 
the Southernmost pait of the continent known to the 
ancients, and which they called ^Ethiopia Interior. 

2. The Greeks were acquainted at a veiy early period with the existence 
of JCthiopians or Black men. Their colour was imagined by the ancients 
to be caused bj the excessive heat of a vertical sun ^ ; and as they were 
uomble to imagme ordinary men capable of bearing such a heat without 
beiDff destroyed b^ it, they placed here the regions of the happy Macrobii, 
untifaGtaal experience compelled them to remove the fanciful race into un- 
known regions. In the course of time the ancients found that ^Ethiopia 
contained two kingdoms, namely Meroe and Auxumis, now Sennaar and 
Mymnia, besides the independent Nubs or Nubians towards the frontiers of 
E^rpt ; and that sometimes the one, sometimes the other, of these two great 
powers was the ruling one, until the k\\ of Meroe in the first century, after 
which they looked upon Auxume as the only capital of the country. 

' 'AXX' o fUv Ai^iovac utreKia^E rri\6y UvTug, 

( AiBiovaQ, vol dix^ti oe^atarac, toxciroi dvdpdv, 

Ol fUv Svaofitvov vvEpiovoQ, oi d* dviovrog,) 

*AvTi6ktv Taifputv re xai dpvii&v tKarofipijc, 

Horn. Od. A. 22. 
* Nee si, cum moriens altd liber aret in ulmo, 

^thiopum WTsemus oves sub sidere Caucri. Yxr^* 'Lc\«7k.^j&. 

O 5 

. Ethiopia sub ^gypto was bounded on the N. 
Vy Egypt, on the E, by the Arabian Gulf and ErythrEean 
Sea, on the S . by the Terra Incognita, and on the W. by 
the deserts of Libya Interior: it corresponded with the 
modem divisions of Nubia, Sennaar, and Abyssinia, 
together with parts of Kordofan and HarfuT. Imme- 
diately to the S. of Egypt commenced the great kingdom 
of Meroe*, extending Southwards to the frontieiB of 
the Axomitffi or Abyssiniane, Eastward to the Ued Sea, 
and Westward to the Libyan Desert, thus comprehend- 
ing a tract of country far lai^r than that of Egypt : its 
greatest length was about T&O miles, and it included the 
modem states of Nubia and Sennaar. 

4. A college of priesu dedicated M the service of ibe goiI«, nliose aialil' 
mnce they received bj means of an oiacle, ordered and govemed eierj Itiing 
in fileroe ; tlie liing of the countrj was always chosen from amonost Ihem, 
but whilst be possessed the sovereign power, aad conld punish the guilqr 
with death, his own authority could be nithdrawa from him at tlie comtnud 
of the gods, and he himself duprived of his life. They appear to hare pre* 
•erved the most friendly relations with Egjpl- After tlie Pensiani h«d 
Kduced Egypt under their dominion, they lubdued a imall pintion of (be 
terriloiy ofMEroe, which through all sacceeding ages was considered ai Ui 
appendage to Egypt, but proceeded no fluther in their expedition than Preai- 
am Parva. From this time all friendly intercourse ceased between EipffI 
and Meroe until the time of the Rrst Ptolemies, when it was again renewed 
with mutual ardour, and brought on at length the ruin of thelatler power. 
For Eigamenes, one of its kings, learning from the Greeks during the leigs 
of Ptolemy Philadelpbus, that the princes of other cmmtries governed ttaeir 
■nbjecls with absolute authority, entirely uncontrouled by tbe minktErl of 
the temple, fell suddenly upon the whole college of priests in (he OoUen 
TempleofMeroe, and murdered them all. AtUr thisMctoewasdistniGledby 
Bsenes of revolutions, to which it finally fell a prey : and the whole (errilDiy 
became once more inhabited by a number of wandering tribes, each govameo 
by its ovn head, thoagh occasionally ackDowledging the supremacy of a 
-queen. These Uibea formed the collective nalioo of the Nubn, who have 
given name to the modern country of Nuiia. including severaJ kingdomi, the 
'principal nF which are Doagola and SmnaaT. Amongst the most important 
'of (heae (ribes may be mentioned the Blemmyes, who dwelled between (he 
Nile and the Red sea; some of Ihem, who were taken as prisoners to Kame 
during the lower empire, are described to have been so manetnnisly ugly 
ai to have almost justified the fables which were (old conceroi ng ibnn, 
that they were wilhoul heads, and had their eyes and mouths placed in 
Iheir breasts. The Northern part of the territory of Meroe which had boen 
taken from them t>y the Persians, was TWive SclKFni in length, and benei 

' Late tibi gurgite niplo 

Amintur nigris Meroe fbcundn colonis, 

Lsta comis ebeni : qua-, quamvis arbore mulla 

rj^Mpe of DodekaschflBnos J it extended from Phile to Metacliompto, but 
Ml it fell into the hands of the Romans they pushed the boundaiy a little 
jfter S. to Hieia Sycaminos. 

i^ Metachompao stood upon an island now called Derar, in the middle 
i^ie Nile: close to it on the Western side of the river was Hiera Sy^ 
■^oos, now Wady Maharraka. Farther Southward, on the Eastern bank 
Se Nile, stood Prirois or Fremnis Tbrim, which was seized by the Romans 
Bkr Augustas, but afterwards evacuated and destroyed, on the condition 
glaeither they nor the Ethiopians should fortify any place in the neigh- 
Iriiood. Above this at Wady Haifa was the Cataractes Major * or the 
gjad Cataract of the Nile, the noise caused by which was said by the 
Ifants to be so terrible as to stun the ears of all travellers for some time, 
t*MaUy to deprive the people who dwelled near it of their hearing ; 
hlhis reason they named the surroundiDg country Catadupa: the fall 
to^ bowever, b very inconsiderable, though greater than that at Syene. 
fikkr Southwards were, Gagaudes I. Argo, the largest island in mtbia, 
I the place where parrots were seen for the first time ; and Primis Parva 
Ifrlkmgida, At the Northern extremity of the great bend of the Nile 
■ft Napata Miojgrot, tbe capital of the country after the fall of Meroe, and 
Imndence of the Nubian queen Candace : it was very laige and populous, 
PWas taken and destroyed by Petronius during the reign of Augustus. 
'"ker S. was Primis Magna Goos, at the point where the Astaboras fl. 
the Nile. 

The island of Meroe Atbara was formed by the Nile, and by two o 
r^pbutaries named Astaboras and Astapus. Of these the Astaboras Ta- 
ll or Atbara, the Eastern boundary of the island, rises in Abytiinut not 
y^ffm the Xi. TtanOf and flows into the Nile 60 miles below the city of 
■M. . About the same distance above the city the Nile is joined by the 
S^fftapus Abam, Bahr-el-Axergue, or Blue Nile ; it rises in the Western 
^^ Abyttinia, traverses L. Pseboa or Coloe now Tuma or Dembea, and 
Ippt round to its junction with the Bahv'el'Abiad or White Nile. The 
liBB of these two rivers were united in the upper part of their course, 
)UB caused'Meroe to become an island, the snape of which was com- 
to a shield. The city of Meroe Gibbainy stood upon the Nile at tbe 
i Western side of the bland : close to it is the islet KurgM corresponding 
Tadu 1., round which were the docks and harbours of the city. About 
to tbe South of Meroe is Sirbitum Sennaar, 

*7- The territory of the Axomit-e lay immediately to 
1$ South of the kingdom of Meroe^ and corresponded 
H(h the modem kingdom of Hahbesh or Abyssinia, It 
tended from the Arabian Gulf and the Erythraean Sea 
f 600 miles to the Westward, including the Eastern 
urces of the Nile ; and beyond its Soumem limits the 


Quis te tarn lene fluentem 

Moturum tantas violenti gurgitis iras, 

Nile, putet ? sed cum lapsus abrupta viarum 

Excepere tuos, et prscipites cataractas, 

Ac nusquam vetitis uUas obsistere cautes 

Indignaris aquis : spuma tunc astra lacessis. 

Cuncta fremunt undis : ac multo murmure moatis 

Bpumeus invictis canescit fluctibus amuis, Liiconv. K. %l^ 

o 6 


^th iopia — A xom ittp. 
dents knew nothing more of Ethiopia. Its capital was 
xume, which still preseives its name in Axum. 

8. During the reign of Psammetichus, or Amaais, king of E^pl, -J40,OOD 
iitisfied Egyptian troopi passed over from their own counliy into Ethiopia, 
tbey weie kindly received by the king of Meroe, who appainled 

portion of tenilofy to the South of his own ; the Greeks called them 

[iliilomoli or ilutrtert. They settled amonnt the Ethio[Hans. uith whom 
Mky ialennirried, and thus laid the faundation of the great Abvainian 
Stioa; they were at fiist protected hy the ralers of Meroe, but Boon be- 
,&nie sullicienlly ttiong to defend themselves. They cuatinued to adinnce 
^ civilization and prosperity, owing to their connection wilh the Egyptiuu 
"Jid Greeks ; and at length conquered tlie South Western part of Ar»ta», 
•where they reduced the Sab»i and Homeritw under their power. During 
Ihe reign of Con'.Untine the Great (about a. o. 330), the Aiomitie were 
•(DDverted to Christianity by one Frumentius, who was onlained Bishop 
at .ll^thiofna by Athanasius then Bishop of Alexandria : il was thus thai 
Ibe llamerits and other tribes of Arabia, wbo were subject to the Am- 
'Bitffi, received and cultivated the Cliristiso f^th, which the Ahaubuant 
illill maintain, illhough iu purity is sullied with n numhtu of idolatrous 
jBPsrstitiooE and Judaical observances. 

, 9. The nation of the Aiomitx wu coroposed of many tribes, as the 
" Colobi on the ses-coast, llip Zaa or Motugo, and the Agime in ihediiirict 
'AgatHi, In the interior of the country were the Athaijai and Agau now 
called Agawi ; the Semene in Samin ; and the Calaa or Galia, whose do- 

finioD is DOW so widely extended along (he Southern parts of Absiaiia. 
b^ country produced a quantity of myrrh and spicea, whence a part of it 
wards the springs of the Nile was named the Myrrhifera Regio. Aniuine 
«rA<omis, the metropolis of tlie AxomiliB, is thought by some tobethemme 
"'with Eiar or Sapa, which wii first assigned to the fugitive Egyptians by the 
'Maple of Meroe : its ruins are still called Aaaa, and attest by iheireitent 
and magnificence the importance of the ancient city. To tlie E. of H, on 
fte Red Sea, was its famous port Aduli ZuUa ; il gave name to the Adulicus 
flinoi or Annalty Bail, which was shut in on the Eastern side by sn island 
d«dicBled to Pan, which is the largest in the whole gulf and is now called 
Dhttlac. Considerably above it, and likewise on the coast, was Piolenais 
Thcron or Fetarum, founded by the Egyptians during the reign of Ptolemy 
Philadelphns ; il derived its name bom the number of wild elephants with 
-which the country abounded, and which the Egyptians hunted for the take 
cf taming and using them in battle. The whole Western coast of the Rtil 
■Sea was inhabited by ihe Tmglodyta?, so called fromTpwyXifipiciii aaiiZiu 
tubta, because they dmll in eavtt. 

10. The limits of .Ethiopia sub .Egyplo ore extended by Ptolemy nearly 
•> far South as the utmost known limiU of the continent on this side. The 
Bdrraw strait which separates the Red and Erythrman Seas, wax named 
Angustin Dir» and is now known as Bob-el-Mmiiltb nr Itie Galet of Dntth ; 
it obtained its name from Dire Pr. Ras Bir. The early Greek navigaion 
founded a city upon Dire Pr., which thev called Dire or Berenice E]H£ia : 
below it was Avaliles now Zevia, whlirh gavo name to Ihe Avalilei Sioiu 
B. '/ Z*yla. To the Eastward of these wus a counUy producing qnaali»ei 
of myrrh. fiankincenK. and spices, and hence named Aromstapliam and 
Cinnamomopbotos : it was chiefly inhibited by the Salatw or Sumauti. Ili 
Eastern extremity, and at the »ame time the Raslemmost point of the whole 
CDBtJiient, iras called Aramal&Vr. C. GuorlaUi, tlNwi midhI bj the ear!; 

lAbya Interior* 801 

jiavigtton Note Karat or the SmUhtm Horn. Off it lay Dioscoridu I. Soco- 
tro. A considerabie Stance below this cape were Maguum Littas Ma- 
gadoxa and Rhapla QmUmanei, the most distant point with which the early 
Greek tradeia appear to have been acquainted ; for they affirmed that from it 
th« coaat trended to the Westward below Ethiopia and Libya till it reached 
the Western Ocean. It was the metropolis of the country called Azania or 
Bttbtriat which extended as far Northward as Aromata Pr. and still keeps 
its naoM in Hautu or 4/ttn. Farther Southward lay the island Menuthias 
Zmmbttr ; and below it was Prasum Pr. C. Delgado, die outmost point of 
Africa in this direction, as well as the Southernmost point of the whole £arth 
to tike knowledge of which the ancients could lay claim. The later geoera- 
phera fimcied that the land trended Eastwaid from Prasum Pr., till it 
joined the coast of Asia in the neighbourhood of f 'attigara to the S. of Cam» 
hodiot and hence a great inland sea was supposed to be formed, to which 
they gave the name of Mare Prasodis. 

11. Libya Interior was the name given to the vast 
extent of territory stretching from Ethiopia to the Atlan- 
tic Ocean, and from the frontiers of Mauretania, Numidia, 
Africa, and Libya on the North, nearly to the Southern 
limits of the known world. The Northern part of it im- 
mediately below Mauretania and Numidia was called 
GeBtulia from the Gaetuli^ ; to the E. of them were the 
powerfril nation of the Garamantes ^ 

12. The Gstuli were a roving, unsettled people, divided into many tribes, 
and inhabiting the Oases of the Great Desert; they are probably the same 
with the people now called Ttiarick. To the £. of them, below the provinces 
of Africa and Libya, dwelled the great nation of the Garamantes, the most 
inpoitant amongst all the people of Libya Interior : they extended far into 
the interior, and were probably the same with the modem Tibbuo and Fezui' 
■Mri. Their cruelty and oppression provoked Csesar to despatch against 
thena his general, Cornelius Balbus, who followed them up into the distant 
parts of their countiy, and soon reduced them to obedience. The chief town 
of the Garamantes was Garama Germa, which is conjectured to have given 
name to the people: it lies not far from Mounouk, the capital of Fezzan or 
Phazania as the ancients called it. 

IS. The information possessed by the ancients concerning the rivers in the 
interior of Africa was exceedingly defective and incomplete. To the West- 
ward of the Egyptian Ethiopia they placed the R. Gir^ J^r, composed of 
three arms or branches, two of which are represented as furnishing its sources. 
The Eastern one of these is still called Djifr or Miuelad, and runs N. W. 

^ Hinc Gstulae urbes, genus insuperabile bello, — 

Virg. JEn. IV. 40. 

' Nunc scio quid sit amor. Duns in cotibus ilium 
Aut Tmaros, aut Rhodope, aut extremi Garamantes, 
Nee generis nostri puerum, nee sanguinis edunt. 

Jd. EcL VIII. 44. 

f — ■ Gir notissimus amnis 

^thiopum, simili mentitus gurgite Nilum. 

Claudian. in Pr. Cant. Siilxck. I. ^JiU 

803 Libya Interior. 

into the Loft* of Fittn, which together with some □eighbooring lakes appear 
Id hare been knoon as the CbeloDides Faludes, and to hare been coniud«icd 
4H the lakvs in wbich ibe Gir wag fiaaJlj lost j it piseei tbrough [he kingiloni 
ftiSaUy, theoBiDeof which ma; be parti; traced in thai uf the Calitc, who 
^ placed by the old geographers oa the banks «l the Cir, The Westeni 
•burce of the river is coajectured to have represented the i'tau, which Insei 
jtulfia the Ereat lake Tchad, the ancient Lib;a Falus, and iu farther coune 
tobepoiated out by the Rivers SAnnr and FiviJA.the latter of which joim tlie 
di> Filtr«: the name of Shury seems to have existed in the lomi Itcberi 
jdsced on the banks oF the river- Besides these two arms the Gir wa« aaid 
to have been cannccted nitli a third, the course or which was apparealty 
separated lor a space or three degrees by an intf rvening chain of mounlainii, 
^t 19 stated to have found its way thraugh them by a subterraaeous chan- 
jhI, and dis^peared iu the Nubs Palus possiblv the Baht Ueimad. Upon 

, Ae Western arm of the Gir sfood Gita Itletropolis, supposed tu be the same 

, with Old Bimie, the former metropolis of Bomou. 

14. To the West and South of the Gir runs the Nigir 
I 0uoUa or Joli-ba, the course and termination of which 
pave been always involved in obscurity. Many of the 
Spcienta fancied that it ran Irom East to West into the 
Atlantic Ocean; others of them, better instructed, de- 
scribe it as flowing in the contraiy direction, but they 
^ther leave its termination as a thing altogether unknown, 
or assert that it finally joins the Wile of Egypt. "Hiere 
^ now no doubt but that it rune from West to East, and 
filters that part of the Atlantic which is called the Gvif 
'«f Gvirtea ; but whether it also joins the great Egyp- 
tian river, remains for future discoveries to prove. It 
jises in the Westernmost part of the continent, not 200 
Wiles fixjm the shores of the Atlantic Ocean, in a very 
Jofty chain of mountains, which traverees the whole ex- 
tent of Africa to the borders of the Red Sea. 

IS. This range was known to the ancients under several names, nmoneil 
which we may mention loo Mens towards the Atlantic, now called In* 
ttwtmtainsor Aung; its Eaiitera part was named Lonx Montea or the Mean- 
t^ns or the Moon, an appellatiou still preserved Iu that of GeAcI Komri which 
"iaa the saoie signification. The Nigirrnos from its source with a North 
'tUstcrly course tdl it reaches Nigira Metropolis or Timbiietoa. when it tunw 
'snddenfy to the South East, and, after pursuing this direction past ThuppB 
fappa, and the Kingdom a! Fiindah, it enters the G. pfGiiinm. It ii like- 
wise presumed to commuiticate with the Libya Palus or L, Tchad, and all 
the native accounts uniformly agree in its also jcuning the Nile of Egypt, 
wliether by an actual junction of the rivers, or by an elevated lake, whence 
the waters of the two rivers 6aw in different direction.^, i. t. the Nile lo the 
Korth East, and the Nigir to the West as far as the Sharn, remaiDS yet to 
ba demonMrated. The Nigir was also called Nnchul and Dam, both of 
which appellations may be tnced in its modem names Qiuilla or Kulla and 
QuBTTii. TheWesteropartof theNigir is -""''-'■ ' - ^ '- 
lite a link above Timbuctao ; tAiii lile, ^ 

Libya Interior, Fortunata Icp. 808 

IRsritei Pahu of Ptolemy, which thtt geogmpher places close upon the 
Atumtic, as the lake in Wmch the Nigir terminates. The Nigir was con- 
fldexed by the ancients as one of the greatest rivers in the world : it was also 
lepoTted to be subject to the same periodical and fertilizing inundations as 
the Nile, whence aroee one of the reasons for considering the two rivers 
but as one. It gave name to the Nigrits or inhabitants of Soudan. The 
countnr to the South of the Nigir was considered as JEthiopii. Interior, and 
etteadled as hi Eastward as Azania or Hasine on the shores of the Indian 
Ocean : towards this latter part there was a very extensive region, called 
Agisymba, of which nothing farther is known than the name. 

16,. To the South West of Mauretania lay the Fortu- 
natffi Insulee, now called the Canary Isles from one of 
them formerly named Canaria I. and at present Ca- 
nary /• They were considered by the ancients as the 
Islands of the Blessed (Mcucapwy vrjeroi), where the souls 
of virtuous men were placed after death. The climate 
was said to be dehghtmlly genial, the air wholesome and 
temperate, and the breezes constantly gentle ; the islands 
were never visited by tempests, and the want of rain was 
always supplied by the most fertilizing dews. The 
change of the seasons was scarcely perceptible : the 
euth brought forth every thing that could contribute to 
the happiness of man without his assistance, and in the 
most luxurious abundance : nothing whatever was wanting 
in them, and conviction went even to the minds of the 
Barbarians that here indeed were the fields of Elysium, 
and the Paradise of the Blessed ^ 

17. The Northernmost of them, named Junonia I. Madeira, belonged 
rather to a distinct group of islands which we call the Madeiras ; but as it 
paztodc of the exuberant fertility of the others, and was the first which was 
met- with in sailing from Gades, it was included amongst the number. The 
nearest of the Fortunate islands to the mainland of Africa was Centuria or 
Pintuaria Forieventura ; to the W. of 'it was Canaria Canary , so called from 
its abounding in large dogs. Beyond it was Convallis or Nivaria I. Teneriffe, 
fiimous for its lofty peak, which, from its being generally covered with snow, 
gave name to the island. Farther Westward were Capraria I. Gomera, so 
called from its abounding with goats ; Junonia or Herae I. Ferro ; and Plu- 
vialia or Ombrion I. Palma. The Fortunate Islands are remarkable as having 
been the most Western part of the World with which the ancients were ac- 
quainted, and hence it was from them that they reckoned their longitude. 

18. The Western coast of Libya to the S. of Maure- 
tania was scarcely known to the Greeks and Romans^ 

excepting by report. The Carthaginians, during the 

■■ — 1 ■■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ,,..,— .. ,,,■ 

* Ereptum Stygiis fluctibus ^acum 
Virtus, et favor, et lingua potentium 
Vatum divitibus consecrat msulis. Hor, Carm. IV. viii. 27. 

304 Libya Interior. 

most fiounBhing times of their republic, sent out a power- 
^ fleet under Harnio to examine it, and to egtablish 
^lonies in such places aa should be found convenient ; 
t^\9 expedition appears to have rounded C Verde, the 
Westernmost pomt of the continent, which they named 
J^esperu Keras or the Western Horn, and to have pn>- 
iceedcd farther Southwards in the direction of Sierra 
Xeojie to a point which they named Notu Keras or the 
TSouthern Horn, when they deemed it advisable to return 
^fcome. Owine to the journal of this voyage having been 
■nwitten in the Punic language, only fragments of it have 
'itiome down to us, and these have been so mutilated by 
translation and erroneous interpretations, that it is not 
Mossible to explain them with the least certainty : it 
jiiay, however, be as well to state, that from the gross 
JBorruptions of tlie original many of the early Greeks 
«Ddeavoured to prove that the Carthaginians had actually 
-^nrcumnavigated Africa, and that the Notu Keras men- 
tioned above was the same with the Notu Keras on the 
■Eastern coast of the continent, and which we now call 
■Quardafui. But the later geographers formed a differ- 
■«it opinion, and confessed their inability to give any 
X^ormation as to the final termination of the Libyan 

19. Ihe eipeditioQ of Hanno appears lo have been undertaken a few years 
JiaiorlolbebceakingoulDflhe lint Punic war: it wu compaKdofeo £%- 
JMred ihips and SO.UOO men. Aflei having planted several coloaies od the 
(Mast of Mauretaoia. thej nuchoied at the island of Cenie Svatia, wheoce 

Biayem Keraa or the Western Horn probablj C. Verdt. They continne 
iftmc coune Southwatdu, and came (o a very lofty mDuutaia, (he lire ou Ae 
Attmmit of which seemed to reairh tu the stais and hence it was named Tlieini 
^hema or the Chariot of the Goda. At last they reached the Notu Kerns 
iCr Southem Hotn, tiear which vnis an inland full of wild people whom th« 
idteqireteTS called Govills ; there were many more femaJes than males. Bad 
Jbey caught three of the former, who were so savage that they were obliRd 
-U kill them : their skins were taken to Cartha^. The eipeditiDn pnicetdqd 
BO liulher than this island, for tlie pravisions had begun lo run shoit : ttatj 
Wtwrdiogly returned home, and deposited the account of their voyigc 
tfaongst the sfcliives of their great cily, in the J'emple of Saturn. 'I'hUvo*- 
,Me gave rise lo many ipeculatiuns at lo the situation of the places viaitedut 
\U The poets readily discovered in the iilaod of the Cjovilln the residence 
«f their mythological Gorgoos, and the sileof the Gardeos of the Hespeiidei. 
Jtii difficult to guess what lofty mounlaiu could have been alluded to by lln 
^nic lailora as their Tbeon Ochema ; for there appears in be none od the 
Mole H'e^tem coail wbicb wi\\ accoil witb such a descnption, uU m 

Libya Interior. 305 

iinive at the Eutem eztremi^r of the Gulf of Ovinia, where the Camtroon» 
ifaiwIiiB tovrcn for 1B,000 feet immediately above the coast. If this be 
oowiderad as the flaraioff Chariot of the Gods, the island of the GovilI» 
•cold then be Ftmando ro, Notu Keras C. Palmtu, and Hespericus Sinus 
tbeCtft^qf GuMAi. 

16. There can be bnt little doubt of the ancients having been at last ac- 
mninilpd with the existence of all the great promontories and rivers on the 
Western coast of Africa above Sierboro* I, ; but the names by which they 
htve mentioned them, cannot easily be reconciled. C. Blanno appears to 
fasre been named by them Solventia Eztrema, and C. Vet'de Arsinarium Pr. 
ia addition to the appellation of Hesperu Keras, by which Hanno bad dis* 
tingniahed it, and wnich was afterwards applied to a point farther South* 
wvd. The great river Senegal, which enters the sea between these 
points, seems to accord with the situation of Darat or Daradus fl. ; and that 
of the A. Gmabia, to the S. of C. Verde, with the Bambotus or Stachir fl. 
Bofth these rivors, as well as the Nia fl. or the A. Grande still lower down, 
were said to be infested by crocodiles and sea-horses. The Cape Verde 
Itlmnds were then altogether unknown. The coast hereabouts was reckoned 
to Ethiopia Interior, and was inhabited by the £thiopes Hesperii and 


7720 Figures refer to the Paget, 

AbuiaFl. 19S 

Acamania 128 

Acrabattene 202. 

Abantes 157 

Acathartus S. 


Abantia I. 157 


Acrabbim 202 

AbaiimM. 208 

Accaron 206 

Acradina 100 

Abasci 209 

Accbo 195 

Acraeum Lepas 

Abdera 66. US 

Ace 195 


Abeste 240 

Aceldama 205 

Acragas 101 

Abii 260 

Acesines Fl. 246 

Acragas FL 101 

Abila 203 

Achaei 118.258 

Acra Lepte 172 


Achaia 118. 144. 

Aero Corinthus 




Abilene 192 

Achams 142 

Acronius L. 43 

Abnoba M. 36 

Achelous Fl. 120 

Acropolis 140 

Abom Teichos 

Acheron Fl. 97. 

Acte 115 


126. 171 

Acte Argolis 150 

Abiettene 170 

Acherontia 94 

Actium 129 

Abrincatni 54 

AcherusiaP. 126 

Adana 187.228 

Abrotonum 278 

Acherusia Pen. 

Addua Fl. 72 

Absanis 173 


Adiabene 219 

Absonis I. 47 

Achzib 195 

Adisaga 249 


Acilisene 214 

Adisathrus M. 

Abns Fl. 27 

Acimincum 46 


Abus M. 212 

Acincum 46 

Adisdara 248 

Abydos 169. 294 

Acincum, Contra 

Admah 190 

Al^la 266 


Adonis Fl. 194 

Acidemia 141 

Aciris Fl. 95 

AdramitflB 228 

Acamas Pr. 196 

Acis Fl. 99 

Adramyttenus S. 

Acantfioj J16, 

Aco 195 


Acra 204 


Adrastia 169 
Adrius M. 47 
Adrobicum 63 
Adula M. 36 
Aduli SOe 

Adulicus Sinus 


iEa 210 

iEantinm 169 
.^dui 54 

iEgades lae. 103 
JEgtB 117.146. 

iEgaeum Mare 

iEgaleus M. 138 
^gesta 102 
^gialea 145 
uEgialus 144 
^gida 75 

^gidis I. 75 
iEgimori Arse 

iEgimorus I. 275 
iEgina I. 150 


ia06 Index. 

Me^ us 

A/riua Nova 269 

Albiua ar. 47 


iKgium 146 

Africa Procon- 

AlbulaFl. . 70 

Ambiani 52 

JEeos Potamos 

aulariB 269 

AlbuB Pagus 228 


Afika Propria, 

Albus Ps. 66 


-JlgusffiliB. 103 


Akyomum Mare 

Ambracia 127 

■^gypti Torrens 

Afnca Vetua 269 


Aeame 300 

AlBmanai 35 

Amida 2U 

^gyptus 284 
jEgyptus Infenor 

Aganagora 249 

Aleria 104 

Amiseniu. S. 1T3 

Aganippe Foiu 

Alesia 55 

Amisia FL 37 


Alexitidtia 221. 

AmisuE 173 

.tflgyptus Supe- 

Agathu Dffmo- 

234. 23a. 340, 

Amitemum 81 

not 2B3 

DOK I. 250 



^Una a2&!AKathym 253 

Alexaadria ad 


, ^laaiticiu S. 

Arau SOU 

Issum 190 

Am modes Pi. IS6 


Agbatana 236 

AUiandria Ari- 

AmmoB 193. 383 

.4:11th 226 

AgediDCum 54 

ana 240 

Ammnnlaca Re- 

.jm« CapitolLna 

AgimElha 250 

Alesandria Troas 

git. 2S4 


Agi.yml«L 303 


Ammonitis 208 

.^lllPons ai 

Agara 140 

Alexandria Ulti- 

Animonitn 223 

.jEmiliaVia 98 

AgriaspE 239 

■Ra 242 

Amnion No 394 

,^milius Pdqs 

Agriaspe 239 
Agricola; Murus 

AUia Fl. HO 

AtnniasFl. 172 


AIMte 91 

Amorgos I. 160 
Amu riles 207 
Ampelusia Pr. 


Allobroeea S6 

Aiiophyii sac 


. A:nari» I. HI 

Agylla 76 

Abno Fl. 83 


, ^nianes 125 

Agyrium 103 

Alonla FI. 258 


fc*:ni Pom 43 

Ajaioo 205 


Amphilochi 1» 

^D>>£ 113 

Ai Captor 285 


Amphipagum Pr. 

U^DUs Fl. 42 

Aii 247 

Alpenua 132 


^■iu9 M. 130 

AUbanda 183 


(iolea 11 B 

Penuins 86 

Aiophissa 132 

A^iHolB. 103 

Alpes Maritime 

;^li3 122. 16T 

AlfE 216 



rjEpea 154,196 

Alaleoraens 138 

Alpes M<. Sa. 6S 

Ampaga Fl,270 

qtqm 80 

Alalia 104 

AlpheusFl. 121 

AmyclK 88. 1S3 

ilKria r. 16J 

Alani 211.254. 

Alsadamui M. 

Amyclanui S. ta 

,,^sepusFI. no 



Amymone Fons 

^Eica Fl. 28 

AlataCaslra 31 

Alta Semila 84 

,,ffsis Fl. 78 

Alauna Fl. 27 

Allhfea 04 

Anaboa 240 

ij^Uffii 233 

Alauni 254 

AmadocaP. 253 

.^thallBl. T7 

AlauriDsFI. 27 

AmalebileB 223 

Anactorium 129 

•t^thices 133 

AlazoD Fl. 211 

Ammidie Pylm 

Anagnia (17 

.^thiopes 2B7 



Anamani IJ 

t peril SD5 

AlbaLonga 80 

AmanuiM. 188 

Aaaphc I. 160 

Albana 211 

Amardi 235 

Aoapua Fl. IW 

.^thinpia 207 

Albani 116.211 

Amardus Fl. 233 

Anaraci 359 

Albania 210. 219 

Amaiiea 174 

Anas Fl. 00 

» nor 297 

AlbanusM. 47.86 

Amastoroa 281 


AlbiiEci 5T 

Amaslris 172 

'^ 816 

S^S" 15 

Albion I. 22 

Amathus 196. 

Anaunu Fl. 134 

Albia Fl. 37 


AoBiarbus 187 

tfloHa 130 

Albium Ingau- 

AmatbusFl. 147 

Andiialo 166 

^> 17.268 

num 71 

AmaioneJ 173. 

Anchiw Pt. ISO 

U^ca CanJia- 

Albium laleme- 


Anchoe 116 

lium l\\[iitiW.Me ^boVWnro. T? 

Inejis MS 

Aatinm 67 

Arabw ScBDito 



Antonia 904 


100. US. 


AntooiDi Vallnm 

Arabia 222 

AnihnuL Vdii* 

Aadmri M 


Arabia DeierU 


Anderidm 99 


Anva Fl. 63 
ArpeuiM. l«fi 

ADdei S4.T> 


827. 328 


Anmr 87 



JunuM lis 



Aonxn 94S 

Aratdcui M. 287 

Argarkui S. 347 


Aomot L. OD 

ArabieusS. 924 

Aifiea 149 

Aednal. ISD 

Aoi^ 919 

Aiabis Fl. 230 


Adu* Fl. IIT 

Ambits 33S 

Argentea Metro- 

Apamea Cibotiu 

ArabiliM*. 933 

polii 249 


A'racca 234 

Argenlea Regio- 


Apamea Meiciiei 

ArachQaum M. 


AngU (8 



Argenloralum AS 

Angrinrii » 


Aiachoiia 319 



ArachMii 839 




AracholB 839 

Argippm 851 

AMgnuF). 147 

Apersntia 198 

AiachoWs 33D 

Argita Fl. U 

AnioFL SO 

AphetePi. 13S 

Araehotui Font 

Atgivi 118.149 

.Aimibi sai 

Apbidi][B 142 

L. 239 

A^ob 307 

AiachotuB Fl. 

A^lici 149 

Aphrodi.iu> M. 


Argoticus S. ISD 

Anttiedoii 196 


Arachthui Fl. 

Aigolia 149 

Aatfada lU 

Airiinditei Pi. 


Argos 151 

Anthemniik 91t. 


Aradrispe 936 

Argoi Amphilo. 


Aradus 103 

chicum 199 

ayj, ^M 

Andn I. 280 

Argos Hippium 


Apia 143 

AneChyrm 146 


Aati^ngni M. 


Aram 211. 91S 

Argoi Pelaigi- 




c«m 121 

Anticyi* 126 

ApoUonia 110. 


Argons Ps. 77 

AatiEODM 136 

117. 219. !:B2 

Arar Fl. Gi 

Arg;rippa 9S 


Ararat M. 912 

Aria '^'^ 940 

Fiucei 126 

Arausio S7 

Aria Fl. 240 


Magn,*^ 206 

Ara.e> Fl: 313 

Aria P. 933 


Appia Via 98 

Ara»u. Pr. 146 

Arlana 939 

ADtlniw 993 

Appi Fo. 87 

Arba I. 47 339 

Apua 71 

Arbela 919 

Atida 86 

Antioch 190 

Apouii 71 

Area Canaria 194 

Aril 340 

Antiochia 100. 

Apulia 93 

Arcadia 148. 288 

Arimiel 188 


Apulia FrDpria 

ArealiB 247 

Arimalbra 906 



Arcs 236 

Arimi 188 

gianii 940 

Apalum 106 

Archelais 181. 

Ariminam 78 

Antiochii Piri- 

Aquileia 41. 70 


AriminusFI. 78 

die ISfi 

AquiDCum 46 

Archoui Fl. 216 

Arimphsl 858 

Aatiochian* 179 

Aquinum 87 

Ardea 66 

Ariileia I. 150 

Antipatnt 902 

Aquitani 48 

Anlicui M. 4T 

ArkitM 198 

Anti Rhiam 131 

ArfueQDa Silva 

Armapra 946 

Anti-Tannu M. 

Aquitauia I>. SS 


Annetie 179 

166. 913 


Arelate B7 

ArmcDia 911 


Areopagus 141 

Armenia Minor 


Ar »7 


Ameabm 124 . 

■mata Pr. 300 . 






Atsauias Fl. 214 



11. 223 

ra 'i'au- 





ArtabnimPi. 59 

Jlrtcmiiium Pr. 
1 lAH . 

ibtemila 214.2 19 


AnibiDgan 347 
jlrocitaauaM. SO 

AnireciM'. 24A 


3&izaiiiomm i 

AiDpusFl. 136. 

Asphaltites L, 

Aipit 375 

A^pi& M, ars 

Aspisii 259 

Aspilhra Fl. 250 
Anpitiira 2fiO 

Assyha 1S8.2I7 
Asta 71 

AsUcenusS. 171 
Astacus 171 

Aatura Fl, 

AstypalsfB 1 


AUgis Fl. 

Alax Fl. 




Xubo Fi. 2a9 

Aicaniut Fl. 171 
Aieanius h. 171 



15 Fl, SI 

Aiesle 74 

Athamaiiia 1SB 

Athene I3!l 

Alhesis Fl. 60 
AtLoB M. 

Alhoa Pr. 




AunstiE Tarbel 


IfcffiAq. S 



August! FDsauB 



Augusti Tropra 






Atlantis I, 



Alias M. 


Atlas Maj 






Aulerd Cetio- 


Aulerci EbuiB- 


vices » 



Aulis 111 



AuloD 95. 117 

Avalitra S, 
Audus Fl. 

Avernua L. 00 
AulidenB 01 

Aufidni Fl. 03 
Anfona Fl. 27 
Aufona Minor Fl. 

Augusta Auscio- 
rum 5C 

Augusta Cjpri 

Augusta McEsio 

Augusta Trino- 

Aulon CiliciuB 

Auranilis 19S 
AurasiusM. 3Ttt 
AureaRegio 249 
Auieliani St 
Aurelia Via 9T 













Auiololra Ve- 






Auzara 102 

Auiea 9GT 

Axeuua Pontus 

AiiacesFl. 8S4 
Anopolis I0« 
Axiiis Fl, lis. 


Axomii too 
Amniile £90 
Aioaa Fl. SI 
Aiylia 283 

Aiaaia 149, Ml 
Azorui tit 








Bactriana 940 
Bactriani 941 
BactrasFL 941 
Badei Begia 998 
Badis 998 

BadaheiuuB Lu- 






Bamdaa FL 971 
Baw 00.100 
Buocassea 54 
Baleaies las. 65 

Balearis Minor I. 

Balsa 67 

fialtia 41 


Bambyce 101 
Banasa 965 

fianavaai 948 

Bantia 04 

Baphyras Fl. 117 
Baradun 910 
Baraphtha 219 
Barbaxia 801 
J^bariciu Cam- 
pas 101 

Barbesul 66 
Barcae. 281 

Barce 281 

Barcino 62 

Barcits 281 

Bardines F). 102 
Barium 04 

Bam 185 1 

Bam 250 

Banita 922 

Baraasa Ib. 950 
Baiygaxa 246 
Baiygaieaus S. 

Baaaa 907 

Baahan 907 

Basilia 58 

Baailici 253 


Bastarno 253 
Battamics Alpes 

Basti 65 

Bastitani 65 
Bastuli-Pceni 65 
Bate 261 

Batanaea 207 
Batavi 51 

Batavorum J. 51 
Bathys FL 210 
Bati 247 

Batina 235 

BatnaB 191 


Bantisus Fl. 261 
Bebii M*. 47 
Bebryces 170 
Becius M. 232 
Bedesis Fl. 74 
Bedriacum 73 
Beer-Sbeba 206 
Bela 227 

BeleriumPr. 27 
Beles FL 105 
Belg» 29. 48 
Belgica 51 

Be^ca I^p 52 
Belgica II». 52 
Belgium 51 

Behas Fl. 216 
Bellovaci 52 
Benacus L. 71 
BendaFl, 248 
Beoeventum 92 
Benjamin 198 
Berenice 226. 
Berenice Epidires 


Bergi 41 

Bergomum 72 
BermiusM. 114 
Beroea 117. 101 




Betynga Fl. 240 
Besyngitis 240 
Bethabara 208 
Bethany 205 
Betharan 208 
Bethel 205 

Bethesda 204 
Bethlehem 205 
Beth phage 205 
Bethsaida 201 
Bethshan 202 
Bethshemesh 201 
Bethsean 202 
Bethulia 201 
Bettigo M. 245 
Bezabde 216 
Bezetha 204 
Bibracte 55 

BilbUis 64 

BUbilis Fl. 64 
BillftusFl. 171 
BillichaFL 216 
Bingium 50 

Birtha 101.216 
Bis 240 

Bisanthe 112 
Bistones 110 
Bistonia 114 
Bistonis L. 110 
Bithyni 110. 170 
Bithynia 170 
Bithynium 171 
Bituriges Cubi 

Bituriges Vivisci 

Bizya ill 

Blandusiie Fons 

Blaoii 34 

Blatum Bulgium 

Blemmyes 208 
Blestium 81 
BoasL 47 

Boas Fl. 914 
BodincusFL 60 
Boebeis P. 124 
Boemi 37 

BoBotia 134 

Bogus Fl. 953 
Boiodunim 43 
Boiorum Deserta 
Boiemum , 40 
Boil, 40.55.73 
Boium 131 

BolbeP. 116 
Bolbitine 200 
Bolbitinum Ost« 

BonaB Fortune I. 

Bonium 30 

Bonna 59 

Bononia, 52. 74 
Borbetomagus 63 
Boreum Pr. 33. 

Borsippa 229 
Borusci 964 

Borysthenes Fl. 

Bosporus Cim« 

merius 255 
Bosporus Thra- 
cius 111 

Bostra 297 

Botrys 104 

Bottuei 115 

Bovianum 01 

Bozrab 103 

Bracara Augusta 
Brachmani 246 
Brachodes Pr. 

Bradanus FL 02 
BranchidaB 182. 

Brannogenium 3 1 
Brattia I. 47 
Bravinium 81 
Brauron 141 
Bregetio 46 

Bremenium 81 
Brenni 44 

Breones 44 

«0 Index. 

ftiptntes 34 

Dulicus L. 290 

Calotius Ager 89 

Canopicum Osu 

BrigBotii 44 

Bums 390 

Cales 89 


BrigBaUnus L. 

BuienWin 96 

Caleti 63 

Cauopui B89 

Hyblns 194 

CalMs An. 30 

Canrail* 228 


Byces P. 256 

Catiga 248 

Canlabri 63 

Brins 177 

Bylniora 117 



fcJgBs Fl. 33 
Brifesiu« M. Ua 

Bjrea 272. 373 

Calisia 40 

Oceanua St 

Byiacena 376 

Caiitffl soa 

Cantffi n 

Britaont 62 

Byiacii 276 

Calliwi 63 

Cantbi S. S4G 

BritBonia Bar. 

Byiaclum 276 

CallB 03 

Cantii 38 

bara 28 

Byianles 276 

Calleva 20 

CaotiutuPr. ai 

Britannia I. 32 

Byianlium 112 

CalliMlone 109 

Canusium. M 

SliUnnia Major 

Cabalaca 211 

CallioulaM. 88 

Capernaum 20! 


Cabalia 178 

firiUiDDia Minor 

Cabira 180 




Cabolits 340 

Calliena 246 

Capharsabe WQ 
Capbtoritn MS 

Btitanala Ko- 

Cai:hasss 260 

Calligicum Pr. 

Cacnlhis FE. 249 


Capissa MO 

BritaoQia IV 28 

Cadniea 1S7 

CaJlinicum 216 

Capisaeiw 340 

Britannia 11'. 30 

Cadurri 65 


CapltDlias SO) 

Britannie» 1«. 

CaduBii 235 



Cadylis 203 

Callirboe 215 


Britannicu* Oee- 


Calne 219 

CapoteiM. 213 

BDUS 2ft 

CsMis 316 

Caloi Limenes 

Cappadocia 180 

BrivatcsFs. SI 

Cxnopolis 204 


Cappadoi Fl. 

BriientBS 44 

Canjs Pr. B: 

C Ipc 60 


Briii4 72 

CffiratusFI. lOi 


Caprarial. 303 

BroDgusFl. 108 

Care 7( 

C d 

Caprra I. 91 

Bfucleri 39 

CffiEEu Augusta 


Capius FL 318 

Bnindusium W 


C 3 

Capsa 277 

Brultia 96 


Capua 69 

BnilCii 00 


m K 

Caracates SI 

Cajsarea ad Ar- 

Caraceni Bl 


g^iim 181 

C ra r«e 

CaraliK 104 

Bnitlium 96 

C^an:a I. 64 

Cambyses Fl. 


Btuttius S. 08 

Cic^area FalDs- 



tins 202 

Camechia 21 1 

Caralitaaus S, 


C»Barea Philippi 

Camera 77 


Btibastus 291 


Camirus 103 

Caranibis Pr. 165 

BBbinda Fl. 33 

Cessrodunum 54 

Carambucia Fl. 

Bucephala 246 

Campestria Moab 


^diai 212 

Cajlobrii 67 


CaiantoQtu FL 

BudiniM*. ssa 

Caicus Fl. 168 

Campus Maxtiu! 


&r" s 

Caieta 88 
CajetanusS. 88 

Campui ScBlera- 

Carcaria SXI 
Carcaso M 

«>Jlni 47 

Calaa 300 

tua 84 

Carchedoo 4n 


Calabri 94 

Carchsmish 3H 

Bnprasium 146 

Calagurria 63 

Cana 201 

Cardamyla 1S4 

Bura 146 

Calamffi 164 

CanaSn 193. 197 

Caidia lla 


Calamos 194 

Canalcii M'. 

Csnluchi 218 

CatauHa I. 160 

Carduchii M'. 

Busirii 292 

Caledonia SI 

Canaria I. 303 



CalEdonm Silva 

Canatha 207 

Caicui at 

BnssmiusM. 47 


CandianusFl. 74 

Caria 1»1 

Buthrotum 120 

Calodonii 21 

Canns 94 

CariaUB 241 


^y^* _ 




MiMB 84 

}«isti 69 

Rumania SS8 
^innania De« 

serta 8t8 

llvmel M. 189 
3annelain Pr. 

^unana S88 
::arai 76 

[^tmica Alpei 

Camonacs S2 
Cununtum 46 
Cunutes 64 

Cancotinum 63 
Ctqiasia 196 
Carpates M. 105 
Oupathium Pe- 
lagut 161 

Carpatlius 1/161 
CarpellaPr. 2S8 
Carpenos 66 
Carpetani 64 
Carpetanus M. 

CaiTodaiiiim 40. 
Caraeoli 80 

Carteia 64. 66 
Cartenna 267 
Carthada 275 

& 275 

Carthago 272 
Carthago Nova 

Carvancas M. 44 
Carura 239,246 
Carys 153 

Caiystus 158 
Casii M*. 261 
Casias M . 






Caspiae Pyls 

211. 236 
Caspii 235 

Caspira 246 

Caspium Mare 

CaspiusM. 232 


CaisanitsB 228 
Cauiope Pr. 128 
CaMiterides IiB. 
Cnsopsa 127 
CaasoiMBi 127 
Castabala 181 
Caatalius Fons 

CastaiMBa 124 
Castub 64 


Magnus 283 
Catadupa 299 

Catalaani 52 
Catana 99 

Cataonia 180 
Cataractes Fl. 

Cataractes Major 

Cataractes Minor 

Cathaei 246 

Catti 40 

Cattieuchlani 29 
Cattigara • 250 
Caturiges 57 
Cavares 57 

CaucasisB Pyl» 

Caucasus M. 

209. 232 
Cauci 34. 39 
Caucones 146. 

Cauconia 146 
Caudine Furca: 

Caudini 91 

Caudium 91 
Caulon 97 

Caunus 183 

CaystrusFl. 175 
Cebenna M. 50 
Cebrus Fl. 108 







Celtica 48. 









Celtici 65. 66 
Cenieuin Pr. 158 
Cenchreie 145 
Cenimagni 30 
Cenionis Ost. 29 
Cenomani 72 
Centauri 123 
Centrites Fl. 214 
Centrones 56 
Centum CellaB 76 
Centuria I. 303 
Ceos I. 160 

Cephalae Pr. 278 
Cephallenia 130 
Cephissiis Eleu- 
sioius Fl. 138 
Ceramicus 139 
Ceramicus Exte- 
rior 141 
Ceramicus S. 183 
Ceramus 183 
Cerasus 173 
Ceraunia Acra 

Ceraunii M«. 

119. 211 
Cerbalus Fl. 93 
Cercina I. 277 
Cercinitisl. 277 
Cercinids P. 1 15 
Ceretaoi 62 

Cerinthus 158 
Ceroe I. 304 
Cerones 32 

Cerynia 196 

Cestrus Fl. 185 
Cetius M. 44 
Chaberis 247 
Chaberis Fl. 247 
Chaboras Fl. 215 
Chseronea 136 
Chala 219 

Chalson 132 
Chalasar 219 
Chalcedon 171 
Chalcial. 163 


Chalcidice 116. 

Chalcis 181. 167. 


Chalcitis 249 
Chaldaea 219 
Chaldei 173 
Cbalonitis 219 
Chalos Fl. 191 
ChalususFl. 39 
Chalybes 173 
Chalybon 191 
Chalybonitis 191 
Chamavi 39 

Chaon 236 

Chaonia 126 
Characmoba 227 
Charcha 219 
Charne 21S 

Charsa 214 

Chaiybdis 90 
Chasdim 220 
Chasuarii 40 

Chauranaci 260 
Cbebar Fl. 220 
Chelidonis lae. 

Chelidoria M. 

Chelonides Palu« 

des 308 

Chelonites Pr. 

Chelonites S. 147 
Cbemnis 294 
Chemnis I. 290 
CherithFl. 202 
Cherseus Fl. 193 
Chersonesiis 256 

Magna 282 

Thracia 112 
Cherusci 40 
Chesinus Fl. 253 
Chimsera 184 
Chinalaph Fl. 

Chinnereth 201 
Chios I. 162 
Choaspes FL 


815 Index. 

.Choba £68 

CLn^eoLum 2ia 

CogiEDaui iM. 

CDnvsllisL 101 

CboddB ass 


Cop» ita 

*hoei Fl. 24S 


Cogamus Fl. 177 

Copais P. 136 

Chone U6 

Cireus MarimUB 

ColiniB 31 

Cophas WO 

Choaes S6 

Colapis Fl. 47 

Co|)hen 219 

Clwrasmia 259 

Cirphi. M. 133 

Colcliioua 8. 247 

Coplien Fl. 1149 

'Chonumii 2S» 

Cirradk 249 

Colchia 208 

Cophes Fl. S40 

(ChoniiD 2U1 

Cirrha 133 

CDllad^ 6(i 

Copia in 

Cirls 270 

Colobi 300 

Coptos SM 

,, 236 

C>»ia 234 

Coloe P. 290 

ta-reeiw an 

CithH;n>nM. 13S 

Colnnia 29.173 

CoraDcali MS 

ffhrysa J 69 

Cilbaristea Pr. SO 

Corax Fl. an 

GhjjK r. ise 

Citiuni IHS 

pina 52 

Coiai M. IM. 

<Jhryae Pr. 1B6 

Ciuuj S. 106 

ColoQUB Hippius 


'^tysoceras 112 

Cius 170 


Cotbcua 169 

CiuiFl. 108.170 

Colophon 175 

Corcyra 128 

Cbr^wrrbsaB Fl. 

Clampetia 97 

Colossal 178 

Corcyra I. 1X8 


CUros 176 

Colosseum 83 

Corcyra Kigra I, 

ChjtriuiD 17S 

Classit Pi. 74 

Colossus 163 


Chuiaiabiri M. 

Claslidium 71 

Colubraria 1. 65 

Corduln «j 

CJauila I. 162 


Cordueni 218 

CUbnisFl. 108 

Claudia Via 98 

Frel. 6fi 

Cores Fl. ail 

Ciaca 181 

Coioaceous L. 72 

Corfiniun. 61 

Ciuius S. ITO 

Claudius M. 4i 

Comana Cappa- 

Catia OllwliM- 

CibyrsMajor 178 

docia. IBl 

rum i\ 

•Cibyntes 178 

ClaiomeniB 175 

Coroana Poaliia 

Corimum U 

■Cicono no 

CleOQffi 151 


Corinihia 144 

Cidmiu 279 

Clima« M. 185 

ComariaPr. 245 

Corinihiaoii S. 

jCaices ICS 

Climbcmi 56 

Comedi 259 


Cilicia 18a 

Clisobora 248 

Conuthut 144 

(Cilicia Campes- 

ClicumDus Fl. 78 


Corioli BT 

im ISe 

Cioacie 8S 

Com Bone 237 

Coriondi «4 

iCilicia Isauria 

Clocoris Fl. 92 

Coiioiotau M 
Coritaoi 10 


Clodia Via 08 

■Cilici* Propria 

Clunia 63 


Corilhus 77 


Clusium 77 

CommoDi 57 

Coroavii SO, M 

.CiKcia Trachea 

Clypea 27S 

Coruelia Casin 

CnemisM. 133 


<:ilici»i Pyla 181 
CiUcium Blare 

Cnidua 183 

Concam 84 63 

Corooe 1114 

CnoBsus 161 

Coniobar JJ6 

Cotonea lU 


Co 2y3 

Condate a4 

CoronusM. SIS 

iCimbri 38 

Cobrjs 113 

CoQdviCDum 04 

Corra 2» 



Corrodamum Pf. 





Cimbrarum Fr. 

Cocujus 167 

Cond>los 123 

Corsica I. m 

CocylusFl. 126 

CoaSueoUs GO 

Corsis 1. 101 

Xbnmem 35. 38. 

CDdaaooial. 38 

Cod mbnca 6fl 

Cortona JT 

BO. 286 

Codanus S. 38 

Cono^ um 30 

Cory I. HI 

JCineretliL. 189 

Ccela Euboeie 

Coasentia 97 

Coryciuni An- 


CauKtaotia 196 

trum 134. 166 

1 roi Regie 300 

COBle-Persis 233 

Corycus 17S.IM 


Ctele- Syria 192 

ConMantina 270 

Coijgaia 249 

Cinyps >"!. 27S 

Ciflius M. 83 


Cifoeii Pr. B8 

Ccelimanlaaa 83 

Circeii M. 87 


CoatesUuu 64 

Coil 76 




Metani 68 

Sbisoanus Fl. 

Ostes Pr. 
QoUia Alpis 
Ciagus M. 
Cnnae I. 


Cnthis Fl. 







Cremera Fl. 






Creticuin Mare 

Crexa I. 47 

Crimisa 96 

Ciissa 1 33 

Ciissasus Campus 

CriassusS. 132. 

Criu Metopon Pr. 
Crius F). 145 
Crobyzi 108 


Croton 96 

Crani 108 

Cryptus Ps. 229 
Ctesiphon 219 
Ctimens 125 
Cuda Fl. 66 
Calaro 57 

Culiconea 4 1 
Culis 239 

Cama 168 

Cumn 89 

Cumania 210 
Cumanus S. 90 

Cunarus M. 




Cunetio Fl. 




Curicta 1. 












Cush 223. 233 
Cusus Fl. 40 
Cutasium 210 
CudliaB 80 

Cutilis L. 80 
Cyane Fons 101 
Cyanes lae. Ill 
Cybistra 181 
Cyclades Isb. 158 
Cyclopes 98. 160 
Cydnus Fl. 186 
Cydonia 161 
Cyiza 239 

CylipemisS. 253 
Cyllene M. 149 
Cyllene 146 

Cyllenes S. 146 
Cyme 168 

CyniaL. 131 
Cynaetha 149 
Cynopolis 2!)3 
Cynosarges 141 

Cynossema 112 
Cynossema Pr. 

CynosuraPr. 142 
CynthusM. 159 
Cynuria 151 
Cynus 132 

Cyparissia 155 
Cyparissius S. 

Cyphus 123 

Cyprus I. 195 
Cypsela 117 
Cyra 242 

Cyre Fons 280 
Cyrenara 280 
Cyrenaica 280 
Cyrene 280.282 
Cyreschata 242 
Cyrous I. 103 
Cyropolis 242 

Cyrrhesdca 191 

Cyrrhus 191 

Cyrus Fl. 210. 


Cyta 210 

Cythcra 152. 197 
Cythera 1. 152 
CythrsB 197 

Cytinium 131 
Cy torus 172 

Cytorus M. 172 
Cyzicus 170 

Dabasas 249 
Dabrona Fl. 33 

Daci 105 

Dacia 104 

Dacia Aureliani 

Daden I. 230 
Daedalium 101 
Dah» 240.242 
Daix Fl. 259 
Dalmats 47 

Dalmatia 46 
Damascene 192 
Damascus 192 
Damuii 31 

Damnonium Pr. 
Damnonii 29 
Dan 198. 201 
Dana 181. 247 
Danai 118. 149 
Danapris Fl. 253 
Danaster Fl. 106 
Danciones 38 
Dani 38 

Danubius Fl. 36 
Danum 31 

Daon:e 249 

Daphnse 291 
Daphne 190 

Dara Fl. 302 
Daradus Fl. 305 
Darantasia 56 
DaiatFl. 305 
Dardani 108 

Dardania 108. 

Dardanus 169 
Darni 33 

Damis 282 

Dassareti 117 


Dutagherda 219 
Datos 116 

Daulis 134 

Daunia 9S 

Decapolis 203 
Decelea 142 
Decumates Agri 
Delas Fl. 218 
Delium 136 

IJelminium 47 
Delos I. 150 

Delphi 13S 

Delta 287 

Demetrias 124 
Derbe 170 

Derbiccs 240 
Dertona 71 

Dertosa 62 

Derventio Fl. 27 
Deva 30 

Deva Fl. 28 


Oceanus 26 
Diamuna Fl. 248 
DianseNemus 86 
Diauna 211 

Diceearchia 90 
Dicte M. 161 
Dictynna 161 
Didymi Ms. 225 
Digentia Fl. 80 
Diglito Fl. 213 
Dimetae 3'j 

Dindymus M. 

170. 189 
Dio Caesarea 201 
Diomedea I. 93 
Diomedcaelns. 93 
Diomedis Cam- 
pus 94 
Diomedis Slabu- 
lum 113 

108. 245 
Diopolis 180 
Dioscoridisl. 229 
Dioscurias 209 
Diospolis 206 
Diospolis Magna 
Dipolis I. 156 
Dirae Angustias 

Dirce Fons 137 


Dire 900 

Dire Pr. MO 

Diridotis 222 
Dirphe M. 158 
Diva Fl. 28 

Divana 82 

Dium 117. 193 
Divodurum 53 
Dobuni 80 


Dodona 127 

Doliche 123 

Doliche I. 161 
Doliones 170 
Dolionis I. 170 
Dolonci 110 
Dolopia 125 

Dores 119 

Doridis S. 183 
Doris 181. 182 
Dorium 155 

Dorylaeum 178 
Dotius Campus 

Drangs 239 
Drangiana 239 
Drapsaca 241 
Draus Fl. 45 
Dravus Fl. 45 
Drepane I. 128 
Drepanum 102 
Drepanum Pr. 

Drils 173 

Drilo Fl. 46 

DrinusFl. 46 
Dromus Achillis 

Druids 23 

Drusiana Fossa 

Drusi Tropsea 40 
Diymodes 148 
Piyopes 13 i 
Diyopis 131 

Dubis Fl. 53 
Dubris 28 

Dulgibiui 39 
Dulgumnii 39 
Dulichiuin 1. 129 
Dumna I. 32 
Dunum 34 

Duranius Fl. 5«'> 
Durobiivis 29 


Durocobrivis SO 

Durocortorum 52 
DuTolipons 30 
Durostorum 108 
Durotriges 29 
Durovernum 29 
Duria Major Fl. 

Durius Fl. 60 
Dumovaria 29 
Dyardanes Fl. 

Dyme 146 

Dyrin M. 264 

Dystos 158 

Ebal M. 202 
Eblana 83 

Eboracum 81 
Ebrodunum 57 
Ebuda Occident. 
I. 32 

Ebuda Orient. I. 

Ebudes Isb. 
Ebudium Pr. 
Ebusus I. 


Echinades lae. 

Ecnomus M. 101 
Ectenes 135 

Ectini 57 

Eden 222. 228 
Edenates 57 
Edessa 117.215 











EgeriaeVallis 83 
Egnatia 94 

Kgnatia Via 98. 
Eiros M. 282 
Ekron 206 

Klsa 168 

Klsus 112.181 

ElaiticusS. 168 
Elam 230.284. 

Elatia 184 

Elaver Fl. 55 
Elea . 96.146 
Eleates S. 96 
Electrides Is. 88 
Elegia 214 

Elei 146 

Elephantine I. 

Eleusa 186 

Eleusinium 141 
Eleusis 188 

Eleutberas Fl. 

Elim 226 

Elis 146. 147 
Elisari 228 

Elisson Fl. 145 
Ellasar 228 

Elmantica 66 
Elusa 56 

Elusates 56 

Elymsi 280. 234 
Emathia 114.115 
Emerita Augusta 
Emesa 191 

Emroaus 205 
Emodi.M*. 244 
EroodusM. 244 
Emporia 276 
Emporis 62 

Emporicus S. 266 
Encnelees 47 
En-dor 202 

Engaddi 205 
Engedi 205 

Engyum 102 
EnipeusFl. 124 
Enna 102 

Enon 208 

Eoa 278 

Epei 146 

Ephesus 176 
Ephraim 198. 

Ephraim M. 202 
Ephrata 205 
Ephyra 147 

Ephyre 127. 144 
Epidamaus 117 



Epidaums Li- 

mera 152 

Epidelium 162 
Epidii ■ 82 

Epidiuml. 82 
Epidium Pr. 27 
Epiphania 191 
Epipols 100 
Epinu 126 

Epirus Novm 118 
Epope 146 

Epopeus M . 91 
Equus Tutkmslll 
Erannoboai FL 

Erdinus L. 

Eridanus FL 



Erigon Fl. 
Erineses FL 
Erineus 181.188 
Ermin StnH 82 
Erymanthus 149 
Eiymanthns Fl. 

Eiymanthut fit. 

Erythia I. 61 
ErythrsB 187.176. 

Ery thrsum Mare 
1. 224. 226 
Eiyz M. 102 
Esar 800 

Esdraelon 201 
Eshcol FL 206 
flsquilina 84 
Esquilinus M. 88 
Eteocretes 161 
Ethiopia 228 
Etruna 75 

Etnisci 76 

Etruscum Mart 

Etymandras Fl. 

Eaboea I. 167 
Eaboicum Mare 




£«do86«^ 98 
£venus Fl. 130 
£?ergets 239 
Sueanei 73 

£<d«us Fl. 234 
Eupatoria 256 
Stiphrates Fl. 

Btnipus 16T 

Siiropa 6 

ikvotas Fl. 121 
£kii7«lag 101 
£iaymedon Fl. 

Eaiytanes 181 
EiiMbui 181 
Bosebia ad Tau- 

rom 181 

Eudnus Pontus 


Castra 81 

£xteiior Oceanus 


EcioDgeber 226 

Fatoicius Pods 

FsBsnlie 77 

Fair Havens 162 
FaJerii 77 

Falemus Ager 89 
Falisci 77 

Ftma 226 

Fanras Fl. 81 
Feliiiia 74 

Ferentana Urbs 

Ferentinum 87 
Foiniis S. 250 
Fcionie Lucus 

Fenraria Pr. 60 
Fescennium 77 
Fidens 80 

FinDi 42 

Fiimineia 42 
FlaminiaVia 98 
FUnaticusS. 47 
Flano 47 

Flavia Cssarien- 

sis 29 

Flevo Fl. 36 
Fleyo L. 36 

FlevumOst. 36 
Florentia 77 

Formitt 88 

Fonnio Fl. 75 
Fortunatie Ise. 

Fonili 81 

Fo. Sempronu 78 
Fossa 104 

Fots-way 82 

Franci 39 

Fregellas 87 

Frentani 92 

Frento Fl. 92 
Fretum Oceani 


Fucinus L. 
Gabali 55 

Gabii 86 

Gad 198 

Gadara 207 

Gadarenes 207 
Gadeni 31 

Gades 66 

Gades I. 66 

Gaditanum Fret. 
Gaditanus S. 66 
Gaetara 211 

Gsetuli 301 

Gaetulia 301 
Gagaudes I. 299 
Galaad M. 208 
Galaaditis 208 
Galactophagi 259 
Galacum 31 

Galsesus Fl 94 
Galatae 179 

Galatia, 48. 179 
Galgala 205 
Galilaea 200 
Galilaea Gentium 

Galila;a Sup^ 

Galilee 200 

Galilee of the 

Gentiles 200 
Galilee, Sea of 


Gallia 48 

Gallia Braccata 
Gallia Cisalpina 
Gallia Cispadana 
Gallia Citerior 71 
Gallia Comata 48 
Gallia Parva 179 
Gallia Togata 71 
Gallia Transal- 

pina 48 

Gallia Transpa- 

dana 72 

Gallicus S. 57 
Gallo-Graecia . 

Gallo-Ligyes 57 
GallommFo. 73 
Gamala 208 

Gambrivii 89 
Gangani 248 
Gangara 211 
Gangaridae 248 
GangaridsB Ca- 

lingae 248 

Ganges Fl. 244. 



Gangeticus S. 

Gangites Fl. 116 
Ganos 112 

Gangra 172 

Garama 801 
Garamantes 301 
Garganum Pr. 93 
Gacganus M. 93 
GaigaraM. 168 
Garianonum 80 
Garienus Fl. 30 
Garoceli 56 

Garsaura 181 
Garsauritis 181 
Gaxumna Fl. 51 
GassandaB 228 
Gath 206 

Gaudos I. 162 
Gaugamela 219 
Gaulan 207 

Gauzaca 240 
Gaza, 206. 235 
Gedrosia 238 
,2 I 





GelaB 211 

[. 235 















Gennesareth L. 

















G«rizim M. 






Germania I' 

K 53 

Gennania 11^. 51 


Gennanicus Oce- 









Gerrhaicus S. 230 











Gihon Fl. 


GUboa M. 




Gilead M. 


GUlius M. 


Gir Fl. 


Gii-a Metropolis 



Glaucus Fl. 



Glaucus S. 








Glota ^st 


Glola Fl. 


Glykji Linwn | 




Goaris Fl. 


Gobaium P 



















Oordiaci M 

































Graham-i Dyke \ 




Grampias M. 26 | 



Granua Fl. 





















CjadM Ft. 




Gyrton 12S 

Gjtb«atii S. 153 
Gylhium ISS 

ibor FL 215 

Hadria 74. 79 

Hailriani -Vallum 



113. HO, 2B1 
HadrianuB Fi. 72 

Mue 67 



Hcsmi Eilrema 

HffimusM. lOT 


Hellas lis. ISS. 
124. 125. 144 

Hellenes 118 
Hellespantua 111 
Helli 128 

Heltopia 128 
Helona Tempe 

Hflonim 101 
H«los 153 

Helvetii £9 

Helvinut Fl. 78 
UcDsti 74. 171 
Heniochl 173. 
209. gB8 


Hepuuomia 288 
Heraclea 95.112 
Ileraclea I. 293 
Heraclea ia 

Ponlo 171 
Heraclea Ljnces- 

Halmydessui 111 
Halonesns lfi7 
Malys Fl. 1G5 
Ham, Laod of 

Hamalh 191 
Hamatbltes 108 
Hamaiobii 231 
HaniinoDium 283 


Hajpasus Fl. 214 
Haua 2ir 

H«b[on 20; 

Hebtus FI. IK 
Hebudes Ix. 3: 



278. 294 . 
He donacon 135 
Helena I. 141 
Helice 146 

HelicooFI. 117 
M. 136 
Heliopolu 192. 
Helium OiU 36 

HetmoQ M. 207 
HennoDacCU 10(i 
HermontbU 290 
Hermopolii Uag- 



Heiaclea MiDoa 

Heraclea Sintica 



Alagna 293 
Het^l. 303 
Hcrci M*. W 
Herculaneum 00 
Herculeum Fret. 
Herculia Colum. 

nn 206 

Herculis Libunii 

Ps. 76 

HerculiB Momcci 

Ps. 71 

HcrculiaPr. 27. 

HennuiFI. 161 

Heroopolis SDO 

Heroopoliticui S. 


Hesebon 208 

Heihbon 206 

Heaidms FI. 240 

Hespeha 67 

Hesperia Ultima 


Hespericus S. 105 

Hesperidei 281 



Hesperii ^tbio. 

Heaperu Keiat 

Henuoilinm lis 
Hexainloa 101 
Hibe IM 

Hiberoit I. 3t 
Hiberaicuin Hare 

HLddekel Fl. SI3 


HtnainSlrttt 32 
Hermiuius M. SO 
HeimioDe 150 
Henniones 40 
Hermiamcut 8. 


Hierapolii 17H. 

HieiapytuB 162 
Hierasus Fl. 106 
Hierichos 205 

HimEia Fl. 102 






llipi>oDii[d>jtui 1 


Hippo B^ 



Hippo Zuytni | 





















Hiapuik Ulterior | 







































UjdnSei Fl. 1 


ItTdiet I. 








Ilylas n. 


ilylica P. 




ilyllis Pen. 


HyllQi Fl. 


HjMttMM. 142 1 













Hyperia Foni | 


Hypbwii n. 246 1 



Hypiipyle I 





HyrcMumMaie | 


lal^ii I, 


Jabesb Gilead | 


Jabok Fl. 
















lapys Fl. 




lapygii 92.04 

lapjpum Pr. 68 



lassius S. 









laxarles Fl 




JaiygeiWeU. | 






Iberia Si 


Jbemg Fl. 




Icarium Mare i 






IchauM I. 

104 1 

IctthyophagS 1 




Ichthyi Pr. 


Icknik Street 32 | 





Ida M. 161 


limt I. 


Idsus M. 









Tdumania Fl. 29 | 









leme I. 












Ikening Sin 

C 32 

Ilirgus Fl. 








Ilipula M. 


Iliiiua Fl. 




Ilium Novum ! 




IlljricuM G™-^ J 



Il»a I. 


Imaus M. 


Imbraiui Fl 


Imbm I. 


Inacbui Fl. 





Icanme I. 



r ■ 



India Alba 239 
India eitm 

Gangcni 21S 

Gaagem 215 
ladin 248 

Indicctie 62 


Indus Fl. 178, 

lateiamoa 02 

•.s Fl. 248 

lOD .M. 

Ionia 174 
Ionium Mars 08 

lonopolis 173 

Joppa 206 

Jordan R. 189 

Jordanes Fl. 189 

Id9 I. 160 

loiapals 301 

IsarguE Fl. 42 
Iiaura 185 

Isaura Novs 185 
liBuri 184 

IsauKa 1 84 

Isca Fl. 27. 28 
Isca Silurnm 31 
Ilea DtmnDnio- 
rum 29 

lichen 302 

Ishmaelilea S2S 
IsIb et SeiajHB 8S 
Inmarut 113 

lamenui Fl. 137 


Israel 19f 

Issa I. 47 

Issachar 198 
Issedon Scythica 
Issedon Serica 

Issedones 260 
Issicus S. 187 
Issus 187 

Istsevones 39 
Ister FI. 36 

Isthmus 143. 146 
Istropolis 108 
Itabyrius M. 201 




Ithaca I. 


Ithome M. 

Itium Pr, 

Itius Ps. 

I tuna iEst. 

Ituna Fl. 

I tursa 


Itys Fl. 

Judsa 197.203 

Judaeorum V". 

Judah 197. 198 
Judah, Desert of 
' 206 

Ivemi 84 

Ivemis 34 

Ivernus FU 84 
Julia; Alpes 69 
Julias 201 

Julii Fo. 67. 76 
Juliobona 63 
Juliobriga 63 
lulis 160 

Julium Camicum 
Juncaria 62 

Junonia I. 303 
Junonis Pr. 60 
Jura M. 60 

Juthungi 40 

Kedar 223 

Kedron Fl. 206 
K«rata M. 138 

Kishon Fl. 
Kison Fl. 


Labeatis Palus 



Labicana Via 
Lacedaemon 161. 
Lacinium Pr. 96 
Lacmos M. 114 
Laconia 161 
Laconica 161 
Laconicus S. 162 
Lactodorum 30 
Ladon Fl. 149 

Laestrygonia 88 
Lagnus S. 263 
Lahora 246 

Lais 201 

Laletani 62 

Lambese 270 
Lambrus Fl. 72 
Lamia 126 

Lamotis 186 
Lampea M. 149 
Lampsacus 169 
Lamus - 186 
Lancia Transcu- 

dana 66 

Langobardi 38 
Lanuvium 85 
Laodicea 178 
Laodicea ad Li- 

banum 191 
Laodicea ad Mare 
Laodicea Com- 

busta 179 
Laodicea Scabi- 

osa 191 

Laodicene 191 
Lapethus 196 
Lapidea Turris 

Lapidei Campi 

Lapithsi 123 

LapurduM 56 
Laranda 179 
Larice 246 

Larinum 98 

Larissa 123. 218 
Laiissa Cremaste 

Larissa Pelasgia 

Larius L. 72 
Lasea 162 

Lathon Fl. 281 
Latina Via 98 
Latini 82 

Latium 81 

LatmicusS. 182 
Latmos M. 182 
Latopolis 296 
Latovici 47 


Praetorium 47 
Latris I. 263 
Latronum Regio 

Lavinium 85 
Laurentum 86 
Lauriacum 45 
Laurium M. 141 
Laus 96 

Laus FL 96 

Laus S. 06 

Laus Pompeia 72 
Lautulas 88 

Lautumias 100 
Lazi 209 

Lazica 209 

Lebadia 186 
Lebanon M. 188 
Lebedus 175 
Leborini Campi 
Lechaeum 145 
Lectum Pr. 164 
Legia Septima 

Gemina 63 
Lehabim 18 

LeipoQtii 44 

Lelantus Campus 

Leleges 128 

Lelegia 153 

Lemanis Ps. 28 
Lemanus L. 61 
Lemnos I. 156 
Lemovices 65 

L^movii 88 

LeontesFl. 189 
Leontini 90 

Leontinus S. 90 
LeoDtopolis 201. 

Lepontii 44 

Lepreum 147 
Lepte Acra 165 
Leptis Magna 

Leptis Minor 276 
Leria 64 

Lema L. 151 
Lesbos I. 162 
Lethaeus Fl. 123. 
162. 981 
Leucadia I. 129 
Leucas 129 

Leucas I. 120 
Leucate Pr. 120 
Lence Acte 158 
LeuceCome 228 
Leuce I. 86 

Leuci 58 

LeuciM*. 161 
Leucopetra Pr. 

Leucopibia 81 
Leucos Ps. 206 
Leucosia 19^ 
Leactra 185 

Leuctrum 154 
Lezovii 54 

LibanusM. 188 
libethrius M. 

Libethruiii 117 
Libisosia- 64 
Libissonis Turn 

Libnius Fl. 88 
liburnia 46 

Libya 17. 270. 

Libya Exterior 

Libya Interior 

Libya P. 277. 

Libycus M. 287 
Libyes 270 

Libyssa 171 

lichades la. 158 


Ucns FI. 42 
Liger Fl. 61 

ligures 67. 70 
Li^ria 70 

ligBsticaon 71 
Ligusticus S. 68 
Ugustini 70 

Ligyes 67. 70 
liUea 134 

Liljbasum 102 
LUybeum Pr. 90 
Limiisa 164 
limonum 6S 
limjra 184 

limyrica 246 
Linoum 30 

Lindus 101. 163 
Liqgones .54. 74 
Lingoa 276 

L^para I. 103 
Lipareonim Is. 

iip^drium 142 
Liris Fl. 81 

Lisfas 47 

litana SUva 73 
Litemum 89 
Lnria 208 

lixus 266 

Loori 97. 132 
]4Kii Epiciie- 

midii 132 

Locri Epizephyrii 
Locri Opuntii 

liOcri Ozols 132 
Logi 32 

LogiaFL 33 
JrfOndmium 29 
LongiMuri 139 
LongOYicus 31 
LongosFL 28 
LoBgus Fs. 77 
Loiium 76 

Lotophagi 277 
Lolophagitis I. 

Labim 18 

Lnca 76 

Lucania 96 

Luceni 34 

Luceria ' 93 
Lucretilis M, 80 
Lucrinus L. 90 

! LIK^us Astorum 

Lacus August! 63 
Ludias Fl. 116 
Logduoensis 63 
LugduQensLs I^. 

Lugduneasis 11^. 



j 64 


Lugdunum Bata- 
vorum 61 

Lugdunum Segu- 
siaQonim 66 
Luguvallium 31 
Luua 76 

Luna Silva 36 
Luns M«. 302 
Lunse Ps. 71 
Lupphurdum 40 
Luppia FI. 37 
Lusitani 66 

Lusitania 62 
Lutetia 64 

Lui 206 

Lycabettus M. 

Lycasus M. 


Lych nidus 
LychnitisP. 117. 
Lycia 183 

Lycopolis 294 
Lycorea 134 
Lycormas FL 130 
Lycosura 148 
Lyctus 162 

Lycus Fl. 173. 
178. 194. 218 
Lydda 206 

Lydia 174 

Lygii 40 

Lyginus Fl. 108 
Lygos 112 

Lyncestis 117 
Lyncestis Aq. 

LyncestUFl. 116 

LyrcflBusM. 151 
Lyraessus 168 
Lysimachia 112 
Lysimelia P. 101 
Lystra 179 

Lytarais Pr. 263 

MaarsaresFl. 221 
Mabog 191 

Maca2 230 

Macaei Syrtits 

Maccabees 199. 

Macedonia 113 
Maceta Pr. 230 
Macetffi 114 

Macetia 114 
Machsrus 208 
MacoHcum 34 
Macoraba 228 
Macra Fl. . 70 
Macris I. 141. 

Macrobii 297 

Macronos 173 
Madaura 270 
Msander Fl. 

Maeats 24 

Maenalus M. 149 
Msnus Fl« 37 
Maeonia 174 
Maeotas 266 

Maeotis P. 264 
Magalia 276 
Magar 276 

Magdala 201 
Magna Graecia 

Magnesia 124 
Magnesia ad Msb 
andrum 176 
Magnesia ad Si- 
pylum 176 
Magnum Littus 

Magnum Ost. 

Magnum Pr. 69. 



Magnus Campus 

Magnus S. 260 
Magnetes 124 
Mago 66 

Magon FL 249 
Mafaca 66 

Malaei Colon Pr. 

Malange 247 
Male 246 

Malea M. 247 
Malea Pr. 162 
Maleos I. 32 
Maleventum 92 
MaliacusS. 125 
Malienses 126 
Malli 246 

Mallorum 0pp. 

Malua FL 265 
Mamala 228 
Mamertini 97 
Mamertum 97 
Mamre 205 

Manada Fl. 248 
Manasseh 198 
Mancunium 31 
Mandubii ^5 
Manduriae 96 
ManiolaB lae. 260 
Manrali 209 
Mantua 64. 73 
Mantinea 149 
Maracanda 241 
Marah 226 

Marathon 141 
Marcomanni 40 
Mardi 236.240 
Mardus Fl. 283 
MareotisL. 289 
Mareura 249 
Margiana 240 
MargusFL 108. 

Mariaba 228 
Mariana 103 
Mariandyni 170 
MarianusM. 69 
Maridunum 30 
Marionis 39 

Marisus Fl. 106 
MarithiM*. 230 
Maritime Alpei 

tii Index. 

lurmarica S82 

Midioi Pylai 218 

Mesiana 99 

Moabiles 227 

luiiinai'ulse SB2 

Messapia 94 

ModiiDB 220 

JKraM. P9 

65. 56: 73 

Modo^lla 24S 

MariucLni fll 

Messapius M. 

Mmicma Fl. 34 

MeduacuE Major 


Modura. 247 

Karsi 39. Bl 

FI. 15 


ftfoeris L. 293 

Meduacus Minor 

Messene ISS 

Mdesi IM 

Xianyabs 229 
itarsyaj F1. ITS. 

Fl. 75 

Messenia 154 

Mdjsia 100 

Megilopolii 148 

Messeniacus S. 

Mffisia iDferiM 

" 183 

Mfigara 142. 275 



Hula F1. 76 


MoisTa Sqperior 

Varlianes L. 335 




Harliani 23S 

Megaris 142 

Metagonitffi 260 

Mogonliwam S3 

KsniudiB 249 

Megiddo 202 

Melagcmiam 266 
Metallinum 60 

Moliones ISI 

SuiuiM. 21S 

Mela Fl. 72 

Slolochalh Fl. 

Basstesylii 363 

Melanchtoni 29 

Metalluffl Pr. 


MeUnes M*. 22S 


Molossia 127 

Jftassaietai 240. 

Melas Fl. 181 

Malurii 143 

242. 359 

Meles Fl. 175 

Melaris -Est. 2T 

Mona I. 30. 11 

JJissicusM. 89 

Melibocus M. 35 

MelanrusFi, 78 

Monarfi I. 81 

MelLUei 124 

MeleUa 200 

Monapia I. 31 

SosiilieoBes ST 

MeliguaiB I. 103 

MetbBDa 150 

MoTida Fl. SO 

SaHylli 253 

Mellta IBl 

Methone 117. 


Melital.48. 103 



T 112 

MeUle HI 

Mflthora 248 

Moph 292 

Melilene 181 

Methymaa 162 

Mopsapia 138 

MelOB I. 100 1 Metis S3 

MoriahM. 2M 

Memphis 20a ' Metnlum 47 

Morini S2 

jlilliaci Pontes 

Menapii 34 

Midimites 223 

Morinum Frel. 

1» ■ ^^ 

Sitliuin 3I] 

Menapli 34. 52 

Mils 102 


Mendes 292 

Mile, Jewbh 4 

Morius M. 804 

Mile. Roraao 4 

Moron 67 


Miletus 182 

Monuum Mara 

MBiiretania Cs- 

Menelaium M. 

Milichia Foos 


*;«.rien»is 206 



Moranda 235 

)l|au»tania Sid- 

MenelauB Ps.283 

MlKchnsFl. 146 

Monindaj 333 

'■ fensis 2BT 

Meniax I. 277 

MUjffi 178 

Mosa Fl. 50 

MentEsa Ore tana 

Milyas 178 

MosEcus Fl. 333 

■ gitana 203 


Mimas M. 175 

Moscba 229 

Mauri 203.364 

Minal K8 

Mosthi 109 


Merdi 108 

Minrins Fl. 72 



Meroe a98. 399 

Minervs Pr. 91 

Mosella R SO 

Maumsia 2C2 

MeromL. 189 

Mlnius Fl. 6U 

3bienu Fl. S36 

Mernra M. 245 

Miaoa 152 

MosycUot M. 

Uuima CsiaH- 
'^ensi* 31 

Mera 32 

Minturns 88 




Mothon IS4 

Afaiima 3equa- 

Chers. 233 

Paludes 88 

Molhone 1SJ 

" Mrom S3 

Mesembria 110 

Minylis 67 

Moioeoe 214 

•Uu»c. 180 

Mesene I. 216 

MiscnumPs. 90 

MuluchaFl. S6i 

Hecone U5 

MesogisM. 175 
McEO^a S48 

Misenum Pr. 90 

Munda 6« 

Ifedaba a08 

Mitvlene 162 

Munydiia Ps. 

9r«/(i 23J 

MeBoluB Fl, 247 

Miipeh Vallis 


r 221 

Mespyla aiftUViimm "i^^ 

Murius Fl, M 


Museum 141 
Mnsicani 246 
Mvfonii 267 
Musulaoi 267 
Matina 7S 

MycaleM. 174 
Mycens Iffl 
Iklyconos I. 159 
Mygdonia 114. 
llff. 21ff 

^^ 216 

Myls Ps. 102 
Mylasa 183 

Myndus 18t 

1^ 184 

ymnM. 156 

Hynhifeia Regio 

Myrtos I. 158 

Myrtuntium 146 
Myn 108 

llyua 167. 237 
Mysia EuropaBa 

Myus 182 

Naarmalcha 220 
Nabathei 226 
Nacbal 286 

Nagnata Uibs 34 
Naffnatae 34 
Ni£al 286 

Nairn 201 

Naissus 108 
Nanmetes 54 
Nanagona Fl, 

Namcha 248 
Napata 290 

Naphtali 198 
Nar Fl. 78 

Narisci 40 

Narbo Martins 

Narbonensis 56 
Narbonensis I*. 

Narbonensis II*. 
Naro Fl. 47 


Narona 47 

Narra^ 220 
Kaiyaum 132 
Kasamones 281 
Nascica 63 

Nasos 100 

Natiso Fl. 75 
Naucratis 291 
Naupactus 132 
Nanplia 150 
Nauportus 47 
Naupoitus Fl. 47 
Nautaca 242 
Naxos I. 159 
Na^piana 214 
Nazareth 201 
Nazianzus 181 
Nea 169 

Neapolis 90. 100. 

116. 202. 275. 

Neapolitanus S. 

Nebo M. 208 
Nebrissa Veneria 
NebrodesM. 99 
Neda Fl. 147 
Nedo Fl. 154 
Ne|;raii 228 

Neius M. 130 
Nemausus 57 
Nemea 151 

Nemea FL 144 
Nemetes 53 

Nericus 129 
Nerigos 41 

NeriiCeltici 63 
Neritis I. 129 
Neritus M. 130 
Neroassus 181 

Tractus 53 
Nenrii 52 

Nessonis P. 123 
Nestus Fl. 110 
NiaFl. 305 

NiCaea 57. 171. 
Nicatorius M. 

Nicephorlum 216 
Nicephorius Fl. 

Nicer Fl. 37 
Nicomedia 171 
Nicopolis 181. 

187. 205. 289 
Nicopolis AchaiaB 
Nicopolis ad Is- 

tnim 108 

Nicopolis ad 

Nestum 113 
Nigama 247 

Niger Lapis M. 

Ni^r Fl. 302 
Nigira Metropolis 
Nigritas 303 

NigritesP. 303 
Nilus Fl. 286 
Nineveh 218 
Ninus 218 

NiphatesM. 212 
Nisaea 142 

Nisaetis Campus 
Nisibis 216 

Nisyros I. 163 
Nitria 289 

Nitriotis 289 
Nivaria I. 303 
No 294 

Nod, Land of 234 
Nola 89 

Nomades 269 
Nomadia 269 
Nomentum 80 
Nonacris 149 
Noph 292 

Nora 181 

Norba 87 

Norba Caesarea 

Noreia 75 

NoricaeAlpes 44 

Notium Pr. 
Notu Keras 







NovantaB 31 

Novantum Pr. 27 



NoviodxuDLum 1Q% 




Noviomagus 29. 

Novius Fl. 28 
Nubas 297. 298 
Nuba; P. 302 
Nubonenses Sa- 

linae 268 

NuchulFL 302 
Numantia 63 
Numicius Fl. 85 
Numidae 269 
Numidia 262.269 
NumidicusS. 268 
Nysa 245 

Oaracta I. 238 
Oases 293 

Oasis Major 293 
Oasis Minor 293 
Obringa Fl. 51 
Oboca Fl. 33 
Oboth 227 

Ocean-river 1 
Ocelis 228 

Ocetis I. 32 

Ocha M. 158 
Ocra M. 69 

Ocrinum Pr. 27 
Octapitaruin Pr. 

Odessus 108. 254 
Odeum 140 

Odiysae 110 

(£a 278 

(EagriusFl. 110 
(Eanthe 132 
(Ebalia 153 

(£ca 278 

(Echalia 131. 
155. 158 
(Echardae 260 
(EdanesFl. 248 
CEoiadae 129 
Gilnoe 141 

CEnoe I. 160 
(Enopia I. 150 
(Euotri 95 

(Enotria 67 

(Escus Fl. 108 
(Eta M. 123 
Ogygia T. 97 
Osyris I. 238 
Olba 186 

Olbia 104.171. 

jjiaa Index. 

Oreus ISB 

Palanila 250 

Parasangs 4 


Oricum 117 

PuUalia fi3 

Paras 230 

OKne 303 

PaladDusM. 83 

PareuUum JS 

TOenus ISl. 140 

OritiD 339 

Palalmm H5 

ParislL 54 

OrneonPr. 247 

Pales IIU 

Pilrma 7» 

Orobii 72 

PalibHtbra 248 

Pwnai 240. 243 

OrontesFl. 180 

Palica 103 

Punassua M. 


Oropus 13G 


OroapedaM, S9 


PamesM. 135 

Ona 87 

Paliurus 282 


Orrea 32 

Pallacnpa 221 


$§'n.pieuni HO 

OrtODi 92 

Pallffi 104. 130 

Pacopamisus M. 

ttlympus 18J 

OrUispBna 339 

PallanlLa 63 


Ortygia I. lOD 
Orucfii M'. 245 

Pallaauuni 148 
Pillas L. 277 

ParosI, IM 
Parrhaaia 146 

Oturos 192 

Pallene 116 

Partba^U US 

Sciana S. 32!) 

Osca 62. 65. 

Palma 05 

pQisLiic 239 

Oacela 44 

Palmyra 192 

Partis 239 

^boB 396 

Osci 8H 

Pambolis L. 126 

PattheniM M. 

*tt.brioaI. 303 

OsciusFl. 108 

PamuuB Fl. 153. 


OblTlSQlL 33D 

Osiimli 64 


Parlhemus Fl. 

iPniothermoii T. 

Osroene 215 

Pamphylia 184 


^ 100 

Ossa M. 123 


Partheflon 140 

to 291 

Osleodesl. lOS 

Mara 185 

PatlbeDope 90 

^chesmus Ps, 

Oitia S5 

Panocton 142 

Pirlhia aST 

? 136 

Paocbaial. 229 

Porthyene 231 

^DcbestQB 1ST 

Olhrya M. 133 
Otladiai SI 

PaDdiDnii Regio 

PanietiM>. 333 

Soion 291 


ftnoeionus Fl. 

Ottorocorm 261 

Paadoaia 95. 97. 

16S. 212 

£ 123 

5lJiir 238.249 

Oriffi Im. 120 


Pasargads 233 

Oiii M'. 241 

Paneas 807 

Pasitigrii F1.2I3. 

»phis f 1. 149. 
,L 1T3 

OxiaaeFl. 171 

PaneuraM. 207 


Oius Ff. 233 

Pangffius M. US 

PassarOQ 127 

,*^insa 106 

OsydracB 316 

PaahelleDea 118 

Patala 340 


PaQinaium 174 

Pataleae 240 


Panis I. 300 

PaUia 184 

%is 219 

Oieae 246 

Panuonia 4S 

Patavium 74 

jKmatiusS. 132 

Pachynum Pr. 

PaHnonii 43 

PaterauDi DO 

«!•«» 13-i 



Pathissua FL 

Pacfolus Fl. 176 

PanopoliK 204 


Pactya 112 

Panumius 102 

Patbros 206 

5[«fl 339 

Iftbdus M. lOT 

Paetyas M. 175 

Panlbeon 85 

Palhyria 2BG 

Patlan-Aram 315 


Pataosl. 103 

,Drbis Terratum 4 

Padua n. 69 1 250 

Pilre I« 

Wrendes Ie, 32 

Psonil 114. lis 

P«pIilagon« 172 

PaluraM 2fl0 

>On:adum Mare 

Pislanui a. 9C 

PaphlagonLa 171 

Pauallypon BD 

PiEstum 9G 

Paphos 106 

Pat AugiutI W 
Pax JuUa 67 

.Orcas Pr. 26 

Pagiiss 124 

PappuaM. 270 

fircheni 330 

Pagasffius S. 124 

Pocacadi 941 

Pajii ix. ine 

^boB 222 


Pai^ilB 141) 

'' 149 

PalaiTyruB 195 


PediBusfL IW 

Peitus FL 146 

^niovices SO 

1. 247 

Paian 226 

Peiso L. 45 

3*refani 64 

PaliGste VIR 

Pimo, Desert of 

PekgoDia IIS, 

3»*"«- e* 

Vtlsa.'OB.x 1W\ KffiN ' u; 


Htis 12S 

Pelasgi 76. 119 
Pelasgia 14S.148 
Felasgici Caxnpi 

{^lasgiotis 123 
Pelendooes 6S 
Peligni 81 

Felion M. 122 
IHiUa 117.191. 

Plellene 145. 15S 
Pelodes Limen 


Pelonim Pr. 99 
Pelso L. 45 

Pelusiaciud Ost. 

Pelusiacns Fl. 

Ptelosium 290 
PeneusFl. 120. 

Peimina Alpis 

PeDxiina Vallis 

Fe&tapolis 249. 

Pentapylon 100 
Pentelicus M. 

Pentri 91 

Peperina I. 246 
Pephnos 163 
Penea 183.207 
Percote 169 

Perga 185 

Pergamos 169 
Pergamus 168 
Perpisa L. 103 
Penmudal. 246 
Perimula 249 
P^rimulicus S. 

Perinthus 112 
Perisabora 221 
Pennessus Fl. 

VtnhsBhi 123 


Fersepolis 233 
Persia 230 

Persicum Impe- 
rium 230 

Fersicus S. 225 
Persis 230 

Perusia 77 

Pessinus 179 
Fetalis IsB. 158 
Petelia 96 

Petilia 96 

Petra 226 

Peucetia 94 

Peucini 253 

PeuciDiM^ 252 
Phacusa 291 
Phsaces 128 
Phsdriades Fe- 

trs 134 

FhalaDna 123 
Phalarium 101 
Fhanagoria 258 
Pharnacia 173 
Pharos I. 289 
PharparFl. 192 
Pharsalus 124. 

Fhanis I. 47 
Phaselis 184 
Phasiane 213 
Phasis 210 

Phasis Fl. 210. 

Phatniticum Ost. 

PhazaDia 301 
Fhegea 149 

Pheneos 149 
Phers 124 

FhialaL. 189 
Philadelphia 177. 
193. 208 
Phils 142 

Phils I. 296 
Fhilsnonim Ars 

Philippi 116 

Philistsi 206 
Philistines 206 
Phintias 101 
Phlegra 115 
Phlegrsi Campi 




















Phoenicia 193 

Phoenicis Ps. 162 

Phoenicius M. 

Phoeno 227 

Pholegandros I. 

Phorana 240 
Phra 240 

Phraata 235 

Phrixa 147 

Phrygia 177 

Phrygia Minor 

Phthia 124 

Phthiotis 124 
Phthirophagi 257 
Phut 265 

Phut Fl. 265 
Phycus Pr. 281 
Phylace 125 

Phynon 227 

Physcus 183 

PhyscusFl. 219 
Pibeseth 291 
Piceni 78 

Picenum 78 

Picentini 91 

Pictavi 55 

Picti 24 

Pictones 55 

Picts' Wall 25 
Pieres 115 

Pieria 115 

Pieria M. 190 
Pindenissus 191 
Pindus 131 

Findus M. 120 
Pinna 81 

Pintuaria I. 303 
Pirs 146 

Pirsus Ps. 139 
Pirats 246 

Pirene Fons 145 
1 Pisa Ul 



Piss 76 

l^isatis 147 

Pisaurus Fl. 78 
Piscina Publica 
Piseah M. 208 
Pisidia 184 

Pison Fl. 222 
Pistoria 77 

Pithecusa I. 91 
Pithom 290 

Pitonius Fl. 81 
Pityus 209 

Pityuss Is. 65 
Placentia 73 
Planets Is. Ill 
Platss 135 

Platea I. 283 
PleistusFl. 133 
Plemmyrium Pr. 

Plinthine 289 

Plots Is. 155 
Pluvialial. 303 
Pnyx 141 

Poemandria 137 
Poeni 273 

Pcetovio 45 

Pola 75 

Polaticum Pr. 75 
Polaiicus S. 75 
Polemonium 173 
Polisum 95 

Pollentia 65.71 
Polytimetus Fl. 

Pomona I. 32 
Pompeii 90 

Pompeii Tropsa 

Pompelo 62 

Pompeum 139 
Pomptins Pa- 

ludes 87 

Pontes 29 

Pontus 108.172 
Populonium 76 
Populonium Pr. 

Porata Fl. 106 

Porphyritis M, 

ia4. 126. 2as 


■Potami Fl. 10« 
a^rtentia Fl. 79 


'Pwtutil 7 

Pnevalilana 4 
Pius 12 

Piasie IS 

■Pmail 24 

PiasodU Mare 
■ 301 

Prasiim Pr. 301 

Prelius L. 76 
Fiemnis 2 

■Prilis L. 
I Brim is 2 

Primis Magna 
' 2 


Brochyta I. 

iBroplithasia 830 
fn^ntis III 

FPropjilffia 140 
ProviDcia Nostra 

'fcusa ad HypLum 


Praaa ad Olym- 

Reboa L. 399 
Fceadocelis 2S8 
Ptonhis 130. Mil 
Fs/lli 279 

Ptolemois 19S. 

Pyloa Eliacus 

Pylos Triphjlia 

R aliba^i-Animoa 

Kabal] 291 

Rama 20f 

Ramiih 20C 

Rambacia 23i 
RlmcsES 291 

Raudii Campi 72 



Recem 22 

Red Sea. 'ii 
Radones S 

Regia 3 

Regia Altera 3 
RegiiDum 10 
Rf gillua L. B 
Regina 4 

RegiumFI, 22 
llegium Lcpidi 
Regni 2 

Regnum 2 

Rahoboth 21 

PyrenfflL M". 59 

Resen 219 

PjrcDffium Pr. 

Reuben 198 

Rezeph 191 

PyrethusFl. 108 

Pyrrba 122. 125 

Khabbanffii 261 

Pythium 123 

RbffdesWs 112 

Fylho 133 

Rhxti 43 

Pylaa 90 

Rhffilk 43 

PyiuB Fl. 96 

Rhffilicffi Alpes 

Quadi dO 

tjuirinalii M. 83 





Rheaca 1. 



Rhium Aphaj- 

cum 146 

RhiiKum 173 
llbodaniis Fl. SI 
Rhodope M. 109 
Rbodus I. 163 
RbcEteum 169 
Hbotanus Fl. 104 
Rtmbon Fl. 252 
Rhudia: Peuce* 

Rigodulum S3 
Robogdii 33 
Robogdium Pr. 


Rubeai Pr. 


Rubico FL 

RubresuE L 


Rabrum Mare 




Rumon Fl. 




Rusadir Pr. 










Snbaracua FL 


Sahttracns S. 849 
SabannFU SW 
Sabatha 238 
Sabatus Fl, SI 
Sabe 227 

Sabelli Dl 

Sabini 7!) 





Sabrina .Ebl « 
Sabrina Fl. 27 
Sacs WEI 

SKcaatena 240 
Sneer M. W 
Sai^haliia am 
Sacral. 21 

Sacra Via 84 
aacfum Pr. SJ. 
Sctabu 61 

SngirU FL 166 


Sagi«AFl. 91 
Sagras Fl. 81 
Saruntum 64 
Sim 64 

Sub 291 

Sala 266 

SftlaFL 265 
SalflB 247 

Safaunis 196 

Salamis I. 138 
9aianga 250 
Salapia 93 

Salapina P. 93 
Salaria Via 98 
SalasBi 72 

Salatas 300 

Salds 268 

Saldaba 64 

Salem 203 

Saientini 94 

Salentinum Pr. 

Salemnm 91 
aalice I. 247 
Sdim 203 

SalhuD 106 

SaAmantica 66 
SalmonePr. 161 

latttts 111 
SahnydeMQS 111 
8sloFl. 64 

Salona 47 

Sabum Mare 180 
Salyes 57 

Stt&achonites L. 

Samara Fl. 52 
Samaria 201. 202 
Sataaiobriva 52 
SoinbuBFl. 248 
Same 130 

Soane I. ISO 
Samnites 91 
SamDium 91 
Samonium Pr. 

Samos 180 

Samos I. 162 
Samosata 191 
Stamothrace I. 


Sanni 214 

Santoiies 56 

Sanua 211 

Saoce M. 156 
Sapa 300 

Sapaudia 56 
Saphar 228 

Saphtha 230 
Sapra P. 256 
Saraceni 227 
Sarapeum 112 
Sanies 177 

Saidica 108 

Saidinia I. 104 
Sanlo I. 104 
SardoDes 58 

Sardonyx M. 245 
Sarepta 194 

SargetiaFl. 106 
Sariga 240 

Sariphi M>. 240 
Sarmatas 251 
Sarmatia 251 
Sarmatia Asiatica 

Sarmatia Euro- 

pea 252 

Sannatics Pylae 

Sarmatici M*. 85 
Sannaticus Oce- 
anus 41 


Saroia I. 54 

Samius Fl. 236 
Saronicus S. 150 
Sarpedonium Pr. 

Sarra 194 

Sarsina 78 

Sarunetes 44 
Sarus Fl. 166 
Satala 181 

Satumi Pr. 60 
Saturnia 67. 83 
Saturnia M. 83 
Salyronim Ise. 

Satyrorum Pr. 


Sauloe Parthau- 

nisa 237 

Sauromats 251 

Saus Fl. 45 


Sams Fl. 45. 268 
Sazones 38 

Saxonicum Lit« 

tus 29. 53 
Scalabis 66 

Scamander Fl. 

Scandia 41 

ScaDdiffi lae. 

Quatuor 41 
Scandinavia 41 
Scapte Ilyle 113 
Scardona 47 
Scardona I. 47 
Scardus M. 107 
Scarphe 132 

Scepsis 169 

Scetis 289 

Scheria I. 128 
Schoenus 4 

Sciathus I. 157 
Scillus 147 

Sciritis 153 

Scironides Petrs 
Scirtus Fl. 215 
Scodra 47 

Scodrus M. 47 
Scollis M. 120 
Scolots 259 

Scombraria Pr. 

Scombrus M. 

Scomius M. 107 
Scopelus 157 
Scordisci 45 

Scoti 25 

Scotussa 124 
Scrico-Finni 42 
Scultenna Fl. 73 
Scupi 117 

Scyathis 289 
ScydissesM. 165. 
Scylaceum 97 
Scylax Fl. 174 
Scylla 97 

ScylljBumPr. 150 
Scylleticus S. 97 
Scylletium 97 
Scyros I. 157 
Scyths 258 

Scythia 258 


Scythia extra 

Imaum 260 
Scythia intra 

Imaum 259 
Scythia Parva 

Scythiaca Regio 
Scythopolis 20S 
Sebaste 179.180. 
Sebastopolis 209 

Ost. 290 

Sebennytus 292 
Sedan- Aram 215 
Seduni 56 

Segalauni 57 
Segedunum 20 
Segesta 102 

Segobia 68 

Segobriga 64 
Segontium 30 
Segus Fl. 37 
Segusiani 55 
Seir M. 225 

Selah 226 

Selentis 186 

Seleucia 221 
Seleucia ad Be* 

lum 190 

Seleucia ad Mare 
Seleucia Pieria 

Seleucia Trachea 
Selga 185 

Selgovffi 31 

Seli . 279 

Selinuntis Ther- 
ms 102 
Selinus 102. 186 
Selinus Fl. 146 
Sellasia 153 
Selleis Fl. 126 
Selli 128 
Selymbria 112 
Semene 300 
Semiramidis Mu* 
rus 221 
Semnonee 41 
Sena i£st 3t 
SenaFl. 88.78 


Sena I. 54 

BenaGallica 78 
Sena Julia 77 
Senia 47 

Senones 54. 78 
Senonia 54 

Sepias Pr. 184 
Sepphoris 201 
Septem Fratres 

M. 265 


Oceanus 26 
Sequana Fl. 51 
Sequani 53 

Sera 261 

Serapidisl. 229 
Serdica 109 

Seres 260 

Serica 260 

Serioda 246 

Seriphos I. 160 
Serrorum M*. 105 
Serviodurum 43 
Senis Fl. 250 
Sesamos 172 
Sestus 112 

Severinum Val- 
lum 26 
Severus M. 79 
Sextis Aq. 57 
Sharon, Valley of 


















Siambis I. 

Siata I. 



Sicani 60. 82. 98 

Sicania I. 98 

Sicanus Fl. 60 

Sicca Veneria 

Sichem 202 

Sicilia I. 08 

Sicinos I. 160 
Sicoris Fl. 60 
Siculi 76. 82. 98 
Siculum Mare 68 

Sicyoa 145 

Sicyoaia 145 
Siddim, Vale of 

Side 173. 185 
Sideni 223 

Sidenus Fl. 173 
Sidicini 89 

Sidon 194 

Sidonians 198 
Sidonu 194 

Siga 267 

Sigeum Pr. 164 
Signia 87 

Sihor Fl. 286 
Silanis Fl. 95 
SUis Fl. 232 
Silla Fl. 218 
Silo 202 

Silva Herculi 

Sacra 85 

Silures 30 

Simeon 198 

Simois Fl. 168 
Sin 290 

Sins 250. 260 
Sinai, Desert of 


Sinai M. 225 

Sinarum intimus 

S. 250 

Sinarum Metrop. . 

Sinarum Regio 

Sincar 235 

Sinda 250 

Sindae Is. 250 
Sindocanda 247 
Sindus Fl. 245 
Sinerva 181 

Singara 216 

Sing^ras M. 215 
Singidunum 108 
Singiticus S. 116 
Singus 116 

Sinites 198 

Sinnaca 216 
Sinope 88. 172 
Sinti 116 

Sinuessa 88 

Sion 204 

Siphnos I. 159 
Sipontum 93 
Sippara 248 

Sipus 93 

Sipylus M. 176 
Siraceni 258 
Sirbitum 299 
Sirbonis P. 290 
Sirenusanim Pr. 
Siris 05 

Siris Fl. 286 
Sirmio 73 

Sisapo Vetus 66 
Sisar Fl. 267 
Sisara P. 272 
Sissa I. 47 

Sitace 221 

Sitbonia 115 
8itifis 268 

Silones 42 

Sittacene 221 
Sittianorum Co- 

Ionia 270 

Sittocatis FL 248 
Sizyges 261 

Smaxagdus M. 

Smjrma 175 
Smymsus S« 175 

Regio 228 
Soana Fl. 211 
SocandaFl. 236 
Sodom 190 

Sogdi 246 

Sogdiana 241 
Sogdii M>. 242 
Soli 186 

Solis Aq. 29 

Solis Fons 284 
Solis M. 265 
Soloe 186. 196 
Solois Pr. 265 
Solorius M. 59 
Solvenda £z- 

trema 305 
Solyma M. 184 
Solymi 178.183 
Sonus Fl. 248 
Sophene 214 
Sor 195 

Soracte M. 77 
Sorbiodunum 29 
Sorek Fl. 206 
Soretanum Para- 

lia 247 

Sotiates 56 

Sotiatum dpp. 

Sozopolis 111 
Sozousa 282 
Spalatum 47 
Sparta 151 

Spartaiius (Cam- 
pus 65 
Spasinu Charax 

Spatana 247 
Spauta L. 215 
SpeluDca 86 
Sperchius F1.1SS 
Sphacteria 1. 154 
Sphaeria I. 150 
Sphagia I. 154 
Spina 74 

Sporades Is. 160 
Stabiae 90 

SUchir Fl. 305 
Stadia Olympica 
Stadia Pythica 4 
Stadium 141 
Stagira 116 


Campus 154 
Stenyclenis 154 
Stoa Basileiot 

StoaPoecile 140 
Stobi 117 

Stragona 41 
Stratonicea 183 
Stratos 129.146 
Stratonis Tunis 

Strobilus M. 209 
Strongyle I. 163 
Strophades Its. 

Strymon Fl. 115 
Stiymonicus S. 

Stympbei 128 
Stymphalus 149 
Stymphalus L. 

Stymphe M. 128 
Styx Fl. 149 
Suardones 38 
Sublicius Pons 


SoboT Fl. 205 
Suburra 83 

Succoram An- 
' gustis 109 
Sacro 64 

Bhcto Fl. 64 

Sadeti M>. 35 
Soessa Auninca 

Bnessiones 52 
Shievi 41 

Snevia . 41 

Suericiun Mare 

Snfetula 278 
Somus Fl. 78 
Saiones 42 

Sulci 104 

Solcitanus Ps. 

Salmo 81 

Eumere 219 

Suniom Pr. 141 
Superum Mare 

Sura . 191. 210 
Surrentinnm Pr. 

Sairentam 90 
Sus Fl. 117 

Susa 234 

Sosiana 233 
SasadaU 88 
S^grosPr. 229 
Sybarift 95 

Syboris Fl. 95 
SyboU Ps. 127 
^char 202 

J^nu 246 

Syebi 259 

Syene 296 

^msBthus 103 
Bymplegades lee. 
Synnada 178 
Syraco P. 100 
Syracusee 100 
Syracusanus S. 

Syrastra 246 
Syrastreae 246 
Syria 187 

Syria inter £uvios 

Syria Super* 190 
SyrisPyls 188 
Syrias Pr. 165 
l^nx 237 

Syro-Media 236 

Syros I. 160 

Syrtis Major 278 
Syrtis Minor 276 
Tabiene 237 
Tabor M. 201 
Tabraca 270 
Taburnus M. 02 
Tacapa 277 

Tacosanna Fl. 

Tadmor 192 
Tadu I. 299 
Tsnarium Pr. 

Taezali 32 

TttzalumPr. 26 
Tagaste 270 
Tagrus M. 69 
Tagus Fl. 60 
Tahpanhees 291 
TalJara 247 

Tamarus Fl. 27 
Tamasea 196 
Tamassus 196 
Tamesis iEst. 27 
Tamesis Fl. 
Tanais Fl. 



Tanarus Fl. 
Taniticum Ost. 

Taphiassus M. 

TaphitisPr. 275 
Taphras 256 

Taphros 104 

Taprobana I. 

TapuraBi 259 
Tapuri 240 

Taras 94 

Tarbclli 56 

Taieatinus S. 94 
Tarentum 94 


Tarpeia Rupes 

Tarquinii 76 
Tarracina 87 
Tarraco 62 

Tarraconeosis 61 
Tarshish 186 
Tarshish, Sea of 
Tarsus 186 

Tartarus Fl. 72 
Tartessus 66 
Tartessus Fl. 61 
Tartessus I. 66 
Tarvedrum Pr. 


Tasconi 58 

Tastache 237 
Tathyris 296 
Tatta P. 179 
Tavium 179 

Taulantii 115 
Tauresium 116 
Tauri 255 

Taurica Chers. 

Taunni 72 

Taurisci 45. 47 
Tauromenium 99 
Taurunum 46 
Taurus M. 105 
TaxUa 245 

Taygetus M. 154 
Teanum 89 

Teanum Apulum 

Teate 81 

Tecoa 205 

Tectosaces 259 
Tectosages 179 
Tedanius Fl. 47 
Tegea 148 

Teichines 163 
Telchinia I. 161 
TelebcaB 128 
Telmissus 183 
Telmissicus S. 

Telo Martins 57 
Telonius Fl. 80 
Telos I. 163 

Tema 227 


TemalaFl. 249 
TemalaPr. 249 
Temenitis Fona 

Temesa 97 

Temmices 1 35 
Temuos M. 168 
Tempe 121 

Templum Pacis 

Tempsa 97 

Tencteri 39 

Tenea 145 

Tenedos I. 162 
Tenericus Cam- 
pus 137 
Tenos I. 159 
Tentyra 294 
Teos 17.'J 
Tephrice 181 
TerabdonS. 239 
Teredon 222 
Tergeste 75 
Tergestinus S. 

Terina 97 

Terinaeus S. 97 
Terioli . 44 
Termessus 185 
Tetrica M. 79 
Teuchira 281 
Teucii 167 

Teuscones 34 
Teuthrania 168 

Saltus 35 

Teutones 34 

Tela 216 

Thabudeos 270 
Thagora 250 
I'haguri 261 

Thala 278 

Thambes M. 270 
Thamna 202 
Thamnitica 202 
Thapsa 270 

Thapsacus 191 
Thapsus 276 
Thapsus Chers. 

Tharro I. 230 
Thasos I. 156 
Thaumaci 125 
Thebao 137. 228. 


Tbeba Phthioti- 1 



ThebticaPhylara ] 





Tl^^en M 











ThwrnOcheinB | 


Theounroiopon ] 



Thera I. 




Theriodes S 



TheimffiusS. 116{ 



Thetmodon I'l. | 












ThojaluE CBmpi | 













Thoas Fl. 







ThriasiuaCam- | 









Thule S3. 42 \ 



Tharifera Regr'o | 


Tomi 101 

Tophet 301 

Tomadonu F). 


Thjoi no. 178 
ThyniaiPr. Ill 
Thyrea IS I 

Tibaleni ITS 
Tibareni 173 
TibeHas SOI 
Tiberias, Sea of 
Tiberina I. 63 
Tiberii n. 70 
Tibiicus 106 
TibbcusFl. 106 
Tibisus Fl. 108 
Tibula 104 

libur 86 

Ticiuum 72 

Ticinus Fl. 73 
Tifala M. 88 
Tifernus Fl. 92 
Hgiana 235 
Tigranocerta 214 
-ipuFl. "- 

a.vemptiiB F 


Toroce 116.127 
Toiandri 52 

Trachiaa 87 

Trachiola I2S 
Trachis 12B 


Traens Fl. 06 
Tragurium 47 
TriEus Fl. 149 
Tniaoi Pi. 76 
TrajanopoliB 186 
TiajaDus Fl. 291 
Trajectua 61 
Trallea 176 

TraDstiberiiia 86 
Trapciua 173 
Traa^ 110 

TiausuB Fl. 110 
TrebU Fl. 7S 
Tremitiu I. 93 


Tin^ Fl. 78 
Tiparenus I. 150 
Tiryna 150 

TirjDthua 150 
TUsus M. 120 



Tmolua M. 
Tobius Fl. 28 
TolwlMuBn. 27. 

Trittei 146 

TriWn Fl. 377 
Tiiloais P. 27T. 
Tnumviionm I. 
Troas 167. 16* 

Troemi 17* 

Tfceieno 150 
TrogUinnm Pa. 
Tiogilium Pr. 



Fl. 108 
Timanis Fl. 75 
Timavus L. 76 
TiiDDalh Seiah 




Tridealini 44 

Trideatum 44 

Trieron Pr. 278 

Triglyphoa 249 
Trileucum Pr. 59 

Trinacria I. 98 



TnwIodytB *M 
Troja 109.288 

TroicusM. MS 

Tnxini 108 
TnieDtas Fl. 79 

Trybactia 149 

Tubal Sie 

Tabaotes 40 

TucciaFl. 18 

Tude «l 

TnedaFI. 17 

Tnesui Fl. 18 


Tungii £9 

Tnonocehim M 

rnrcffi 358 

Tnrdetaoi 65 

Tonlitaaia 6t 

TnrdiiU 65 

Turia Fl. 64 

Tarnacum S3 

Tnrooet S4 

Tuioni 4» 

Tnnilii Fl. 64 
Tomnnis a, 913 

TuBca n. 870 

Tusci 75 

Tnsculutn 86 

ToBCOB V». 86 

Tiipolis 148. 194. 


Tolistoboii 179 Ttipolitana 378 

Tolosa S8 \ T™i[i«.to\. «6 

. Tyac 

. TyaD 
T>na Fl. 
Tjphon n. 




■^ 75. 119 

}i. 68 

|A 75.119 







L. 76 

Fl. 50 




knes 53 
bias FL 258 

m 63 

d 38 

• FL 57 
Hws 62 

mmmPr. 68 

anus M. 85 


■ I. 








dici M>. 252 
lift Ps. 58 
ti 54. 74 
tia 54. 74 
tic» Is. 54 
liisL. 43 
90iites 32 
licnii 33 
icnium Pr. 

0iies 44 
ites 44 



Venta Icenoium 
VenmiA 94 

Vera 235 

Verhaaus L. 72 
Verbeia Fl. 27 
VergellusFl. 94 
Vergivium Mare 
Verodunenses 58 
Verolamium 80 
Veromaodui 52 
Verona 74 

Vesaspe 235 
Vescmus S. 88 
Vescitani 62 
Vesontio 53 

Vestim 81 

Vesulus M. 68 
Vesuvius M. 89 
VeUones 66 

Vetulonii 76 
Viadrus Fl. 37 
Via Lata 84 
Vibonensis S. 97 
Vibo Valentia 97 
Vicentia 74 

Vicus Varius 80 
Vidua Fl. 33 
Viducasses 54 
Vienna 56 

Viennensis 56 
Viminacium 108 
Viminalis M. 83 
Vinceia 108 

Vindelici 42 

Vindelicisl 42 
Vindili 38 

Vindilis I. 54 
VindiusM. 245 
Vindo Fl. 42 
Vindobona 46 
Vinili 38 

Vinius Fl. 88 
Vinnius M. 59 
Virgi 66 

Virgitanus S. 66 
Viroconium 30 
Virta 216 

Virvedrum Pr. 26 
Virunum 45 

Visigoths 38 

Vistula Fl. 37 
Visurgis ¥1. 87 
Ulai Fl. 234 
UUanis I. 66 
Ulterior Ps. 52 
Umbri 77 

Umbria 77 

Unelli 54 

Vocesus M. 50 
Vocetius M. 50 
VocoQtii 57 

Vodi» 84 

Volaterrs 76 
Voles Arecomici 

Voles Tectosages 

Voices P. 46 
Voliba 29 

Vologesia 221 
Volsci 87 

Voltumns Fa- 

num 77 

VolubilU 266 
Voluntii 34 

Volustana 114 
Vomanus Fl. 79 
Ur 216 

Urbinum Hor- 

tense 78 

Urchoa 222 

Urei 66 

Urcinium 104 
Una 93. 97 

Urias S. 93 

Ursaria 75 

Usaletus M. 277 
Usar Fl. 267 
Usipii 39 

Ustica I. 103 
Utica 272 

Vulcanis Is. 

Vulsiniensis L. 

Vulsinii 77 

Vultur M. 93 
VulturnusFl. 89 
Uxantis I. 54 
Uxellodunum •55 
Uxii 234 

Uz, Land of 227 


Watling Strut 

Xantbus 184 
Xanthus Fl. 126. 
168. 184 
Xera 66 

Xylenopolis 243 
Xynis 125 

Xynias L. 125 
Zaa 800 

ZabatusFL 318 
Zabus FL 218. 

Zabus Minor FL 

Zacynthus 130 
Zacynthus I. 130 
Zadracarta 236 
Zagrs Pyls 217 
Zalace 235 

Zalissa 210 

ZamaRegia 271 
Zancle 99 

Zaradrus Fl. 246 
Zarangsi 239 
Zarephath 194 
Zariaspa 241 
Zariasps 241 
Zariaspes Fl. 241 
Zeboim 190 

Zebulun 198 
Zela 174 

Zeleia 170 

Zemarites 198 
Zenobia 191 

Zephyrium Pr. 

97. 186 
Zemes 106 

Zeugis 270 

Zeugitana 270 
Zeugma 191 
Zichi 258 

Zidon 194 

Zilis 266 

Zimara 249 

Zion 204 

Zipb 205 

Zoan 292 

Zona 113 

Zorombis Fl. 289 


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The arrangement of the Chapters in the following 
Praxis corresponds with that of the " Grammar of 
Ancient Geography " to which it refers ; and the order 
of the Questions in the one follows that of the account 
of people, countries, and places, given in the other. 

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Chapter. Page. 

I. Orbis TeiTarum - - - -- - - -1. 

II. Europa --------- i. 

III. Asia ----------2. 

IV. Africa vel Libya --------2. 

V. Insulae BritannicaB ------,3, 

VI. Germania ------- --4, 

VII. Vindelicia, Rhaetia, Noricum, Fannonia, et Illyricum - 5. 

VIII. Gallia 6. 

IX. Hispania et Insulae -----.-8. 
X. Italia Septentrionalis ----.--9, 

XI. Italia Media II. 

. XII. Italia Meridiooalis ---•-•« is. 

XIII. Dacia, Moesia, Tfarada, et Macedonia - • - - 15. 

XIV. Graecia Septentrionalis ------- 17. 

XV. Graecia Meridionalis ------- 19, 

XVI. Greta et Insulae Maris ^gaei ----- 22. 

XVII. Asia Minor - * 24. 

XVIII. Syria et Cyprus 1 27. 

XIX. Palaistina vel Terra Sancta ------ 28. 

XX. Colchis, Iberia, Albania, Armenia, Mesopotamia, Assyria, 

et Babylonia vel Chaldaea - - - - - - 31. 

XXI. Arabia ---------34, 

XXII. Imperium Fersicum -------36. 

XXIII. Indiae et Sinanim Regio • . . - . . 37, 

XXIV. Sarmatia, Scythia, et Serica ------ 89. 

XXV. Africa Septentrionalis - - • - - ' - - 41. 

XXVI. ^gyptus -• 44. 

XXVII. ^Ethiopia et Libya Interior ---.-. 46. 




1.* WEKE the Ancients well acquainted with the figure and extent of tho 
Earth 1 2.* To what did they liken it? 3.* What originally was their idea 
about the Ocean ? 4.* Did this opinion undergo any change? 6.* How did 
they subsequently divide the ocean 1 6.* What were their notions about 
the Caspian Sea and the Indian Ocean? 7.* Were they at all acquainted 
with America ; and which of their islands is supposed to have referred to it ? 
8.* What portion of the Eastern Hemisphere did they know ? 9,* Describe 
the limits of their knowledge in Europe, Asia, and Africa. 10.* How did 
th^ divide their Orbis Terrarum? 11.* How were these sections divided 
from each other? 

12.* Mention the principal chains of mountains in Europe known to ihs 
Ancients, with their modem names. 13.* Also of Asia. 14.* A,\so of 
Africa. 16.* W^ith what great rivers of Europe were the Ancients ac- 
quainted, and what are now their names ? 16.* Mention those which thej 
knew in Asia ; 17*. and in Africa. 



1 * How was Europa bounded? 2.* Whence did the poets derive its 
name; and what is its size compared with the other continents? 3.* De- 
scribe the range of the Pyrenees. 4* Also the Alps and Hemus. 6.* 
Also the Apennines. 6.* How/are M. Findus and Sunium Pr. connected? 
7.* Describe the course of the Hercynii M^ 8.* Where is Sevo M. ? 
9.* What do you know about the Hyperborei or Rhipeei M*".? 

10.* Point out the situations of Hispania and Galha, and give the various 
names by which they wefe known. 11.* What were the ancient names of 
the British Islest ^uia what about them ? 12.* What ancient countries cor- 
responded with what we now call Germany ? 13.* Describe Italia and its 
islands. 14.* Where was Illyricum, and what modem countries did it in- 
clude ? 16.* Where were Hellas, Macedonia, and Thracia ? 16.* How wai 
Crete situated ? 17.* What do you remember ayxml^c^T^mvnaL ^sA ^vl- 
'matia EuropeML 7 18, . Enumerate the piincipal co\LXLtn«%o\ '&xk^\«a\.'^&^as»^. 

Asia — Africa vel Libya, chap. hi. iv. 

0,» Mention the principal rivers of Spain, with Aeir ancient and modem 
les, 20.' Also of (iau). 21.* Also of the Insula Britaooicffi, 22.* 

Also of Germania. 23." Also of Ilaiy. 24,' Describe the R. Danubins. 

— ' What Iribntariea has it! 20.» Wbat rivers can you menlioo in Sai- 

' How was Asia bosodedl 2.* What k 
^ .' condsents 1 3.* In what manner baa it 1 

aid the Anc___._ :_._._ : _. _:: __ 

EtHifined sense, and how 1 6.* Describe the ci 

re M. Nipbates, the Carduchii M'., and M. Zagrcs, connected! 6.* 
Where ia the range of the Anti-Taurus'. 9.' What do yon remember about 
]U. Cancaans! 10* Give the sitnationa of Caspius M. and Paiopamiaus 
'■" "" • Where were the EmodiM',, and how vraa the range of the Imaua 
conuected with tbem 1 

12.* How were Asia Minor, Syria, and Arabia situated, and by what 
tunes are they now known? 13* What ancient countries can you raenbon 
Mtween the Euiioe and Caspian Seas 1 14,* Point out the siluadoD of 
liUtyria, Mesopotamia, and Babylonia: by whitt great riven vntfe Aey 
■vateied, and how were they collectively distinguished 1 16.* Whtreaboutt 
*ru the Gieat Persian Empire, and of wital provinces wiu it compcxedl 
}A.* How was India divided! 17.* Whatconatriea lay beyond India totba 
£astwaid1 Itj.* Describe the situation and divisions of Scythia. 19.* Ho" 
~'Bie Bactriana and Sogdiana bounded 7 20* With what modera coanlry 
. id Sarmatia Asiatica correspond 1 21.* How did the Ancients define the 
iNorthern boundaries of Sarmatia, Scylhia, and Serica 7 22. Enuttkcrate the 
Iflrincipal countries of ancient Asia. 

I 23,* Mention the principal rivers of Asia Minorand Syria. 24.* Also of 
iSlrmatia Asiatica. 2a.* Also of Armenia and Assyiia. 20 * Where were 
Me rivers Amardus and Socanda! 2T.* What riven can you meDliiHi in 
rArianal 26.* What do you know about the Oiua, the laxarles, and the 
H^xl 29.* Where is the river Indus? 30.* What other gi 

therein India intiaGangeml 31.* By what rivers is India eilra 
'wttered! 32.* Wliat do you recollect about the Cotiaris and Baul 



.* Had Africa any other name? 2.* Howwas ilbouodedl 3.*WeK 
ancients acquainted ndth its Southern part! 4. What is the aiieof 
ica compared witb Europe ? 5. Is it cnitivated, and why did the An- 
eienls iikeo it to a Panther's skini 6. How were tlie names Africa and 
Jubya at first applied, and how did the Greeks and Komans employ them I 
'f. Wbeoce did the poeta derive Ibem, and what appears tu he their Inie 
■ igini 8* Describe Atlas M. 9,* What do you know about Liby» 
pserta? 10.' Where was Mens Ater, and what aboutitl IL* llow ii 
(Ae vaJJe/oflhe Nileinclw^d? 12* Describe the Luax Mi". 

13.' Where was Utautelania, an4 \ia»i •«»» 'i\, tawslY di'ided! H* 
What caa you wentioQ about vW liiQsinoi mA ^tisremt AlS-smili*! 

9HAP. V. IusuUb BritannictB. 3 

4^,* Where was the province of Africa, and how ii^aB it sul»e(|iient]y 
'idiyided? 16.* How was the province of Libya situated and subdivided t 
L7.* Give the limits and subdivisions of Egypt. 18 * Where was ^thionia 
. sub JEgypto, an4 with what modem countries did it correspond 1 19.* What 
empires did it contain? 20.* Where was Gsetulia? 21.* Where were 
Phazania and the country of the Garamantes ? 22.* By what names was 
the remainder of Africa known ? 23.* By what name was Madeira an- 
ciently known? 24.* Where were the Fortunatse Insulas ? 25.* Were the 
Ancients acquainted with the Cape Verde Islands and the Azores? 26.* 
Where was Dioscoridis 1,1 27. Enumerate the principal countries of 

28.* Mention the principal rivers of Mauretania; 29.* Deseribe the rivers 
Savus and Bagradas. 30.* Repeat what you know about the R. Nile and 
its tributaries. SI.* Where was the R. GirT 32.* Give the course of the 
Kigir, and mention some particulars about it 1 33.* With what rivers were 
the Ancients acquainted in the Western part of Africa 1 



!•* What were the names of the lae. BritannicaB ? 2.* ^Vhich is the 
larger, and what was its size compared with the other islands with which the 
AncieDts were acquainted ? 3.* Where were the Cassiterides, and whence 
was their name? 4.* How were the Phoenicians connected with them) 
^. What origin is assigned to the names Albion and Britannia? 6. Why 
Ireland called Sacra or Hiera I. ? 7. Who were the Druids ? 8» 

Whence did they derive their appellation, and what was their employment ? 
9. By what people did Cssar find Britain inhabited, and what particulars 
can you mention about them ? 10. Where did the Caledonii dwell, and by 
what name are they now known? 11. Where were the Msatae cantoned? 
12» What do you know abou^t the Ficti and Scoti, and whence are they 
thought to have obtained these names ? 13. Why and when did Cssar in- 
vade Britain ? 14. Mention some particulars concerning the power of the 
Bomans in Britain. 15. What is the history of Agricola's WaU in Britain ? 
Id. Also of the Vallum Hadriani and the Vallum Antonini? 17. Also of 
t)ie Vallum Severinum ? 

18.* How was Albion bounded? 19.* What about the Strait rf Dwert 
20.* Where was M. Grampius? 21. Mention some of the chief capes of 
Great Britain, with their modern names. 22.* Describe the R. Tamesis. 
23.* Also the Sabrina. 24. Give the coui-ses of the two rivers called Au- 
fona. 25. What are the modem hamcs of the Rivers Trisanton, Alaunus, 
Isca, and Tamarus, and where are they situated ? 26. How are the Abus, 
Derventio, and Verbeia connected? 27. Describe the Vedra, Tina, and 
Tueda. 28. What is the Ituna now called ? 29* Mention the ancient and 
modem names of some of the Welsh rivers. 30. Also some of the Caledo- 
nian rivers. 

' SI.* Enumerate the provinces into which the Romans divided Britain. 32* 
Had Ihsj any other divisions, and what were they ? 33.* In what part of 
England vr?& Britannia Prima situated, and by what tribes was it inhabited T 
34. Wfaatdo vou know about Vectis I. ? 35. Mention the situation and 
chief towns of the CantiL 36. Also of the Re^L 37. Also of the Atne- 
batii. 38. Also of the Bellas. 39. Also of the Durotriges* 4A. AUft ^ 
the Danuumii. 41 • For what purpose did the Baidaia ma^ ^ xsaskMik ^^^ 

• • - • a2 

Germania. CHAP. vi. 

Cawilerideil 42.* In what part of En^iand was FUvia Cssanensis sitn- 
aled, and by wbat tribes was It inbabited ! 43. Mcnlion the aituation and 
chief t<nriisor(heTriDObaii(e<i. 44. Also of ihe CattieaehlaDL 45. .4ba 
efthe Dobuai. 46. Also of the Comani, 47. Also of the Coritani. i&. 
Also of the Iceni, with Ihe hislojy of Boadicea. 

49.' What part of Grmi Brilaia did firitsQnia Secunda include, and b; 
what tribes was it iohabiled! 50. What was the aacieat name of the /. ^' 
Amglatg, and for what is it remarkable? SI. Mentioa the situatioa ami 
ohief towns of the Ordovices. 62. Also of the Dimetn. S3. Also of III* 
Silures, with the history of Caraclacus. 64.* IV'hat couoliei did Maiiaa 
Ceesanensis include 1 55 * Wbat dn you know about the Btigantes ^ S6. 
Mention someof tbeii chief towns. ST. What was (he ancieal aame of Ihe 

68.' What part of Grenl Britain did Valenlia include, and what tribes 
were cantoned in it) 50. Menlion the sicuatinn and chief lowos of the Ot- 
ladinl 60. Also of the Gadeni. GI. Also of the Selgovr. 69. AUo of 
the Novants. 63. Also of the Damnii. 64.* What part of Grnt firfttin 
did the proiince of Caledonia fomprehend, and how was it inhabited) 
6S." What paniculara do you remember alioul Ihe Caledonia Silva! 6B. 
Mention some of the tribes that inhabited Caledonia. 67. VVbal can jou 
mentinn about the Ebudes Ic? 68. Abnut the Orcades ls.1 G9. Abool 
Thule I 70. By what names are the feuF groat Roman roads in Brilain now 

TI.* What other name had Hilwniia, and how is it situated with respeci 
to Crcol Britain! 72. BlentioQ its chief capes. 73.* Describe the rivers 
Sena and Libnius. 74.* What nlher great rivers are there in Ireland ? 
T9. What countios did the Dami, Libnii, and Meoapii, inhabit? 76. 
Whereabouts did the Iverni, Concani, and Erdioi, dweU I 77. Mention the 
^^ mcient names of Eome of Ihe Irish towns. ^^^ 

^B !.■ How wai Germania bounded? 2, Whence were the names Germani, 
^^ Teutone!, and Alemanni, derived, and how were they ajiptled ) S. What 

_ Describe the Hercynia Silva. S." What occurred at Idistavisus Campus 
' and Siltus Teuloburgiensis, and whereabouts were Iheae places? 6. What 
were the mountains enclosing; Bohemia anciently failed? 7. How was 
Asciburgius Mans connected with them, and what other mountains did il 

8.' Point out the source and course of the Danube. Q.' Also of the 
Rhioe. 10. By how many mouths did the Diaube cater the Euiine. acid 
what about them? It. Bj how many mouths did the Rhine enlai iKe 
North Sea, and what about them? 12. Where were Ihe rivers Amlsia, 
Visurgis, and Albis? 13. Give the course of Ihe Viadnu aod Vistula. 14. 
Also of Ihe German tributaries of Ihe Rhine. 

IS.* Into how many classes were the inhabilants of Geimany divided' 
16." Give their names. IT.' Mention the thief tribes of the Vindili. IM.' 
OflheIng»vones, 19.* Ofihe litinvones. 20.' OftbeHei-mioues. Ml." 
Of the l^ei^umates Agri. 32. Where did the AngU dwell, and wbat about 
IhsfD 2 S3. For what were the Electnieiltt. «ji4 vW B.. Eridnnus ftmousl 
me particulan about Hie UoVltu. tii. WtivS.'iniit'^iia^viiiaa. 


,ciiAP. yii* Vindeltcia — RluRtia — Noiicum. 5 

M. About the LanpibtrdL 27. What can you mention about the inha- 
bitants of the Cimbnca Chenonesns 1 28. Whera did the Sazones originally 
dwell 1 29. For what were they remarkable, and how were they connected 
with the Francil SO. What about the Cauci and Dulgumniil 81. Where 
did the Frisii dwell, and what occurred in their territory 1 

32. What people were the most Northern amongst the Istsvones ? 33. 
What do yon remember about the Sicarobri ? 34. About the Ubii 1 35. 
.Abont the Mattiadl Sd. What other tribes can you name amongst the 
Istsvones? 37. Give the history of the Cherusci. 38. Of the Catti. 39. Of 
.the Hennnndnri. 40. Where did the Juthungi and Quadi dwell? 41. 
Mention some towns amongst the Lygii. 42. Relate what you know about 
the Boii and Marcomanni. 43. What about the Semnones? 44. Who 
were the Sueri? 46. Whence did the Decumates Agri obtain their name f 
46. How were they defended ? 47. What tribes dwelled there 1 

46.* Were die Ancients well acquainted with Scandinavia? 49.* By 
what other names did they know it, aod what were their notions about it? 
60.* To what mod. countries did they apply the names Bergi and Nerieos? 
51.^ Were they acquainted with the 'North Cape 1 62. What appellations 
did they give to the Baltic Sea, and whence did they obtain them ? 53. 
Mention some of the Scandinavian tribes. 64. Whence are the Sweda sup- 
posed to have obtained their name ? 66. What about the Finni? 



1.* Give the boundaries of Vindelicia? 2.* Upon what countries did it 
touch ? 3.* Whence did its inhabitants derive their name, and who were 
they ? 4. Describe the course of the R. .^nus. 6. What other rivers can 
you mention in Vindelicia? 6. What do you remember about the metro- 
polis of Vindelicia ? 7. Mention some other towns in the same province ? 


8.* Give the limits of Rhaetia Propria. 9.* U'hat modem countries did it 
contain ? 10.* Was the name ever used in an extended sense, and how I 
11.* Who were the Rhsti, and how were they connected with the Romans? 
12. Describe the Alpes Rhsetics. 13. What do you know about Venetus 
L. ? 14. What about the rivers Addua and Atagis ? 16. Where did the 
Lepontii dwell, and what fable was connected with them? 16. Where did 
the Genauni, Vennones, and Culicones, dwell? 17. What about the Tri- 
dentini and their capital ? 18. Whence has the Ti/rol obtained its name? 
19. Where did the Breones dwell ? 20. What can you mention about the 


' 21.* Give the boundaries of Noricum. 22.* What modem countries did 
it include? 23.* Were the Norici ever subjected by the Romans, and 
why? 24. Describe the Alpes Noricae. 26. With what other mountains 
. were they connected ? 26. What is the modem name of Jovavus fl. ? 27. 
Describe the R. Draus. 28. Which was its greatest tributary ? 29. Men- 
tion the chief towns of Noricum. 


80.* Give the limits of Pannonia. 31.* Upon what countries did it bor- 
der T B2,* Wliat modem provinces did it coQUml ^^ \< «t« ^^^'uasisiKsx 

▲ 3 


/$ Pannonia — Illyricum — Gallia. chap, viii, 

.JBoqueted by lie Romans, aodhowl 84, Describe Psumonmi Mods. SS. 
Whal about ibe R.Airabol 3e. Describe Snus fl. 3T. What lakei can 
Qpounamcin Pannoma? 38. What are the modem names of VmdoboDa 
iiuul AquiDcuni, and where were the; iLluated! 39. What were the ancient 
atmes of Pea and Semlin, and how were they situated 1 

40.* By what mher names was Illytiuum known? 41* Give its btmn- 
.Auies. a.' Upon what other countries did il touch ? 43.* Whal modero 
■iTOvinces did il comprehEud) 44. Mention the iwo great divisions of Illj- 
aicum, and how they were separated. 46. Wbat tbont the prtmnce Frteva- 
JUUBaT 4G. For what teas Libumia famed? 47. What particulars can 
•yen mention about the Illjriana ? 48. Describe Albanus Mons. 4D. With 
what other mountains was it connected? SO. What do you know about 
jaufoilus and .^rnona? SI. Mention the capitals of the lapydei and La- 
ttvici, md why the former was remarkable. S2. Whence did Klnns llani- 
■tiBna obtain its name? 53. What were the attcient names of Segaa, Zura.aad 
-Ssorrfona? 64, Where was Tragurium ? 66. Describe Saloua, 86. Why 
■Ms Delminium remarkable? ST. What do you know about Naioaa and 

SylUt PenioBula? 56. Whal rendered Epidaums famoai? 59. Which was 
a SouIhemmMt ei^ of Illyricum? 60. Where was Seodra, ajid what 

|. 61. Whereabouts were the Absyrlides lo?., and why are they remarkabli!? 
01. Mention the Northernmost of Ibem. 63. What are the modern names of 

Scarduna and Fhams ! 64. Of Boas and itrittia, and what makes them 
iroilhy of nodce ! 65. Whence did Corc^ra Nigra obtains its name? 66. 
■iff hat about Mel ita, aud is there another island <rf this nwnel 


!.• How was Gallia bounded? 2.* Did il contain !he same eirteni of 
'conntry IS the modern kingdom of France? 3.* By what other appellations 
'WIS it known? 4.* How was it originally divided? 5.* Give the respective 
'sitaaltoBs of these three nations. 6.* Where was the Roman territoiy in 
■Osnl, and hv what epithets did they designate il 1 7.' Was ihe eiteni of 
-these four divisions subsequently changed, and when? S.* In what pari 
.of Ae eonntry wasBeigica? 9,* Whereabouts was Celtica, and why was 

it railed Lngdnnensis? 10.* Where were the other two ditisions situated, 
'and nhjwas ihe Roman province called Narbonensis? 
•. 11.' Give the direction of the Pyreniei M', la.* Desoribe Cebenoa M, 

13.* Where was Vocesns M. 1 H.' What about Jura M. 1 IS.* Wh«l 

chain ofmountains separated Gaul from Italy? 16.* Give the course of the 
,B., Rhine. 17.* Of tlie Mosella. 18.* How is the Mota connecled with 

fheVahalis? 19." Describe Ihe Sequana and its tributuies. 20." Give 

the course of the Ligerand Garumna. 31.* Describe the Rhodanus. 

■' 21." How was the great province of Belgica subdivided? 83." Whal 

iibaul Belgium. 24. What modem provinces didGermaniaSecunda ctmnin? 
"M. Where did the Batavi dwell, and what about ihem and iheir eitieal 

26. Where were the Giigerni and Vbii cantoned? 27. Mention some lowm 
ofthehtler, !iS. What has rendered the Eburones remarkable? 80. De- 
scribe Anlueana Siiva, 311. W^ia.lrooienv v^^Kiffiia did. Belgica Socunda 
coataittl 31. Give some accmmi ol iW ^eni. ^1, Vi\.'4»i*««ft ind 

CHAP. yi]i« Gallia^ % 

their towni, S3. Whit about the Britannil 84. Mention sone of their 
towns. 85. Who were reckoned the bravest of the Beige 7 S6. Where 
did the Bjemi dwell, and what rendered them famous ? 37. Who were con- 
federates mth th«nt 38. What modem provinces did Belgica Prima com- 
{Hehend ? 39. Where were the Treveri cantoned 1 40. M ention the most 
remarkable places amongst them. 41. What other tribes dwelled in this 
poyiDce 1 42. What mmiem prorii^oes did Germania Prima include? 43. 
What do jou know about Mosontiacum t 44. What about the Triboci t 
45. Name the other tribes that dwelled in this province. 4G. What modem 
provinces did Maxima Sequanorum contain 1 47. Where did the Rnuraci 
dwein 46. To whom did the town Basilia belong? 49. Mention what 
you know about the Sequani. 50. What particulars do you remember about 
the Hehretil? . 

61.^ How was the great province of Lugdunensis subdivided ? 52.* How 
were the terms Armoricanus Tractus and Armorica applied ? 53.* What 
coast received the appellation of Saxonicum Littus ? 54. What modem pro- 
.vinces did Lugdunensis Secunda include ? 55. Where did the Caleti dwell, 
and which were their chief cities ? 56. What can you mention about Roto- 
magus 1 57. Whereabouts were the Aulerci Eburovices, and what modem 
town retains traces of their name? 58. What other tribes inhabited the 
province ? 59. Give the situation and the ancient names of the islands Jenev, 
Guenuey, and Aldemey. 60. What modem provinces did Lugdunensis Tertni 
comprehend ? 61. To whom did Brivates P^"*. belong ? 62. What island* 
Ue near it 1 63. What about the Veneti' and their islands ? 64. Where did 
ihe Redones dwell 1 65. Mention some particulars about the Namnetes. 66. 
And about the Turones. 67. What modem provinces did Lugdunensis Quarta 
contain, and by what other name was it known ? 68. Give the situation and 
chief cities of the Caroutes and Aureliani. 69. Mention some particulars about 
the Parisu and their capital. 70. What has rendered the Senones remark- 
able ? 71. What about Agedincum ? 72. What modem provinces did Lug- 
dunensis Prima contain ? 73. Give some account of the Lingones and their 
chief city. 74. What rendered the JEdui famous ? 75. Mention their chief 
towns. 76. Where did the Boii dwell ? 77. How were the Insubres con- 
nected with Italy ? 78. Repeat what you know about the Segusiani and 
their chief city. 

79.* How was the great province of Aquitania subdivided ? 80.* To 
what bay did it give name ? 81. What modernprovinces did Aquitania Prima 
include ? 82. Whereabouts did the Bituriges Cubi dwell ? 83. What modem 
city bears in its name the traces of the Lemovices ? 84. To what tribe 
did Gergovia belong, and what about it ? 85. Mention some particulars 
about the Cadurci and Uxellodunum. 86. What other tribes can you 
mention in this province ? 87. What modem provinces -did Aquitania Se- 
cenda comprehend ? 88. To what tribe did Limonum belong ? 89. What 
do you know about the Santones ? 90. Give some account of the Bituriges 
Vi visoi. 91 . What modem provinces did Novempopulana comprehend ? 92. 
Why was it so named ? 93. What were the ancient names of the towns 
Sot and Eaute J 94. What about the Ausci ? 95. Where did the Tarbelli 
dwell ? 96. What were the ancient names of Acqs and Bayonne 7 

97.* How was the great province of Narbonensis subdivided ? 98. What 
modem provinces did the sulxUvision of Alpes Grais et Pennins comprehend ? 
99. How have the appellations Vallis Pennina and Sapaudia been cormpted, 
and in what way were they used ? 100. What tiibes can you mention in 
this province ? 101. What modem provinces did Viennensis include ? 102. 
Give some account of the Allobroges. 103. Name their chief cities. 104* 
What do you know about the Cavares 1 105. WVi^X. ^xissX ^ \m>Xssr| ^>^ 

A 4 

I 8 Hispania et Insulce, chap. ix. 

tile Salves occupjf 1 lOG, \\'lial can you meatioa about tbe Ijgjes 1 lOT. 
Describe ArelUe. IDB, What Table was coaaected wilh the Campi Lagndei 1 
109, Give thehiatoryof MassUia. 1 10. What modern pravincea did Narbo- 
nenEii Secunda tioinprehend ! 111. Whatoccurreiial AqusSexlis, andwha 
dnelled lauDd It! 112. Name (he chief cities of the Cammoui. IIS. 
When were ihe St^echades le. 1 114. What mcxlcra provinces did the sut>- 
(Grisioii of Alpei Maritiniffi iodude 1 . 115. Give Ibe chief cities itf the 
CatBrigei. 116. Wbetenbouts did tbe Edenates and Ectini dwell! 117. 
^hal about Nicxa 7 lit). To what modem province does NacbonetisU Prim 
auwer \ 119. To whom did N'emaasus helnng, and what about it 1 130. 
Mention what yon know about the Volcio Tectosages. ISl. Describe Narbo 
Stanius. 122. Give the rourae oftbeH.Atai. 123, Wbat da you hnov 
irixNit Tolosa 1 124. Where did the Sardoues dwell 1 12S. What place* 
— yon mention at the Eastern eilremily of the Pyrenees? 

. ' . !.• How wu ifispaaia bounded 1 2.* What other namei had it ' »• 
Vby did it obtain (he epithet Ultima l 4. How came it to be called Celd- 
Itnia? 9, Had the Greeks many colonies in Spain 1 6.* Whencewai the 

. lllme Hispania derived t 7.* How were the CarlbaeiniaDa and Roman) 
csnoecled with it; g.* How was il at first divided? ».■ Were these 
£riEioai altcTcd, and boiv 1 

10,» What about the Pyreniei M"., and what was the ancient name of 
tbeir Weiteni pari 1 Il.» Describe IdubedsM. 12.» And Orospeda M. IB. 
Bow were Ihe names llipula anii Solorius applied ? 14. Give the sitniltiDn 

. flf Caipetantn fi. IS. Wheie was Ht^rminius M. 1 10. What rivers did 
jUarianos M. separate, and by what name is it now known 1 IT. What wu 
n Western part called ? IB. Mention some of Che most remarkable pro- 
noatorJes of Spain in the Atlantic, 19. In the Mediterranean Sea. 90.» 
Give some account of the R. Ibetus. 31.* How was it connected with lb* 
fficorii ? 22.* Describe the Minius and Durius. 23.* What are the riven 
Vacua and Monda now called t 2 J.* Mention what ^ou know about the 
Taggs, 2S." And about the Anas. 26,* Which is the Southernmost river 
eT Spain T 27.* Give some account of it. 28.* How tras the fahte of 
Geryon's herds connected with il 1 

29.* In what pari of the pEniosula was the province of TarracoDcnsis 1 
80.* How was it bounded? 31.* What modem provinces did il inoinde! 
IS.* Whence did the province of Bietica obtain its name? 33.* What pan 
df Spain was so called < 34.* How was it bounded ? 35.* What modem 
pnjvincej did it comprehend ? 36.* To what country does Luiitania 
answer t 37." How was it bounded ( 38.* What modem provinces does il 
Mntainl 39. Where did the Indicelai dwell? 40. Mention tbeir chief 
lowns. 41. To whom did Bstulo and Barcino belong, and what about 
Oem ! 42. Give some account of the Coselani. 4S. And of the Hct- 
nes. 44. Who dwelled in Cerdngrie ? 45. Wbat about the AnselBoi * 
45. In whose territory waa Ilerda 1 47. Where was Osca, and why wai it 

I lemarkable 7 48. Wliere did the Vasconea dwell ? 49. Mention their chief 
dtiBS. SO. Give same particulars abaul the Cantabri and ih^r cities. SI. 
Where did the Asturcs liwelM S2. Point out their chief towns. S3. 
Wbm doyott know about the CaUatW &\. Wow weTOthey subdivided! 

is. MenUOa tbeir chief townii. 56. V)\ie.iewtTei.\« XiV*«i,caBtams:\.\ 

dfA-p.'x, ' Italid SeptentribnaKs, 9 

'^t. Gi^ tome account of the VsU;caei. ' 58. And of the Arevaci. 59. In 
whose. territoiy was Numantia, and why is it worthy of notice? 60. Give' 
the ^nation and chief towns of the Carpetani. 61. What appears to have 
}M^ )he ancient name of Madrid J 62. Mention what you know about the 
Cettiberi. 6S. Name their chief cities. 64. Where did the Oretani dwell ? 
69. What great cities had they ? 66. To whom did Saguntum belong, 
ind where was it situated 1 67. Give its history. 68. Mention some other 
cities of the £detani. 69. Where did the Contestani dwell ? 70. Name 
theif Capital ; why was it remarkable f 71. Give the course of Sucro fl. 
72. Where was Spartarius Campus, and why was it so called ? 73. What 
about the Bastitani? 74. Where were the Baleares Is. and by what name 
d» "we now know them 1 75. What other appellation had they, and whence 
did they derive both 1 76. What was the ancient name of mmarca 1 77. 
Name its chief towns. 78. What was the ancient name of Majorca ? 79. 
Mention its chief towns. 80. Where were the Pityusae Ise., and why were 
they so called 1 81. What islands composed the group 1 82. To what pro- 
vince were all these islands reckoned ? 

83. With what modem province does Bstica correspond ? 84.Whence has 
t\ie nzme Andabma been obtained ? 85. Where was Bsturial 86. Who 
inhabited its Western part? 87. Where did the Turdetani dwell, and 
what was their country called 1 88. Where were the Turduli and Bastuli 
Poeni cantoned 1 89. What do you know about Corduba 1 * 90. What 
about Hispalis and Italica 1 91. What are the modem names of Nebrissa 
Veneria and Asta Regia, and where were they situated 1 92. Mention some 
particulars about the city Gades and the places called after it. 93. Give 
some account of the Pillars of Hercules. 94. Where were Carteia and Por- 
tus Albus ? 

95. Where did the Lusitani, properly so called, dwell 1 96. Mention 
their chief cities. 97. Give some account of the Vettones. 98. What 
about Sahnantica 1 99. Why was Lancia Transcundana thus named t 
100. What rendered Norba Caesarea famous f 101. What tribe inhabited 
the Sonthem part of Lusitania ? 102. What about their chief city ] 103. 
Wh8t are the modem names of Budua and Moron ? 104. Of Cabtob'riz and 
Pax Julia F 105. Where did the Cunei dwell, and why were they so called 1 
Ij06« Mention their chief towns. 



1.* Mention the various names by which Italy was known, and whence 
they were obtained. 2.* When was that of Italia generally applied to it, and 
what was said to have been its origin ? 3.* Give the great ancient political 
divisions of Italy. 4.* How was Italy bounded 1 5. Name the principal 
promontories on the Eastern shores of Italy. 6. Also on the Western. 7. 
What gulfs were there on the Western side of Italy 1 8. And on the East- 
em? . 9.* What part of the great Alpine chain was named Alpes Mari- 
tinuet 10.* What about Vesulus M 7 11.* Give some particulars about 
Atpis Cot^a. 12.* And Alpis Graia. 13.* What ^o you know about 
Alpis Pennina ? 14.* Give the course of the Alpes Rhsticae ? 15.* What 
other mountains "did they join \ 16.* Where was Cera M. 1 17.* De- 
sciibe Apeamnus M. 18.* Give some account of the R. Padus. 19.* Also 
of the Athesis. 20.* What about the Amus? 21.* Wh»JL Qit.\i«i tass^^v 
had the Tiberia, and what about it 1 22.* WVv.Qikce\& ^^ c\\^ ^^jcsoa